Toxicity of Building Materials - 1st Edition - ISBN: 9780857091222, 9780857096357

Toxicity of Building Materials

1st Edition

Editors: Fernando Pacheco-Torgal S Jalali Aleksandra Fucic
eBook ISBN: 9780857096357
Hardcover ISBN: 9780857091222
Paperback ISBN: 9780081016367
Imprint: Woodhead Publishing
Published Date: 13th August 2012
Page Count: 512
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Table of Contents

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Introduction: types of potentially toxic building materials

Chapter 1: The main health hazards from building materials

Abstract:

1.1 Introduction

1.2 Radiation

1.3 Chemical carcinogens and endocrine disruptors

1.4 Nanoparticles

1.5 Conclusion and future trends

Chapter 2: Plastic materials: polyvinyl chloride (PVC)

Abstract:

2.1 Introduction

2.2 Polyvinyl chloride (PVC – CAS number: 9002-86-2)

2.3 Building applications of polyvinyl chloride (PVC)

2.4 Health and safety concerns and polyvinyl chloride (PVC)

2.5 Alternatives to polyvinyl chloride (PVC)

Chapter 3: Plastic materials: chlorinated polyethylene (CPE), chlorinated polyvinylchloride (CPVC), chlorosulfonated polyethylene (CSPE) and polychloroprene rubber (CR)

Abstract:

3.1 Introduction

3.2 Structure and properties of chlorinated polyethylene (CPE), chlorinated polyvinylchloride (CPVC), chlorosulfonated polyethylene (CSPE) and polychloroprene rubber (CR)

3.3 Alternative materials

3.4 Sources of further information

Chapter 4: Materials responsible for formaldehyde and volatile organic compound (VOC) emissions

Abstract:

4.1 Introduction

4.2 Toxicology of formaldehyde

4.3 Emission testing of formaldehyde and other volatile organic compounds (VOCs)

4.4 Emission models of formaldehyde and other volatile organic compounds (VOCs)

4.5 Determination of the characteristic emission parameters

4.6 Influence of environmental factors on emissions of formaldehyde and other volatile organic compounds (VOCs)

4.7 Conclusion and future trends

Chapter 5: Semivolatile organic compounds (SVOCs): phthalates and flame retardants

Abstract:

5.1 Semivolatile organic compounds (SVOCs) in the indoor environment

5.2 Emission of semivolatile organic compounds (SVOCs) from building materials and consumer products

5.3 Exposure to semivolatile organic compounds (SVOCs) emitted from building materials and consumer products

Chapter 6: Wood preservatives

Abstract:

6.1 Introduction

6.2 Types of preservatives and their potential hazards

6.3 Potential toxic effects and ways they can be assessed

6.4 Remedial action

6.5 Conclusion and future trends

Chapter 7: Mineral fibre-based building materials and their health hazards

Abstract:

7.1 Introduction

7.2 Classification of asbestos and mineral fibres, their structure, microstructure and properties

7.3 Health effects of asbestos minerals

7.4 Use of asbestos in building materials

7.5 The reclamation of asbestos

7.6 The disposal of asbestos-containing materials (ACMs) and recycling

7.7 Conclusion and future trends

Chapter 8: Radioactive materials

Abstract:

8.1 Introduction

8.2 Naturally occurring radioactive materials (NORM)

8.3 Radon exhalation, emanation and diffusion length

8.4 Measurements of radionuclide composition

8.5 Measurement of radon exhalation

8.6 Building materials as gamma emitters

8.7 Building materials with enhanced concentrations of natural radionuclides

8.8 Building products with enhanced radon exhalation rate

8.9 Control of radioactivity of building materials in regulations

Chapter 9: Materials that release toxic fumes during fire

Abstract:

9.1 Introduction

9.2 Fire behaviour of building materials

9.3 The effects of conditions on the initiation and propagation of fire

9.4 Health effects and analysis of combustion products

9.5 Remedial actions

9.6 Future trends for reducing toxic substances in fire and related resources

9.7 Conclusion

Chapter 10: Heavy metals: lead

Abstract:

10.1 Introduction

10.2 Use of lead in buildings and drinking water contamination

10.3 Toxicity of lead to humans

10.4 Assessing the risk associated with lead in drinking water

10.5 Lead pipe replacement and fittings containing lead

10.6 Corrective water treatment

10.7 Recommendations

10.8 Sources of further information and advice

Chapter 11: Other heavy metals: antimony, cadmium, chromium and mercury

Abstract:

11.1 Introduction

11.2 Antimony

11.3 Cadmium

11.4 Chromium

11.5 Mercury

11.6 Remedial actions

11.7 Future trends

11.8 Conclusions

Chapter 12: Materials prone to mould growth

Abstract:

