Toxoplasma Gondii

Toxoplasma Gondii

The Model Apicomplexan - Perspectives and Methods

2nd Edition - August 10, 2013

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  • Editor: Louis Weiss
  • eBook ISBN: 9780123965363
  • Hardcover ISBN: 9780123964816

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Description

This 2e of Toxoplasma gondii reflects the significant advances in the field in the last 5 years, including new information on the genomics, epigenomics and proteomics of T. gondii as well as a new understanding of the population biology and genetic diversity of this organism. T. gondii remains the best model system for studying the entire Apicomplexa group of protozoans, which includes Malaria, making this new edition essential for a broad group of researchers and scientists. Toxoplasmosis is caused by a one-celled protozoan parasite known as T. gondii. The infection produces a wide range of clinical syndromes in humans, land and sea mammals, and various bird species. Most humans contract toxoplasmosis by eating contaminated, raw or undercooked meat (particularly pork), vegetables, or milk products; by coming into contact with the T. gondii eggs from cat feces; or by drinking contaminated water. The parasite damages the ocular and central nervous systems, causing behavioral and personality alterations as well as fatal necrotizing encephalitis. It is especially dangerous for the fetus of an infected pregnant woman and for individuals with compromised immune systems, such as HIV-infected patients.

Key Features

  • Completely updated, the 2e presents recent advances driven by new information on the genetics and genomics of the pathogen
  • Provides the latest information concerning the epidemiology, diagnosis, treatment and prevention of toxoplasmosis
  • Offers a single-source reference for a wide range of scientists and physicians working with this pathogen, including parasitologists, cell and molecular biologists, veterinarians, neuroscientists, physicians, and food scientists

Readership

Parasitologists, Cell and Molecular Biologists, Veterinarians and Veterinary Researchers, Neuroscientists, Research Clinicians, and Food Scientists

