Toxicology of Organophosphate and Carbamate Compounds

Toxicology of Organophosphate and Carbamate Compounds

1st Edition - December 6, 2005

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  • Editor: Ramesh Gupta
  • eBook ISBN: 9780080543109

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This text/reference book provides the most comprehensive coverage of anticholinesterase compounds (Organophosphates and Carbamates), which constitute the largest number of chemicals that are primarily used as insecticides in agriculture, industry, and around the home/garden. Some OPs (nerve agents) have been used in chemical warfare and terrorist attacks, while some OPs and CMs have been recommended as therapeutic agents in human medicine as well as in veterinary medicine. Many chemicals of both classes are extremely toxic and lack selectivity, thus their inadvertent/accidental use continues to pose a threat to human and animal health, aquatic systems and wildlife. These anticholinesterase agents produce a variety of toxicological effects in target and nontarget organs. In light of this complexicity, this multi-authored book is written by the well known scientists from many countries. The book is organized into nine sections, with a total of 49 chapters, to provide in-depth knowledge on various aspects of OP and CM compounds, including their use, classification, mechanism-based toxicity, and prophylactic and therapeutic measurements. Several chapters are written with special emphasis to cover timely topics, such as chemical warfare agents, physiologically-based pharmacokinetic modeling, structure and function of cholinesterases, paraoxonase, carboxylesterases; developmental neurotoxicity, the intermediate syndrome, oxidative stress, endocrine disruption, and DNA damage/gene expression and carcinogenesis. Section-VI with 5 chapters is specifically devoted to risk assessment, and safety and regulatory guidelines for pesticides.

Key Features

  • Describes everything you need to know about Organophosphates and Carbamates
  • Extensively covers pesticides, nerve agents, therapeutic drugs, and flame retardants
  • Describes epidemiology of the world's major disasters involving Organophosphates and Carbamates
  • Covers animal, human, aquatic, and wildlife toxicity of Anticholinesterases
  • Insights into in-depth cholinergic and noncholinergic mechanisms of toxicity
  • Describes recent advancements in cholinesterases, paraoxonases, carboxylesterases, oxidative stress, endocrine disruption, cardiac and pulmonary toxicity, and carcinogenesis
  • Provides in vitro and in vivo models for neurotoxicity testing
  • Integrates knowledge of studies in lab animals and humans
  • Offers risk/safety assessment and national/international guidelines for permissible levels of pesticide residues
  • Describes management of Anticholinesterase poisoning in humans


Toxicologists, Pharmacologists, Biologists/Neurochemists, Physicians, and Libraries

Table of Contents

  • Foreword
    Section-I Uses, Abuses & Epidemiology
    1. Introduction
    2. Classification and Uses of Organophosphates and Carbamates
    3. Therapeutic Uses of Cholinesterase Inhibitors in Neurodegenerative Diseases
    4. Co-administration of Memantine with Acetylcholinesterase Inhibitors: Preclinical and Clinical Evidence
    5. Cholinesterase Inhibitors as Chemical Warfare Agents: Community Preparedness Guidelines
    6. Organophosphates and the Gulf War Syndrome
    7. The Bhopal Accident and Methyl Isocyanate Toxicity
    8. Global Epidemiology of Organophosphates and Carbamates Poisonings

    Section-II Pharmacokinetics & Metabolism
    9. Physiologically Based Pharmacokinetic Modeling of Organophosphorus and Carbamate Pesticides
    10. Metabolism of Organophosphorus and Carbamate Pesticides
    11. Interspecies Variation in Toxicity of Cholinesterase inhibitors

    Section-III Esterases, Receptors, Mechanisms & Tolerance Development
    12. Structure and Function of Cholinesterases
    13. Cholinesterase Pharmacogenetics
    14. Methods for Measuring Cholinesterase Activities in Human Blood
    15. Interactions of Organophosphorus and Carbamate Compounds with Cholinesterases
    16. Structure, Function and Regulation of Carboxylesterases
    17. Non-Cholinesterase Mechanisms of Central and Peripheral Neurotoxicity: Muscarinic Receptors and Other Targets
    18. Paraoxonase (PON1) Polymorphisms and Toxicity of Organophosphates
    19. Tolerance Development to Toxicity of Cholinesterase Inhibitors

