This text/reference book provides the most comprehensive coverage of anticholinesterase compounds (Organophosphates and Carbamates), which constitute the largest number of chemicals that are primarily used as insecticides in agriculture, industry, and around the home/garden. Some OPs (nerve agents) have been used in chemical warfare and terrorist attacks, while some OPs and CMs have been recommended as therapeutic agents in human medicine as well as in veterinary medicine. Many chemicals of both classes are extremely toxic and lack selectivity, thus their inadvertent/accidental use continues to pose a threat to human and animal health, aquatic systems and wildlife. These anticholinesterase agents produce a variety of toxicological effects in target and nontarget organs. In light of this complexicity, this multi-authored book is written by the well known scientists from many countries. The book is organized into nine sections, with a total of 49 chapters, to provide in-depth knowledge on various aspects of OP and CM compounds, including their use, classification, mechanism-based toxicity, and prophylactic and therapeutic measurements. Several chapters are written with special emphasis to cover timely topics, such as chemical warfare agents, physiologically-based pharmacokinetic modeling, structure and function of cholinesterases, paraoxonase, carboxylesterases; developmental neurotoxicity, the intermediate syndrome, oxidative stress, endocrine disruption, and DNA damage/gene expression and carcinogenesis. Section-VI with 5 chapters is specifically devoted to risk assessment, and safety and regulatory guidelines for pesticides.

Key Features

-Describes everything you need to know about Organophosphates and Carbamates -Extensively covers pesticides, nerve agents, therapeutic drugs, and flame retardants -Describes epidemiology of the world's major disasters involving Organophosphates and Carbamates -Covers animal, human, aquatic, and wildlife toxicity of Anticholinesterases -Insights into in-depth cholinergic and noncholinergic mechanisms of toxicity -Describes recent advancements in cholinesterases, paraoxonases, carboxylesterases, oxidative stress, endocrine disruption, cardiac and pulmonary toxicity, and carcinogenesis -Provides in vitro and in vivo models for neurotoxicity testing -Integrates knowledge of studies in lab animals and humans -Offers risk/safety assessment and national/international guidelines for permissible levels of pesticide residues -Describes management of Anticholinesterase poisoning in humans


Toxicologists, Pharmacologists, Biologists/Neurochemists, Physicians, and Libraries

Table of Contents

Foreword Section-I Uses, Abuses & Epidemiology 1. Introduction 2. Classification and Uses of Organophosphates and Carbamates 3. Therapeutic Uses of Cholinesterase Inhibitors in Neurodegenerative Diseases 4. Co-administration of Memantine with Acetylcholinesterase Inhibitors: Preclinical and Clinical Evidence 5. Cholinesterase Inhibitors as Chemical Warfare Agents: Community Preparedness Guidelines 6. Organophosphates and the Gulf War Syndrome 7. The Bhopal Accident and Methyl Isocyanate Toxicity 8. Global Epidemiology of Organophosphates and Carbamates Poisonings Section-II Pharmacokinetics & Metabolism 9. Physiologically Based Pharmacokinetic Modeling of Organophosphorus and Carbamate Pesticides 10. Metabolism of Organophosphorus and Carbamate Pesticides 11. Interspecies Variation in Toxicity of Cholinesterase inhibitors Section-III Esterases, Receptors, Mechanisms & Tolerance Development 12. Structure and Function of Cholinesterases 13. Cholinesterase Pharmacogenetics 14. Methods for Measuring Cholinesterase Activities in Human Blood 15. Interactions of Organophosphorus and Carbamate Compounds with Cholinesterases 16. Structure, Function and Regulation of Carboxylesterases 17. Non-Cholinesterase Mechanisms of Central and Peripheral Neurotoxicity: Muscarinic Receptors and Other Targets 18. Paraoxonase (PON1) Polymorphisms and Toxicity of Organophosphates 19. Tolerance Development to Toxicity of Cholinesterase Inhibitors Section-IV Organ Toxicity 20. CNS Effects and Neurotoxicity 21. Developmental Neurotoxicity of Organophosphates: A Case Study of Chlorpyrifos 22. In Vitro Models for Testin


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© 2005
Academic Press
Print ISBN:
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About the author

Ramesh C. Gupta

Dr. Ramesh C. Gupta, Professor & Head of Toxicology Department at Murray State university, is engaged in experimental brain research in relation to Alzheimer(s) disease (AD) and pesticide toxicity. He has delivered lectures in Australia, Italy, Japan, Germany, France, Switzerland, Spain, Czech Republic, China, South Korea, and Sweden. He served the panels of NIH, CDC, NIOSH, and NAS. He has >350 publications to his credit, including six major books: (1) Toxicology of Organophosphate and Carbamate Compounds, (2) Veterinary Toxicology: Basic and Clinical Principles, (3) Handbook of Toxicology of Chemical Warfare Agents, (4) Anticholinesterase Pesticides: Metabolism, Neurotoxicity, and Epidemiology, (5) Reproductive and Developmental Toxicology, and (6) Biomarkers in Toxicology. He is recipient of Murray State University's distinguished researcher award of the year-2006. He is a diplomate of American Board of Toxicology, and fellow of American College of Toxicology, American College of Nutrition, and Academy of Toxicological Sciences.

Affiliations and Expertise

DVM, MVSc, PhD, DABT, FACT, FACN, FATS, Professor and Head, Toxicology Department, Breathitt Veterinary Center, Murray State University, Hopkinsville, KY, USA


"This text/reference book provides the most comprehensive coverage of anticholinesterase compounds (Organophosphates and Carbamates), which constitute the largest number of chemicals that are primarily used as insecticides in agriculture, industry, and around the home/garden. ...The efforts of both editor and authors are highly praiseworthy because the text of the volume has been well organized giving appropriate tables, figures in depth and comprehensive manner, covering important and novel issues. Thus the volume provides a thorough knowledge in the field of OP and CMs and will be immensely useful not only to scientists and teachers but also an excellent addition to the libraries and research professionals in government, industry, regulators, decision makers and students who want to specialize in this field of specialization." - Prof P.K.Gupta, Adviser to WHO and Director TCS Inc., Bareilly, India for TOXICOLOGY INTERNATIONAL (June 2006)