Table of Contents

  • Dedication

    Preface to the First Edition

    Preface to the Second Edition

    List of Contributors

    Chapter 1. The History and Life Cycle of Toxoplasma gondii

    Abstract

    Acknowledgements

    1.1 Introduction

    1.2 The Etiological Agent

    1.3 Parasite Morphology and Life Cycle

    1.4 Transmission

    1.5 Toxoplasmosis in Humans

    1.6 Toxoplasmosis in Other Animals

    1.7 Diagnosis

    1.8 Treatment

    1.9 Prevention and Control

    References

    Chapter 2. The Ultrastructure of Toxoplasma gondii

    Abstract

    2.1 Invasive Stage Ultrastructure and Genesis

    2.2 Coccidian Development in the Definitive Host

    2.3 Development in the Intermediate Host

    References

    Chapter 3. Molecular Epidemiology and Population Structure of Toxoplasma gondii

    Abstract

    3.1 Introduction

    3.2 Genetic Markers

    3.3 Genotype Designation

    3.4 Molecular Epidemiological and Population Studies

    3.5 Factors Affecting Transmission and Genetic Exchange

    3.6 Toxoplasma Genotype and Biological Characteristics

    3.7 Toxoplasma gondii Genotype and Human Disease

    References

    Chapter 4. Human Toxoplasma Infection

    Abstract

    Acknowledgements

    4.1 Clinical Manifestations and Course

    4.2 Diagnosis of Infection with Toxoplasma gondii

    4.3 Treatment

    4.4 Prevention

    4.5 Conclusions

    References

    Chapter 5. Ocular Disease due to Toxoplasma gondii

    Abstract

    Acknowledgments

    5.1 Introduction

    5.2 Historical Features of Ocular Toxoplasmosis

    5.3 Epidemiology

    5.4 The Mechanism of Tissue Damage in Ocular Toxoplasmosis

    5.5 Host Factors in Ocular Toxoplasmosis

    5.6 Parasite Factors in Ocular Infection

    5.7 Animal Models

    5.8 Clinical Characteristics

    5.9 Diagnostic Tests and Pathology

    5.10 The Treatment and Management of Ocular Toxoplasmosis

    5.11 Conclusion

    References

    Chapter 6. Toxoplasmosis in Wild and Domestic Animals

    Abstract

    6.1 Introduction

    6.2 Toxoplasmosis in Wild Life

    6.3 Toxoplasmosis in Zoos

    6.4 Toxoplasma gondii and Endangered Species

    6.5 Toxoplasmosis in Pets

    6.6 Domestic Farm Animals

    6.7 Fish, Reptiles and Amphibians

    References

    Chapter 7. Toxoplasma Animal Models and Therapeutics

    7.1 Introduction

    7.2 Congenital Toxoplasmosis

    7.3 Ocular Toxoplasmosis

    7.4 Cerebral Toxoplasmosis

    References

    Chapter 8. Biochemistry and Metabolism of Toxoplasma gondii: Carbohydrates, Lipids and Nucleotides

    Abstract

    8.1 Introduction

    8.2 Carbohydrate Metabolism

    8.3 N-Glycosylation in Toxoplasma gondii

    8.4 Glycolipid Anchors

    8.5 Lipid Metabolism

    8.6 Nucleotide Biosynthesis

    8.7 Nucleoside Triphosphate Hydrolase (NTPase)

    References

    Chapter 9. The Apicoplast and Mitochondrion of Toxoplasma gondii

    Abstract

    Acknowledgements

    9.1 Introduction

    9.2 The Apicoplast

    9.3 The Mitochondrion

    9.4 Perspectives

    References

    Chapter 10. Calcium Storage and Homeostasis in Toxoplasma gondii

    Abstract

    Acknowledgements

    10.1 Introduction

    10.2 Fluorescent Methods to Study Calcium Homeostasis in Toxoplasma gondii

    10.3 Regulation of [Ca2+]i in Toxoplasma gondii

    10.4 Calcium Sources

    10.5 Ca2+ and Cell Function in Toxoplasma gondii

    10.6 Conclusions

    References

    Chapter 11. The Toxoplasma gondii Parasitophorous Vacuole Membrane: A Multifunctional Organelle in the Infected Cell

    Abstract

    11.1 Introduction

    11.2 Biogenesis of the PVM

    11.3 The Physical Organization of the PV and PVM

    11.4 Activities Associated with the Early and Developing PVM

    11.5 Structural Modifications in the Host Cell

    11.6 Role of the PVM in Nutrient Acquisition

    11.7 The PVM as the Substrate for the Developing Tissue Cyst Wall

    11.8 Identification of Novel Activities at the PVM

    References

    Chapter 12. Toxoplasma Secretory Proteins and Their Roles in Cell Invasion and Intracellular Survival

    Abstract

    Acknowledgements

    12.1 Introduction

    12.2 Invasion: A Rapid and Active Process Unique to Apicomplexan Parasites

    12.3 Invasion: A Tightly Coupled Secretion Machinery

    12.4 Micronemes

    12.5 Rhoptries

    12.6 Dense Granules

    12.7 Conclusions

    References

    Chapter 13. The Toxoplasma Cytoskeleton: Structures, Proteins and Processes

    Abstract

    Acknowledgements

    13.1 Morphology

    13.2 Cytoskeletal Elements

    13.3 Putting it all Together: Processes

    13.4 Summary: A Story of Adaptation, Loss and Novel Components

    References

    Chapter 14. Interactions Between Toxoplasma Effectors and Host Immune Responses

    Abstract

    14.1 Early Indications that Toxoplasma Interferes with Host Signalling

    14.2 Rhoptry Protein ROP16

    14.3 Dense Granule Protein GRA15

    14.4 Rhoptry Protein ROP18

    14.5 Rhoptry Protein ROP5

    14.6 Other Parasite Molecules Possibly Influencing Host Cell Signalling

    14.7 Conclusion

    References

    Chapter 15. Bradyzoite Development

    Abstract

    Acknowledgements

    15.1 Introduction

    15.2 Bradyzoite and Tissue Cyst Morphology and Biology

    15.3 The Development of Tissue Cysts and Bradyzoites in Vitro

    15.4 The Cell Cycle and Bradyzoite Development

    15.5 The Stress Response and Signalling Pathways for Bradyzoite Formation

    15.6 Heat Shock Proteins

    15.7 Transcriptional Control of Bradyzoite Genes

    15.8 Cyst Wall and Matrix Antigens

    15.9 Surface Antigens

    15.10 Metabolic Differences Between Bradyzoites and Tachyzoites

    15.11 Genetic Studies on Bradyzoite Biology

    15.12 Summary

    References

    Chapter 16. Development and Application of Classical Genetics in Toxoplasma gondii