12.1 Introduction

12.2 Mould fungi in construction materials

12.3 Algae in construction materials

12.4 Potential toxic effects and ways they can be monitored

12.5 Remedial action and future trends

12.6 Sources of further information and advice

Chapter 13: Antimicrobial treatment and efficacy

Abstract:

13.1 Introduction

13.2 Research programs

13.3 Static microbial test chamber

13.4 Dynamic microbial test chamber

13.5 Effects of moisture, relative humidity (RH) and dust

13.6 Duct cleaning effectiveness on microbial growth

13.7 Evaluation of antimicrobial treatments as control technologies

13.8 Antimicrobial product acknowledgment

13.9 Conclusions

13.10 Future trends

13.11 Sources of further information

Chapter 14: Potential hazards from waste based/recycled building materials

Abstract:

14.1 Introduction

14.2 Main types of building materials containing wastes

14.3 Waste properties and potential hazards

14.4 Scenarios of pollutant emission from construction materials

14.5 Potential hazard assessment for construction materials in their service life

14.6 Conclusion and future trends

Chapter 15: Toxicity of nanoparticles

Abstract:

15.1 Introduction to nanoparticle and nanomaterial toxicity

15.2 Morphology, classification, and properties of nanomaterials

15.3 Types of building materials incorporating nanomaterials

15.4 The uptake of nanoparticles and their toxicity

15.5 Diseases associated with nanoparticle exposure

15.6 Detection of occupational nanoparticles and remedial action

15.7 Sources of further information and advice

15.8 Conclusion and future trends

Index


Description

From long-standing worries regarding the use of lead and asbestos to recent research into carcinogenic issues related to the use of plastics in construction, there is growing concern regarding the potential toxic effects of building materials on health. Toxicity of building materials provides an essential guide to this important problem and its solutions.

Beginning with an overview of the material types and potential health hazards presented by building materials, the book goes on to consider key plastic materials. Materials responsible for formaldehyde and volatile organic compound emissions, as well as semi-volatile organic compounds, are then explored in depth, before a review of wood preservatives and mineral fibre-based building materials. Issues related to the use of radioactive materials and materials that release toxic fumes during burning are the focus of subsequent chapters, followed by discussion of the range of heavy metals, materials prone to mould growth, and antimicrobials. Finally, Toxicity of building materials concludes by considering the potential hazards posed by waste based/recycled building materials, and the toxicity of nanoparticles.

With its distinguished editors and international team of expert contributors, Toxicity of building materials is an invaluable tool for all civil engineers, materials researchers, scientists and educators working in the field of building materials.

Key Features

  • Provides an essential guide to the potential toxic effects of building materials on health
  • Comprehensively examines materials responsible for formaldehyde and volatile organic compound emissions, as well as semi-volatile organic compounds
  • Later chapters focus on issues surrounding the use of radioactive materials and materials that release toxic fumes during burning

Readership

Civil engineers and technicians, materials researchers and scientists and educators who are working in the field of building materials; Plastics producers; Those in the construction industry


Details

No. of pages:
512
Language:
English
Copyright:
© Woodhead Publishing 2012
Published:
Imprint:
Woodhead Publishing
eBook ISBN:
9780857096357
Hardcover ISBN:
9780857091222
Paperback ISBN:
9780081016367

Reviews

"...this is one of the first books to take a detailed look at how well different antimicrobial treatments will reduce exposure of the occupants of a building to microbes" - Dr. Graham Atherton of the University of Manchester


About the Editors

Fernando Pacheco-Torgal Editor

Fernando Pacheco-Torgal is a Senior Researcher in the C-TAC Research Centre at the University of Minho, Portugal. He has authored almost 300 publications, including 96 in ISI Web of Science-WoS and 92 on Scopus. Having received 798 citations in WoS (h-index=15) and 1125 citations on Scopus (h-index=18). He has a SCI Platinum h=30 the highest in the field of civil engineering in Portugal. He has also been the Lead Editor of 14 international books, with more than 500 contributors from 52 countries in the five continents.

Affiliations and Expertise

University of Minho, Portugal

S Jalali Editor

Said Jalali is former Professor of Civil Engineering at the University of Minho, and is an acknowledged expert on building materials.

Affiliations and Expertise

University of Minho, Portugal

Aleksandra Fucic Editor

Dr. Aleksandra Fucic has 30 years of experience working on the biomonitoring of populations exposed to radiation or chemical agents with a special interest in achieving a healthy living environment and investigation of health risks related to new construction materials.

Affiliations and Expertise

Institute for Medical Research and Occupational Health, Croatia