    Section-IV Organ Toxicity
    20. CNS Effects and Neurotoxicity
    21. Developmental Neurotoxicity of Organophosphates: A Case Study of Chlorpyrifos
    22. In Vitro Models for Testing Organophosphate-Induced Neurotoxicity and Remediation
    23. Electrophysiological Mechanisms in Neurotoxicity of Organophosphates and Carbamates
    24. Behavioral Toxicity of Cholinesterase Inhibitors
    25. PNS Effects and Delayed Neuropathy
    26. The Intermediate Syndrome in Organophosphate Poisoning
    27. Cardiovascular Toxicity of Cholinesterase Inhibitors
    28. Pulmonary Toxicity of Cholinesterase Inhibitors
    29. Approaches in Defining and Evaluating the Inhalation Pharmacology and Toxicology Hazards of Anticholinesterases
    30. Dermal Absorption/Toxicity of Organophosphates and Carbamates
    31. Local and Systemic Ophthalmic Pharmacology and Toxicology of Organophosphate and Carbamate Anticholinesterases
    32. Reproductive Toxicity of Organophosphate and Carbamate Pesticides
    33. Placental Toxicity of Organophosphate and Carbamate Pesticides
    34. Endocrine Disruption by Organophosphate and Carbamate Pesticides
    35. Organophosphates, Carbamates and the Immune System

    Section-V Non-Specific Toxic Effects
    36. Oxidative Stress in Anticholinesterase Induced Excitotoxicity
    37. DNA Damage, Gene Expression and Carcinogenesis by Organophosphates and Carbamates
    38. Temperature Regulation in Experimental Mammals and Humans Exposed to Organophosphate and Carbamate Agents
    39. Occupational Toxicology and Occupational Hygiene Aspects of Organophosphate and Carbamate Anticholinesterases with Particular Reference to Pesticides

    Section-VI Risk Assessment & Regulations

    40. Public Health Impacts of Organophosphates and Carbamates
    41. Cumulative Effects of Organophosphorus or Carbamate Pesticides
    42. Federal Regulations and Risk Assessment of Organophosphate and Carbamate Pesticides
    43. Regulatory Considerations in Developmental Neurotoxicity of Organophosphorus and Carbamate Pesticides
    44. WHO/FAO Guidelines for Cholinesterase Inhibiting Pesticide Residues in Food

    Section-VII Aquatic & Wildlife

    45. Aquatic Toxicity of Carbamates and Organophosphates
    46. Toxicity of Organophosphorus and Carbamate Insecticides Using Birds as Sentinels for Terrestrial Vertebrate Wildlife

    Section-VIII Analytical & Biomarkers

    47. Analysis of Organophosphate and Carbamate Pesticides and Anticholinesterase Therapeutic Agents
    48. Biomarkers of Organophosphate Exposure

    Section-IX Therapeutic Measures

    49. Management of Organophosphorus Pesticide Poisoning

Product details

  • No. of pages: 768
  • Language: English
  • Copyright: © Academic Press 2005
  • Published: December 6, 2005
  • Imprint: Academic Press
  • eBook ISBN: 9780080543109

About the Editor

Ramesh Gupta

Ramesh Gupta
Dr. Ramesh C. Gupta, Professor & Head of Toxicology Department at Murray State university, is engaged in research on pesticide toxicity, neurodegenerative diseases, and nutraceuticals efficacy and safety. He has delivered lectures in UK, Australia, Italy, Japan, Germany, France, Switzerland, Spain, Czech Republic, China, South Korea, Sweden, and Turkey. He served the panels of NIH, CDC, NIOSH, and NAS. He has >450 publications to his credit, including seven major books with Elsevier: (1) Toxicology of Organophosphate and Carbamate Compounds, (2) Veterinary Toxicology: Basic and Clinical Principles, (3) Handbook of Toxicology of Chemical Warfare Agents, (4) Anticholinesterase Pesticides: Metabolism, Neurotoxicity, and Epidemiology, (5) Reproductive and Developmental Toxicology, (6) Biomarkers in Toxicology and (7) Nutraceuticals: Efficacy, Safety and Toxicity. He is recipient of Murray State University's distinguished researcher award of the year-2006, and Outstanding research award of the year 2014. In 2019, he received a medal from The Royal Academy of Spanish Veterinary Sciences for his distinguished services to veterinary medicine. He is a diplomate of American Board of Toxicology, and fellow of American College of Toxicology, American College of Nutrition, and Academy of Toxicological Sciences. Dr. Gupta is a member of many professional societies, including SOT, Eurotox, ASPET, American College of Toxicology, and ISSX.

Affiliations and Expertise

Professor, Toxicology Department, Murray State University, Murray, Kentucky, United States of America Head, Toxicology Department, Murray State University, Murray, Kentucky, United States of America

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