    Abstract

    Acknowledgements

    16.1 Introduction

    16.2 Biology of Toxoplasma

    16.3 Establishment of Transmission Genetics

    16.4 Development of Genetic Mapping

    16.5 Mapping Phenotypic Traits by Classical Genetics

    16.6 Future Challenges

    References

    Chapter 17. Genetic Manipulation of Toxoplasma gondii

    Abstract 17

    Acknowledgements

    17.1 Introduction

    17.2 The Mechanics of Making Transgenic Parasites

    17.3 Using Transgenic Parasites to Study the Function of Parasite Genes

    17.4 Perspectives

    17.5 The Toxoplasma Maniatis: A Selection of Detailed Protocols for Parasite Culture, Genetic Manipulation and Phenotypic Characterization

    References

    Chapter 18. Epigenetic and Genetic Factors that Regulate Gene Expression in Toxoplasma gondii

    Abstract

    Acknowledgements

    18.1 Introduction

    18.2 Transcription in Toxoplasma

    18.3 Epigenetics in Toxoplasma

    18.4 Post-Transcriptional Mechanisms in Toxoplasma

    18.5 Conclusions and Future Directions

    References

    Chapter 19. ToxoDB: An Integrated Functional Genomic Resource for Toxoplasma and Other Sarcocystidae

    Abstract

    Acknowledgements

    19.1 Introduction

    19.2 Genomes in ToxoDB

    19.3 Data Content

    19.4 The ToxoDB Home Page

    19.5 The Search Strategy System

    19.6 Genomic Colocation

    19.7 The Genome Browser

    19.8 Future Directions

    References

    Chapter 20. Comparative Aspects of Nucleotide and Amino Acid Metabolism in Toxoplasma gondii and Other Apicomplexa

    Abstract

    20.1 Introduction

    20.2 Purines

    20.3 Pyrimidines

    20.4 Amino Acids

    References

    Chapter 21. Toxoplasma gondii Chemical Biology

    Abstract 21

    Acknowledgements

    21.1 Introduction

    21.2 Small Molecules as Tools: To Monitor or to Modulate?

    21.3 Reverse (Target-Based) Chemical Genetics

    21.4 Forward (Cell-Based) Chemical Genetics

    21.5 Demonstrating Compound Specificity/Selectivity; Target Validation

    21.6 Toxoplasma gondii Chemical Biology: Case Studies

    21.7 Toxoplasma gondii Chemical Biology: Summary and Future Prospects

    References

    Chapter 22. Proteomics of Toxoplasma gondii

    Abstract

    Acknowledgements

    22.1 Introduction

    22.2 Fundamentals of Proteomics

    22.3 Which Proteome? Proteomes and Subproteomes of Toxoplasma gondii

    22.4 Mass-Spectrometry Analysis of Toxoplasma gondii Proteins

    22.5 Quantitative Proteomics

    22.6 Application of Proteomics to the Study of Toxoplasma gondii

    22.7 Proteomics Analysis of the Rhoptry Organelles of Toxoplasma gondii

    22.8 Proteomics Analysis of Excretory/Secretory Proteins of Toxoplasma gondii

    22.9 Proteomics Analysis of Membrane Proteins of Toxoplasma gondii

    22.10 The Dynamic Proteome of Toxoplasma gondii

    22.11 Proteomics as a Tool to Dissect the Host Response to Infection

    22.12 Database Management of Toxoplasma gondii Proteomics Data

    22.13 Conclusion and Perspectives

    References

    Chapter 23. Cerebral Toxoplasmosis: Pathogenesis, Host Resistance and Behavioural Consequences

