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Thirst and Sodium Appetite  - 1st Edition - ISBN: 9780123043009, 9780323157049

Thirst and Sodium Appetite

1st Edition

Physiological Basis

Author: Sebastian Grossman
eBook ISBN: 9780323157049
Imprint: Academic Press
Published Date: 28th June 1990
Page Count: 300
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Thirst and Sodium Appetite: Physiological Basis describes the phenomenon of thirst and the mechanisms that define the need for water. Thirst and appetite has generated much study and research about the physiological, endocrinological, and pharmacological mechanisms that influence water intake. However, in this book, other concerns have been emphasized, such as the significance of brain mechanisms in the subject matter. This book, consisting of 11 chapters, starts with a basic description of thirst then to an analysis of basic physiological mechanisms that determine water intake. Another topic also discussed in this book is various experimental paradigms that resulted to the dual-depletion theory of thirst. The neuroanatomical, neuroendocrinological, and neuropharmacological brain mechanisms are covered in three chapters of this book. These brain mechanisms respond to different peripheral signals that stimulate the thirst. The final chapters are dedicated to sodium appetite. Although it has lesser literature than thirst has, there have been significant developments in the understanding of the role of sodium appetite in extracellular thirst. The last chapter reviews the questions that has kept investigators at bay and recommends direction of where future research may go.

Table of Contents


1 The Nature of Thirst


The Sensation of Thirst

Oral Influences

Interactions between Oral Sensations and Thirst

Ad Libitum Drinking

Review and Conclusions

2 The Body's Water Stores

Cellular and Extracellular Compartments

The Exchange of Body Fluids

The Role of the Kidney

Effects of Water Deprivation

The Dual Depletion Theory of Thirst

Review and Conclusions

3 Cellular Dehydration Thirst


Water Intake after Different Hypertonic Solutions

Renal Effects of Hypertonicity of Body Fluids

Cellular Rehydration as a Satiety Signal

Receptor Mechanisms for Cellular Thirst

Review and Conclusions

4 Extracellular Thirst I: Hypovolemia, Hyponatremia, and Hypotension




Experimental Edema

Caval Ligation

Beta-Adrenergic Thirst

Mechanical Stimulation of Atrial Receptors

Atrial Natriuretic Factor

Review and Conclusions

5 Extracellular Thirst II: The Renin-Angiotensin System


The Role of Angiotensin in Thirst

The Dipsogenic Properties of Renin and Angiotensin

Extracellular Thirst after Blockade of the Renin-Angiotensin System

Peptide Effects Related to A-II

Review and Conclusions

6 Satiety

Patterns of Drinking

Preabsorptive Factors

Postabsorptive Factors

Relative Contribution of Cellular and Extracellular Satiety Signals

Review and Conclusions

7 Brain Mechanisms of Thirst: Anatomical Considerations

Historical Perspectives


Zona Incerta

Lateral Preoptic Area

Anteroventral Third Ventricle (AV3V)

Medial Preoptic Area

OVLT and Nucleus Medianus

Subfornical Organ

Septal Area

Review and Conclusions

8 Brain Mechanisms II: Intracranial Angiotensin

Dipsogenic Effects of Intracranial Renin-Angiotensin

Antidipsogenic Effects of ?-II Synthesis Inhibitors and Receptor Blockers

Pressor Effects of Intracranial Angiotensin

Localization of Angiotensin-Sensitive Brain Mechanisms

Mechanisms of Action

Review and Conclusions

9 Brain Mechanisms III: Neuropharmacology


Traditional Neurotransmitters


Endogenous Opioids and Related Compounds



Review and Conclusions

10 Sodium Appetite


Adrenal Mineralocorticoids

The Renin-Angiotensin System

Angiotensin-Mineralocorticoid Interactions

Atrial Stretch Receptors

Peritoneal Glucose Dialysis

Extracellular Thirst and Salt Appetite

Brain Mechanisms

Review and Conclusions

11 Retrospect and Prospect

Early Questions and Their Contemporary Status

The 1950s—A Time of Transition and the Seeds of Controversy

The 1960s—A Turn to New Directions

The 1970s and 1980s—Increasing Concern with Mechanisms of Action




No. of pages:
© Academic Press 1990
28th June 1990
Academic Press
eBook ISBN:

About the Author

Sebastian Grossman

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