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Toxicology of Organophosphate and Carbamate Compounds - 1st Edition - ISBN: 9780120885237, 9780080543109

Toxicology of Organophosphate and Carbamate Compounds

1st Edition

Editor: Ramesh Gupta
Hardcover ISBN: 9780120885237
Paperback ISBN: 9781483299952
eBook ISBN: 9780080543109
Imprint: Academic Press
Published Date: 13th December 2005
Page Count: 768
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This text/reference book provides the most comprehensive coverage of anticholinesterase compounds (Organophosphates and Carbamates), which constitute the largest number of chemicals that are primarily used as insecticides in agriculture, industry, and around the home/garden. Some OPs (nerve agents) have been used in chemical warfare and terrorist attacks, while some OPs and CMs have been recommended as therapeutic agents in human medicine as well as in veterinary medicine. Many chemicals of both classes are extremely toxic and lack selectivity, thus their inadvertent/accidental use continues to pose a threat to human and animal health, aquatic systems and wildlife. These anticholinesterase agents produce a variety of toxicological effects in target and nontarget organs.

In light of this complexicity, this multi-authored book is written by the well known scientists from many countries. The book is organized into nine sections, with a total of 49 chapters, to provide in-depth knowledge on various aspects of OP and CM compounds, including their use, classification, mechanism-based toxicity, and prophylactic and therapeutic measurements. Several chapters are written with special emphasis to cover timely topics, such as chemical warfare agents, physiologically-based pharmacokinetic modeling, structure and function of cholinesterases, paraoxonase, carboxylesterases; developmental neurotoxicity, the intermediate syndrome, oxidative stress, endocrine disruption, and DNA damage/gene expression and carcinogenesis. Section-VI with 5 chapters is specifically devoted to risk assessment, and safety and regulatory guidelines for pesticides.

Key Features

  • Describes everything you need to know about Organophosphates and Carbamates
  • Extensively covers pesticides, nerve agents, therapeutic drugs, and flame retardants
  • Describes epidemiology of the world's major disasters involving Organophosphates and Carbamates
  • Covers animal, human, aquatic, and wildlife toxicity of Anticholinesterases
  • Insights into in-depth cholinergic and noncholinergic mechanisms of toxicity
  • Describes recent advancements in cholinesterases, paraoxonases, carboxylesterases, oxidative stress, endocrine disruption, cardiac and pulmonary toxicity, and carcinogenesis
  • Provides in vitro and in vivo models for neurotoxicity testing
  • Integrates knowledge of studies in lab animals and humans
  • Offers risk/safety assessment and national/international guidelines for permissible levels of pesticide residues
  • Describes management of Anticholinesterase poisoning in humans


Toxicologists, Pharmacologists, Biologists/Neurochemists, Physicians, and Libraries

Table of Contents

Section-I Uses, Abuses & Epidemiology

  1. Introduction
  2. Classification and Uses of Organophosphates and Carbamates
  3. Therapeutic Uses of Cholinesterase Inhibitors in Neurodegenerative Diseases
  4. Co-administration of Memantine with Acetylcholinesterase Inhibitors: Preclinical and Clinical Evidence
  5. Cholinesterase Inhibitors as Chemical Warfare Agents: Community Preparedness Guidelines
  6. Organophosphates and the Gulf War Syndrome
  7. The Bhopal Accident and Methyl Isocyanate Toxicity
  8. Global Epidemiology of Organophosphates and Carbamates Poisonings

Section-II Pharmacokinetics & Metabolism 9. Physiologically Based Pharmacokinetic Modeling of Organophosphorus and Carbamate Pesticides 10. Metabolism of Organophosphorus and Carbamate Pesticides 11. Interspecies Variation in Toxicity of Cholinesterase inhibitors

Section-III Esterases, Receptors, Mechanisms & Tolerance Development 12. Structure and Function of Cholinesterases 13. Cholinesterase Pharmacogenetics 14. Methods for Measuring Cholinesterase Activities in Human Blood 15. Interactions of Organophosphorus and Carbamate Compounds with Cholinesterases 16. Structure, Function and Regulation of Carboxylesterases 17. Non-Cholinesterase Mechanisms of Central and Peripheral Neurotoxicity: Muscarinic Receptors and Other Targets 18. Paraoxonase (PON1) Polymorphisms and Toxicity of Organophosphates 19. Tolerance Development to Toxicity of Cholinesterase Inhibitors

