Toxicity of Building Materials

Toxicity of Building Materials

1st Edition - August 13, 2012

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  • Editors: F Pacheco-Torgal, S Jalali, A Fucic
  • eBook ISBN: 9780857096357
  • Paperback ISBN: 9780081016367

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Description

From long-standing worries regarding the use of lead and asbestos to recent research into carcinogenic issues related to the use of plastics in construction, there is growing concern regarding the potential toxic effects of building materials on health. Toxicity of building materials provides an essential guide to this important problem and its solutions.Beginning with an overview of the material types and potential health hazards presented by building materials, the book goes on to consider key plastic materials. Materials responsible for formaldehyde and volatile organic compound emissions, as well as semi-volatile organic compounds, are then explored in depth, before a review of wood preservatives and mineral fibre-based building materials. Issues related to the use of radioactive materials and materials that release toxic fumes during burning are the focus of subsequent chapters, followed by discussion of the range of heavy metals, materials prone to mould growth, and antimicrobials. Finally, Toxicity of building materials concludes by considering the potential hazards posed by waste based/recycled building materials, and the toxicity of nanoparticles.With its distinguished editors and international team of expert contributors, Toxicity of building materials is an invaluable tool for all civil engineers, materials researchers, scientists and educators working in the field of building materials.

Key Features

  • Provides an essential guide to the potential toxic effects of building materials on health
  • Comprehensively examines materials responsible for formaldehyde and volatile organic compound emissions, as well as semi-volatile organic compounds
  • Later chapters focus on issues surrounding the use of radioactive materials and materials that release toxic fumes during burning

Readership

Civil engineers and technicians, materials researchers and scientists and educators who are working in the field of building materials; Plastics producers; Those in the construction industry

Table of Contents

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    Introduction: types of potentially toxic building materials

    Chapter 1: The main health hazards from building materials

    Abstract:

    1.1 Introduction

    1.2 Radiation

    1.3 Chemical carcinogens and endocrine disruptors

    1.4 Nanoparticles

    1.5 Conclusion and future trends

    Chapter 2: Plastic materials: polyvinyl chloride (PVC)

    Abstract:

    2.1 Introduction

    2.2 Polyvinyl chloride (PVC – CAS number: 9002-86-2)

    2.3 Building applications of polyvinyl chloride (PVC)

    2.4 Health and safety concerns and polyvinyl chloride (PVC)

    2.5 Alternatives to polyvinyl chloride (PVC)

    Chapter 3: Plastic materials: chlorinated polyethylene (CPE), chlorinated polyvinylchloride (CPVC), chlorosulfonated polyethylene (CSPE) and polychloroprene rubber (CR)

    Abstract:

    3.1 Introduction

    3.2 Structure and properties of chlorinated polyethylene (CPE), chlorinated polyvinylchloride (CPVC), chlorosulfonated polyethylene (CSPE) and polychloroprene rubber (CR)

    3.3 Alternative materials

    3.4 Sources of further information

    Chapter 4: Materials responsible for formaldehyde and volatile organic compound (VOC) emissions

    Abstract:

    4.1 Introduction

    4.2 Toxicology of formaldehyde

    4.3 Emission testing of formaldehyde and other volatile organic compounds (VOCs)

    4.4 Emission models of formaldehyde and other volatile organic compounds (VOCs)

    4.5 Determination of the characteristic emission parameters

    4.6 Influence of environmental factors on emissions of formaldehyde and other volatile organic compounds (VOCs)

    4.7 Conclusion and future trends

    Chapter 5: Semivolatile organic compounds (SVOCs): phthalates and flame retardants

    Abstract:

    5.1 Semivolatile organic compounds (SVOCs) in the indoor environment

    5.2 Emission of semivolatile organic compounds (SVOCs) from building materials and consumer products

    5.3 Exposure to semivolatile organic compounds (SVOCs) emitted from building materials and consumer products

    Chapter 6: Wood preservatives

    Abstract:

    6.1 Introduction

    6.2 Types of preservatives and their potential hazards

    6.3 Potential toxic effects and ways they can be assessed

    6.4 Remedial action

    6.5 Conclusion and future trends

    Chapter 7: Mineral fibre-based building materials and their health hazards

    Abstract:

    7.1 Introduction

    7.2 Classification of asbestos and mineral fibres, their structure, microstructure and properties

    7.3 Health effects of asbestos minerals

    7.4 Use of asbestos in building materials

    7.5 The reclamation of asbestos

    7.6 The disposal of asbestos-containing materials (ACMs) and recycling

    7.7 Conclusion and future trends

    Chapter 8: Radioactive materials

    Abstract:

    8.1 Introduction

    8.2 Naturally occurring radioactive materials (NORM)

    8.3 Radon exhalation, emanation and diffusion length

    8.4 Measurements of radionuclide composition

    8.5 Measurement of radon exhalation

    8.6 Building materials as gamma emitters

    8.7 Building materials with enhanced concentrations of natural radionuclides

    8.8 Building products with enhanced radon exhalation rate

    8.9 Control of radioactivity of building materials in regulations

    Chapter 9: Materials that release toxic fumes during fire

    Abstract:

