Thermophysics and Temperature Control of Spacecraft and Entry Vehicles

Thermophysics and Temperature Control of Spacecraft and Entry Vehicles

1st Edition - January 1, 1966

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  • Editor: Gerhard Heller
  • eBook ISBN: 9780323142083

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Description

Progress in Astronautics and Aeronautics, Volume 18: Thermophysics and Temperature Control of Spacecraft and Entry Vehicles is a selection of technical papers based on two American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics meetings, namely, The Thermophysics Specialist Conference, held in Monterey, California on September 13-15, 1965 and the Third Aerospace Sciences Conference, held in New York on January 1966. This book covers the most important problems of thermophysical research and technology. This volume is composed of six parts encompassing 42 chapters. Part I contains papers on the thermal radiation properties of solids, including measuring techniques for solar reflectance and infrared emittance determination, and a paper on radiative transfer. Part II deals with the lunar and planetary thermal environment and includes research papers on emissivities, reflectivities, and polarization by planetary atmospheres and planetary surfaces. Part III discusses the effects of the space environment on the optical properties of thermal control surfaces. This part also presents results of flight experiments with sensors of environmental effects and flight experience with thermal coatings of satellites. Part IV covers the thermophysical measurements of ablative materials and with the char layers formed during the actual vehicle entry period or during laboratory simulation tests. Part V looks into the two comparatively areas of thermophysics, namely, the thermal similitude (thermal modeling) and interface resistance of joints under space conditions. Part VI summarizes the practical experience in thermal design gained on spacecraft flights. Thermophysicists, space engineers and designers, and research workers who are interested in thermophysical technology will find this book invaluable.

Table of Contents


  • The Thermophysics Committee 1965

    The Thermophysics Committee 1966

    Preface

    I. Thermal Radiation Properties of Solids

    Far Infrared Reflectance of Spacecraft Coatings

    Low-Temperature Spectral Emittance Measurements

    Total Normal Emittance Measurements to 2200°C in Air

    Solar Absorptance and Thermal Emittance of Aluminum Coated with Surface Films of Evaporated Aluminum Oxide

    Low-Temperature Emittance Determinations

    Thermal Radiation Properties of Binary Mixtures

    Directionally Reflective Coating Study

    Apparatus for Spectral Bidirectional Reflectance Measurements During Ultraviolet Irradiation in Vacuum

    Total Hemispherical Thermal Emittance of Nickel as a Function of Oxide Thickness in the Temperature Range 400°-900°C

    Effect of Surface Roughness on Emittance of Nonmetals

    Radiant Heat Transfer from Nongray Surfaces with External Radiation

    II. Lunar and Planetary Thermal Environment

    Effect of Specular Ground Reflection on Radiation Leaving Top of a Planetary Atmosphere

    Effect of Surface Properties on Planetary Albedo

    Irradiation above Atmosphere Due to Rayleigh Scattering and Diffuse Terrestrial Reflections

    Theory of Diffuse Spectral Reflectance of a Thick Layer of Absorbing and Scattering Particles

    Far-Infrared Studies of Silicate Minerals

    Directional Radiative Characteristics of Conical Cavities and Their Relation to Lunar Phenomena

    III. Effects of the Space Environment on Optical Properties of Thermal Control Surfaces

    Low-Energy Charged Particle Environment of the Earth

    Exploratory Trapped-Particle and Trapped-Particle-Plus-Ultraviolet Effects on the Optical Properties of Spacecraft Thermal Control Coatings

    Effects of Simulated Solar-Wind Bombardment on Spacecraft Thermal Control Surfaces

    Effects of Low Energy Protons on Thermal Control Coatings

    Effects of Protons and Alpha Particles on Thermal Properties of Spacecraft and Solar Concentrator Coatings

    Mariner-Mars Absorptance Experiment

    Preliminary Results from the Ames Emissivity Experiment on OSO-II

    SNAP 10A Thermal Control Coatings

    IV. Physics of Vehicle and Missile Entry

    Determination of Temperature Profile in Charred Phenolic Compositions by Reconstruction of the Ablation Process

    Effects of Uncertainties in Thermophysical Properties on Ablation Efficiency

    Determination of Thermal Performance of Char under Heating Conditions Simulating Atmospheric Entry

    Ablation of Magnesia

    Thermal Diffusivity Measurements of Graphites and Chars Using a Pulsed Laser

    V. Thermal Modeling and Interface Conductance in Space

    Test on a Thermally Scaled Model Space Station in a Simulated Solar Environment

    Results of Transient Thermal Modeling in a Simulated Space Environment

    Scaling of Transient Temperature Distributions of Simple Bodies in a Space Chamber

    Thermal Scale Modeling of the Mariner IV Spacecraft

    Thermal Conductance of Metallic Contacts in a Vacuum

    Measurements of Contact Coefficients of Thermal Conductance

    Performance of Multilayer Insulation Systems for the 300° to 800°K Temperature Range

    Thermal Contact Conductance of Nominally Flat, Rough Surfaces in a Vacuum Environment

    VI. Spacecraft Thermal Design: Practical Experience

    Ranger and Mariner Temperature Control Experiences

    Problems in the Thermal Design of Spacecraft

    Thermal Control Experience at TRW Systems

    Thermal Problems Revealed by Flight Experience with Small, Spin-Stabilized Satellites

    Contributors to Volume 18

Product details

  • No. of pages: 888
  • Language: English
  • Copyright: © Academic Press 1966
  • Published: January 1, 1966
  • Imprint: Academic Press
  • eBook ISBN: 9780323142083

About the Editor

Gerhard Heller

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