Toxicology of Organophosphate and Carbamate Compounds

1st Edition

Print ISBN: 9781483299952
eBook ISBN: 9780080543109
Imprint: Academic Press
Published Date: 13th December 2005
Page Count: 768
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This text/reference book provides the most comprehensive coverage of anticholinesterase compounds (Organophosphates and Carbamates), which constitute the largest number of chemicals that are primarily used as insecticides in agriculture, industry, and around the home/garden. Some OPs (nerve agents) have been used in chemical warfare and terrorist attacks, while some OPs and CMs have been recommended as therapeutic agents in human medicine as well as in veterinary medicine. Many chemicals of both classes are extremely toxic and lack selectivity, thus their inadvertent/accidental use continues to pose a threat to human and animal health, aquatic systems and wildlife. These anticholinesterase agents produce a variety of toxicological effects in target and nontarget organs.

In light of this complexicity, this multi-authored book is written by the well known scientists from many countries. The book is organized into nine sections, with a total of 49 chapters, to provide in-depth knowledge on various aspects of OP and CM compounds, including their use, classification, mechanism-based toxicity, and prophylactic and therapeutic measurements. Several chapters are written with special emphasis to cover timely topics, such as chemical warfare agents, physiologically-based pharmacokinetic modeling, structure and function of cholinesterases, paraoxonase, carboxylesterases; developmental neurotoxicity, the intermediate syndrome, oxidative stress, endocrine disruption, and DNA damage/gene expression and carcinogenesis. Section-VI with 5 chapters is specifically devoted to risk assessment, and safety and regulatory guidelines for pesticides.

Key Features

  • Describes everything you need to know about Organophosphates and Carbamates
  • Extensively covers pesticides, nerve agents, therapeutic drugs, and flame retardants
  • Describes epidemiology of the world's major disasters involving Organophosphates and Carbamates
  • Covers animal, human, aquatic, and wildlife toxicity of Anticholinesterases
  • Insights into in-depth cholinergic and noncholinergic mechanisms of toxicity
  • Describes recent advancements in cholinesterases, paraoxonases, carboxylesterases, oxidative stress, endocrine disruption, cardiac and pulmonary toxicity, and carcinogenesis
  • Provides in vitro and in vivo models for neurotoxicity testing
  • Integrates knowledge of studies in lab animals and humans
  • Offers risk/safety assessment and national/international guidelines for permissible levels of pesticide residues
  • Describes management of Anticholinesterase poisoning in humans


Toxicologists, Pharmacologists, Biologists/Neurochemists, Physicians, and Libraries

Table of Contents

Section-I Uses, Abuses & Epidemiology

  1. Introduction
  2. Classification and Uses of Organophosphates and Carbamates
  3. Therapeutic Uses of Cholinesterase Inhibitors in Neurodegenerative Diseases
  4. Co-administration of Memantine with Acetylcholinesterase Inhibitors: Preclinical and Clinical Evidence
  5. Cholinesterase Inhibitors as Chemical Warfare Agents: Community Preparedness Guidelines
  6. Organophosphates and the Gulf War Syndrome
  7. The Bhopal Accident and Methyl Isocyanate Toxicity
  8. Global Epidemiology of Organophosphates and Carbamates Poisonings

Section-II Pharmacokinetics & Metabolism

  1. Physiologically Based Pharmacokinetic Modeling of Organophosphorus and Carbamate Pesticides
  2. Metabolism of Organophosphorus and Carbamate Pesticides
  3. Interspecies Variation in Toxicity of Cholinesterase inhibitors

Section-III Esterases, Receptors, Mechanisms & Tolerance Development

  1. Structure and Function of Cholinesterases
  2. Cholinesterase Pharmacogenetics
  3. Methods for Measuring Cholinesterase Activities in Human Blood
  4. Interactions of Organophosphorus and Carbamate Compounds with Cholinesterases
  5. Structure, Function and Regulation of Carboxylesterases
  6. Non-Cholinesterase Mechanisms of Central and Peripheral Neurotoxicity: Muscarinic Receptors and Other Targets
  7. Paraoxonase (PON1) Polymorphisms and Toxicity of Organophosphates
  8. Tolerance Development to Toxicity of Cholinesterase Inhibitors

Section-IV Organ Toxicity

  1. CNS Effects and Neurotoxicity
  2. Developmental Neurotoxicity of Organophosphates: A Case Study of Chlorpyrifos
  3. In Vitro Models for Testin


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"This text/reference book provides the most comprehensive coverage of anticholinesterase compounds (Organophosphates and Carbamates), which constitute the largest number of chemicals that are primarily used as insecticides in agriculture, industry, and around the home/garden. ...The efforts of both editor and authors are highly praiseworthy because the text of the volume has been well organized giving appropriate tables, figures in depth and comprehensive manner, covering important and novel issues. Thus the volume provides a thorough knowledge in the field of OP and CMs and will be immensely useful not only to scientists and teachers but also an excellent addition to the libraries and research professionals in government, industry, regulators, decision makers and students who want to specialize in this field of specialization." -- Prof P.K.Gupta, Adviser to WHO and Director TCS Inc., Bareilly, India for TOXICOLOGY INTERNATIONAL (June 2006)