    Abstract

    Acknowledgements

    23.1 Introduction

    23.2 Producers of Interleukin (IL)-12 Required for IFNγ Production

    23.3 Producers of IFNγ

    23.4 Other Cytokines and Regulatory Molecules for Resistance

    23.5 Involvement of Humoural Immunity in Resistance

    23.6 IFNγ Induced Effector Mechanisms

    23.7 IFNγ Effector Cells in the Brain with Activity Against Toxoplasma gondii

    23.8 The Role of Host Cells Harbouring Toxoplasma gondii in the Brain

    23.9 Immune Responses to the Cyst Stage of Toxoplasma gondii in the Brain

    23.10 Host Genes Involved in Regulating Resistance

    23.11 Immune Effector Mechanisms in Ocular Toxoplasmosis

    23.12 Immune Effector Mechanisms in Congenital Toxoplasmosis

    23.13 Behavourial Consequences of Infection

    23.14 Conclusions

    References

    Chapter 24. Innate Immunity to Toxoplasma gondii

    Abstract

    24.1 Introduction

    24.2 Establishment of Infection

    24.3 The Critical Importance of IL-12-Dependent IFNγ Production

    24.4 Pattern Recognition Receptors and IL-12 Production

    24.5 Toxoplasma gondii Modulation of Host Cell Signalling

    24.6 Toxoplasma gondii Genotype-Dependent Effects on Host Cell Signalling

    24.7 Cell Autonomous Immunity

    24.8 Antigen Presentation

    24.9 Conclusion and Perspectives

    References

    Chapter 25. Adaptive Immunity and Genetics of the Host Immune Response

    Abstract

    Acknowledgements

    25.1 Introduction

    25.2 Mouse Genetic Studies

    25.3 Studies of Lewis and Fischer Rats

    25.4 Studies in Humans Concerning Genes that Confer Resistance or Susceptibility and the Use of Murine Models with Human Transgenes

    25.5 Influence of Parasite Strain on Immune Response and Disease in Murine Models

    25.6 General Aspects of Immunity

    25.7 Immunological Control in Animal Models

    25.8 Immunological Control in Humans

    25.9 Influence of Co-Infection with Other Pathogens

    25.10 Pregnancy and Congenital Disease

    25.11 Summary and Conclusions

    References

    Chapter 26. Vaccination against Toxoplasmosis: Current Status and Future Prospects

    Abstract

    26.1 Introduction

    26.2 Scope of Problem and Potential Benefits of Vaccination

    26.3 Current Status of Vaccines for Intermediate Hosts

    26.4 The Rodent as a Model to Study Congenital Disease and Vaccination

    26.5 Review of Vaccines for Definitive Host (CATS)

    26.6 Future Strategies to Design New Vaccines for Coccidial Parasites in General and Toxoplasma gondii in Particular

    References

    Epilogue

    Index

Product details

  • No. of pages: 1160
  • Language: English
  • Copyright: © Academic Press 2013
  • Published: August 10, 2013
  • Imprint: Academic Press
  • eBook ISBN: 9780123965363
  • Hardcover ISBN: 9780123964816

About the Editor

Louis Weiss

Louis Weiss
Louis M. Weiss M.D., M.P.H is Professor of Medicine (Division of Infectious Diseases) and Professor of Pathology (Division of Parasitology and Tropical Medicine) of the Albert Einstein College of Medicine, Bronx, New York. Dr. Weiss received his M.D. and M.P.H degrees from the Johns Hopkins University in 1982. He then completed a residency in Internal Medicine at the University of Chicago and a fellowship in Infectious Diseases at the Albert Einstein College of Medicine. Following this fellowship, he joined the faculty at Einstein where he is currently a Professor of Pathology and Medicine. His laboratory group has an active research program on parasitic diseases with a research focus on Toxoplasma gondii, the Microsporidia and Trypanosoma cruzi. Dr. Weiss is the author of over 200 publications and the editor of 3 books on parasitology. He is a fellow of the American College of Physicians, Infectious Disease Society of America and the American Academy of Microbiology. Dr. Weiss is the Co-Director of the Einstein Global Health Center.

Affiliations and Expertise

Professor of Medicine and Pathology, Albert Einstein College of Medicine of Yeshiva University, NY, USA

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