Section-IV Organ Toxicity 20. CNS Effects and Neurotoxicity 21. Developmental Neurotoxicity of Organophosphates: A Case Study of Chlorpyrifos 22. In Vitro Models for Testing Organophosphate-Induced Neurotoxicity and Remediation 23. Electrophysiological Mechanisms in Neurotoxicity of Organophosphates and Carbamates 24. Behavioral Toxicity of Cholinesterase Inhibitors 25. PNS Effects and Delayed Neuropathy 26. The Intermediate Syndrome in Organophosphate Poisoning 27. Cardiovascular Toxicity of Cholinesterase Inhibitors 28. Pulmonary Toxicity of Cholinesterase Inhibitors 29. Approaches in Defining and Evaluating the Inhalation Pharmacology and Toxicology Hazards of Anticholinesterases 30. Dermal Absorption/Toxicity of Organophosphates and Carbamates 31. Local and Systemic Ophthalmic Pharmacology and Toxicology of Organophosphate and Carbamate Anticholinesterases 32. Reproductive Toxicity of Organophosphate and Carbamate Pesticides 33. Placental Toxicity of Organophosphate and Carbamate Pesticides 34. Endocrine Disruption by Organophosphate and Carbamate Pesticides 35. Organophosphates, Carbamates and the Immune System

Section-V Non-Specific Toxic Effects 36. Oxidative Stress in Anticholinesterase Induced Excitotoxicity 37. DNA Damage, Gene Expression and Carcinogenesis by Organophosphates and Carbamates 38. Temperature Regulation in Experimental Mammals and Humans Exposed to Organophosphate and Carbamate Agents 39. Occupational Toxicology and Occupational Hygiene Aspects of Organophosphate and Carbamate Anticholinesterases with Particular Reference to Pesticides

Section-VI Risk Assessment & Regulations

  1. Public Health Impacts of Organophosphates and Carbamates
  2. Cumulative Effects of Organophosphorus or Carbamate Pesticides
  3. Federal Regulations and Risk Assessment of Organophosphate and Carbamate Pesticides
  4. Regulatory Considerations in Developmental Neurotoxicity of Organophosphorus and Carbamate Pesticides
  5. WHO/FAO Guidelines for Cholinesterase Inhibiting Pesticide Residues in Food

Section-VII Aquatic & Wildlife

  1. Aquatic Toxicity of Carbamates and Organophosphates
  2. Toxicity of Organophosphorus and Carbamate Insecticides Using Birds as Sentinels for Terrestrial Vertebrate Wildlife

Section-VIII Analytical & Biomarkers

  1. Analysis of Organophosphate and Carbamate Pesticides and Anticholinesterase Therapeutic Agents
  2. Biomarkers of Organophosphate Exposure

Section-IX Therapeutic Measures

  1. Management of Organophosphorus Pesticide Poisoning


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© Academic Press 2005
13th December 2005
Academic Press
Hardcover ISBN:
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About the Editor

Ramesh Gupta

Ramesh Gupta

Dr. Ramesh C. Gupta, Professor & Head of Toxicology Department at Murray State university, is engaged in research on pesticide toxicity, neurodegenerative diseases, and nutraceuticals efficacy and safety. He has delivered lectures in UK, Australia, Italy, Japan, Germany, France, Switzerland, Spain, Czech Republic, China, South Korea, Sweden, and Turkey. He served the panels of NIH, CDC, NIOSH, and NAS. He has >450 publications to his credit, including seven major books with Elsevier: (1) Toxicology of Organophosphate and Carbamate Compounds, (2) Veterinary Toxicology: Basic and Clinical Principles, (3) Handbook of Toxicology of Chemical Warfare Agents, (4) Anticholinesterase Pesticides: Metabolism, Neurotoxicity, and Epidemiology, (5) Reproductive and Developmental Toxicology, (6) Biomarkers in Toxicology and (7) Nutraceuticals: Efficacy, Safety and Toxicity. He is recipient of Murray State University's distinguished researcher award of the year-2006, and Outstanding research award of the year 2014. In 2019, he received a medal from The Royal Academy of Spanish Veterinary Sciences for his distinguished services to veterinary medicine. He is a diplomate of American Board of Toxicology, and fellow of American College of Toxicology, American College of Nutrition, and Academy of Toxicological Sciences. Dr. Gupta is a member of many professional societies, including SOT, Eurotox, ASPET, American College of Toxicology, and ISSX.

Affiliations and Expertise

Professor, Toxicology Department, Murray State University, Murray, Kentucky, United States of America Head, Toxicology Department, Murray State University, Murray, Kentucky, United States of America


"This text/reference book provides the most comprehensive coverage of anticholinesterase compounds (Organophosphates and Carbamates), which constitute the largest number of chemicals that are primarily used as insecticides in agriculture, industry, and around the home/garden. ...The efforts of both editor and authors are highly praiseworthy because the text of the volume has been well organized giving appropriate tables, figures in depth and comprehensive manner, covering important and novel issues. Thus the volume provides a thorough knowledge in the field of OP and CMs and will be immensely useful not only to scientists and teachers but also an excellent addition to the libraries and research professionals in government, industry, regulators, decision makers and students who want to specialize in this field of specialization." -- Prof P.K.Gupta, Adviser to WHO and Director TCS Inc., Bareilly, India for TOXICOLOGY INTERNATIONAL (June 2006)

Ratings and Reviews