Towards 4D Bioprinting

Towards 4D Bioprinting

1st Edition - December 1, 2022

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  • Author: Adrian Neagu
  • Paperback ISBN: 9780128186534

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Towards 4D Printing presents the current state of three-dimensional (3D) bioprinting and its recent offspring, 4D bioprinting. These are attractive approaches to tissue engineering because they hold the promise of building bulky tissue constructs with incorporated vasculature. Starting with the discussion of 3D and 4D printing of inanimate objects, the book presents several 3D bioprinting techniques and points out the challenges imposed by living cells on the bioprinting process. It argues that, in order to fine-tune the bioprinter, one needs a quantitative analysis of the conditions experienced by cells during printing. Once the printing is over, the construct evolves according to mechanisms known from developmental biology. These are described in the book along with computer simulations that aim to predict the outcome of 3D bioprinting.In addition, the book provides the latest information on the principles and applications of 4D bioprinting, such as for medical devices and assistive technology. The last chapter discusses the perspectives of the field. This book provides an up-to date description of the theoretical tools developed for the optimization of 3D bioprinting, presents the morphogenetic mechanisms responsible for the post-printing evolution of the bioprinted construct and describing computational methods for simulating this evolution, and discusses the leap from 3D to 4D bioprinting in the light of the latest developments in the field. Most importantly, Towards 4D Printing explains the importance of theoretical modeling for the progress of 3D and 4D bioprinting.

Key Features

  • Presents theoretical tools needed for the optimization of the bioprinting process
  • Describes the principles and implementation of computer simulations needed to predict the outcome of 3D bioprinting
  • Analyzes the distinctive features of 4D bioprinting along with its applications and perspectives


Bbiomedical and tissue engineers working in academia and industry. Physicists, polymer chemists, engineers medical doctors and cell biologists. Students in medicine, physics, chemistry and engineering

Table of Contents

  • 1. Introduction
    2. 4D Printing: Definition, Smart Materials, and Applications
    3. 3D and 4D Printing of Medical Devices
    4. 3D and 4D Printing of Assistive Technology
    5. 3D Bioprinting Techniques
    6. Theoretical Methods for the Optimization of 3D Bioprinting: Printability, Formability, and Cell Survival
    7. Multicellular Self-Assembly
    8. Post-Printing Evolution of 3D Bioprinted Tissue Constructs
    9. The Definition of 4D Bioprinting
    10. Applications of 4D Bioprinting
    11. Perspectives of 3D and 4D Bioprinting

Product details

  • No. of pages: 200
  • Language: English
  • Copyright: © Academic Press 2022
  • Published: December 1, 2022
  • Imprint: Academic Press
  • Paperback ISBN: 9780128186534

About the Author

Adrian Neagu

Dr. Adrian Neagu received his M.S. in Physics from the West University of Timisoara, Romania (1991). He worked at Freie Universität Berlin as a research fellow of the German Academic Exchange Service (Deutscher Akademischer Austauschdienst, DAAD) (1992-1993). In 2002, he obtained his PhD in Statistical Physics from the Babes-Bolyai University of Cluj-Napoca, Romania. As a postdoctoral fellow in the research group led by Prof. Gabor Forgacs at the University of Missouri, Columbia, MO, USA, he studied the self-assembly of multicellular systems (2002-2003). He applied methods of statistical physics to develop computer simulations aimed at predicting the outcome of three-dimensional (3D) bioprinting of living tissue constructs [1-3]. He teaches Biophysics at the Victor Babes University of Medicine and Pharmacy Timisoara, as Associate Professor (2004-2006), and Professor (2006-present). In 2008, he was assigned Adjunct Professor at the University of Missouri, Columbia, USA. Here, as a visiting scholar, he worked on computational aspects of 3D tissue bioprinting as co-principal investigator of a National Science Foundation grant, FIBR-0526854 entitled "Understanding and employing multicellular self-assembly" (2006-2010). Dr. Neagu is coauthor of a patent on 3D tissue printing (United States Patent No. 8241905/14.08.2012), and editor of the Journal of 3D Printing in Medicine.

Affiliations and Expertise

Professor of Biophysics, Victor Babes University of Medicine and Pharmacy Timisoara, Romania; Adjunct Professor of Physics, University of Missouri, Columbia, USA

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