Trace Analysis By Mass Spectrometry - 1st Edition - ISBN: 9780120446506, 9780323140737

Trace Analysis By Mass Spectrometry

1st Edition

Editors: Arthur J. Ahearn
eBook ISBN: 9780323140737
Imprint: Academic Press
Published Date: 28th January 1972
Page Count: 474
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Trace Analysis by Mass Spectrometry deals with trace analysis of solids and liquids by mass spectrometric techniques. Topics include the physics and techniques of electrical discharge ion sources, transmission of ions through double focusing mass spectrometers, and detection and measurement of ions by ion-sensitive plates. The ion sources used are principally electrical discharge type sources.
This book is comprised of 14 chapters. The first several chapters focus on the basic physics of electrical discharge ion sources, double focusing mass spectrometry, and the measurement of arrays of mass resolved ion beams by electrical detection methods and with ion sensitive emulsions. The discussion then shifts to the problem of obtaining the chemical composition of the recorded mass resolved ion sample and relating this composition to that of the original sample. The chapters that follow describe specific techniques for analyzing special samples such as insulators, powders, microsamples, biological materials, reactive and low melting point substances, radioactive materials, and gases in solids. The remaining chapters include the use of laser ion sources in the analysis of solids and the analysis of surfaces particularly with sputter ion sources. This book will be of interest to students and practitioners of physics and chemistry.

Table of Contents

List of Contributors


1 Introductory Review

1.1 Proem

1.2 Résumé

1.3 Problems and Proposals


2 Physics and Techniques of Electrical Discharge Ion Sources

2.1 The Task of the Ion Source: From Solids to Ion Beams

2.2 Physics of Electrical Discharges in Vacuum

2.3 Techniques of Ion Formation Using Electrical Discharges

2.4 Ion Source Configurations


3 The Transmission of Ions through Double Focusing Mass Spectrometers

3.1 Focusing and Dispersing Properties of Deflection Fields

3.2 Field Combinations to Achieve Velocity Focusing in Addition to Angular Focusing

3.3 Deviations of the Properties of Real Fields from the Results of the Simplified First-Order Theory

3.4 Focusing in the z-Direction

3.5 Performance Characteristics

3.6 Existing Instruments


4 Detection and Measurement of Ions by Ion-Sensitive Plates

4.1 Introduction

4.2 General Considerations

4.3 Physical Characteristics

4.4 The Blackening Process

4.5 Plate Response and Evaluation

4.6 Plate Replacement Schemes and Special Methods

4.7 Plate Processing

4.8 Conclusions


5 Electrical Measurements of Mass Resolved Ion Beams

5.1 Introduction

5.2 Historical Development

5.3 Signal Characteristics

5.4 Signal Referencing

5.5 Scanning

5.6 Peak Switching

5.7 Errors

5.8 Detection Limits

5.9 Analysis Time

5.10 Other Applications and Techniques

5.11 Summary


6 Interpretation of Mass Spectrograph Plates

6.1 Introduction

6.2 The Spark-Source Mass Spectrograph Plate

6.3 Qualitative Analysis

6.4 Quantitative Analysis—Theoretical Considerations

6.5 Quantitative Analysis—Practical Considerations

6.6 Treatment of Results

6.7 Summary


7 Computer Techniques for Solids Analysis

7.1 Introduction

7.2 What Can/Should Computers Do for the Mass Spectrometrist?

7.3 Batch Systems

7.4 Using Time-Sharing

7.5 Dedicated or "Stand Alone" Systems—Minicomputers

7.6 Languages


8 Relating the Mass Spectrum to the Solid Sample Composition

8.1 Introduction

8.2 Elemental Discrimination and Its Control

8.3 Relative Sensitivity Factors

8.4 Standard Samples

8.5 Isotope Dilution


9 Insulators, Powders, and Microsamples

9.1 Introduction

9.2 Experimental Techniques

9.3 Analysis of Microsamples


10 The Analysis of Low-Melting and Reactive Samples

10.1 Introduction

10.2 Sodium Sampling and Handling Techniques

10.3 Analysis of Sample

10.4 Results and Discussion

10.5 On-Stream Analysis by SSMS


11 The Analysis of Radioactive Samples by Spark-Source Mass Spectrometry

11.1 Introduction

11.2 Protection

11.3 Uranium and Transuranium Samples

11.4 Other Radioactive Samples


12 The Analysis of Gases in Solids

12.1 Introduction

12.2 Standards

12.3 Vacuum Extraction and Fusion Techniques

12.4 Spark Source Technique

12.5 Ion Microprobe Mass Spectrometry

12.6 Analysis of Lunar Samples

12.7 Conclusions and Prognoses


13 Surface and Thin Films Analysis

13.1 Introduction

13.2 General Statement of the Analysis Problem

13.3 Instrumentation and Applications


14 Laser Ion Source Analysis of Solids

14.1 Introduction

14.2 Laser Source

14.3 Data Collection

14.4 Applications of Laser Source Mass Spectrometry

14.5 Sensitivity, Selectivity, Precision, and Accuracy

14.6 Uniqueness of the Laser Source


Author Index

Subject Index


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© Academic Press 1972
Academic Press
eBook ISBN:

About the Editor

Arthur J. Ahearn

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