    9.1 Introduction

    9.2 Fire behaviour of building materials

    9.3 The effects of conditions on the initiation and propagation of fire

    9.4 Health effects and analysis of combustion products

    9.5 Remedial actions

    9.6 Future trends for reducing toxic substances in fire and related resources

    9.7 Conclusion

    Chapter 10: Heavy metals: lead

    Abstract:

    10.1 Introduction

    10.2 Use of lead in buildings and drinking water contamination

    10.3 Toxicity of lead to humans

    10.4 Assessing the risk associated with lead in drinking water

    10.5 Lead pipe replacement and fittings containing lead

    10.6 Corrective water treatment

    10.7 Recommendations

    10.8 Sources of further information and advice

    Chapter 11: Other heavy metals: antimony, cadmium, chromium and mercury

    Abstract:

    11.1 Introduction

    11.2 Antimony

    11.3 Cadmium

    11.4 Chromium

    11.5 Mercury

    11.6 Remedial actions

    11.7 Future trends

    11.8 Conclusions

    Chapter 12: Materials prone to mould growth

    Abstract:

    12.1 Introduction

    12.2 Mould fungi in construction materials

    12.3 Algae in construction materials

    12.4 Potential toxic effects and ways they can be monitored

    12.5 Remedial action and future trends

    12.6 Sources of further information and advice

    Chapter 13: Antimicrobial treatment and efficacy

    Abstract:

    13.1 Introduction

    13.2 Research programs

    13.3 Static microbial test chamber

    13.4 Dynamic microbial test chamber

    13.5 Effects of moisture, relative humidity (RH) and dust

    13.6 Duct cleaning effectiveness on microbial growth

    13.7 Evaluation of antimicrobial treatments as control technologies

    13.8 Antimicrobial product acknowledgment

    13.9 Conclusions

    13.10 Future trends

    13.11 Sources of further information

    Chapter 14: Potential hazards from waste based/recycled building materials

    Abstract:

    14.1 Introduction

    14.2 Main types of building materials containing wastes

    14.3 Waste properties and potential hazards

    14.4 Scenarios of pollutant emission from construction materials

    14.5 Potential hazard assessment for construction materials in their service life

    14.6 Conclusion and future trends

    Chapter 15: Toxicity of nanoparticles

    Abstract:

    15.1 Introduction to nanoparticle and nanomaterial toxicity

    15.2 Morphology, classification, and properties of nanomaterials

    15.3 Types of building materials incorporating nanomaterials

    15.4 The uptake of nanoparticles and their toxicity

    15.5 Diseases associated with nanoparticle exposure

    15.6 Detection of occupational nanoparticles and remedial action

    15.7 Sources of further information and advice

    15.8 Conclusion and future trends

    Index

Product details

  • No. of pages: 512
  • Language: English
  • Copyright: © Woodhead Publishing 2012
  • Published: August 13, 2012
  • Imprint: Woodhead Publishing
  • eBook ISBN: 9780857096357
  • Paperback ISBN: 9780081016367

About the Editors

F Pacheco-Torgal

F Pacheco-Torgal
F.Pacheco Torgal is a Principal Investigator at C-TAC Research Centre, University of Minho. He holds the Counsellor title of the Portuguese Engineers Association. Authored almost 350 publications some that were cited by Highly Cited authors (SCI h-index>60) and in high impact factor journals like Nature Reviews Mat. (IF=52), Nature Energy (IF=47), Progress in Mater. Science (I.F=24), Physics Reports (IF=20) and Nature Climate Change (I.F=19). Citations received in ISI WoS journals-2819 (h-index=29), citations received in Scopus journals- 3580 (h-index=31). Citations prediction for the year 2029 (around 5.500 citations on WoS, 7.500 on Scopus (already has 7000 MR, h=45) and 16.000 citations on scholar google). Member of the editorial board of 9 international journals, 4 referenced on the Web of Science and three referenced on Scopus. Grant assessor for several scientific institutions in 14 countries, UK, US, Netherlands, China, France, Australia, Croatia, Kazakhstan, Belgium, Spain, Czech Republic, Saudi Arabia, UA.Emirates, Poland and also the EU Commission. Invited reviewer for 133 international journals for which he reviewed so far almost 900 papers. Lead Editor of 19 international books (9 being on the Master Book List of Web of Science).

Affiliations and Expertise

Principal Investigator, C-TAC Research Centre, University of Minho, Portugal

S Jalali

Said Jalali is former Professor of Civil Engineering at the University of Minho, and is an acknowledged expert on building materials.

Affiliations and Expertise

University of Minho, Portugal

A Fucic

Dr. Aleksandra Fucic has 30 years of experience working on the biomonitoring of populations exposed to radiation or chemical agents with a special interest in achieving a healthy living environment and investigation of health risks related to new construction materials.

Affiliations and Expertise

Institute for Medical Research and Occupational Health, Croatia

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