Thermophysics and Temperature Control of Spacecraft and Entry Vehicles - 1st Edition - ISBN: 9780123957368, 9780323142083

Thermophysics and Temperature Control of Spacecraft and Entry Vehicles

1st Edition

Editors: Gerhard Heller
eBook ISBN: 9780323142083
Imprint: Academic Press
Published Date: 1st January 1966
Page Count: 888
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Description

Progress in Astronautics and Aeronautics, Volume 18: Thermophysics and Temperature Control of Spacecraft and Entry Vehicles is a selection of technical papers based on two American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics meetings, namely, The Thermophysics Specialist Conference, held in Monterey, California on September 13-15, 1965 and the Third Aerospace Sciences Conference, held in New York on January 1966. This book covers the most important problems of thermophysical research and technology. This volume is composed of six parts encompassing 42 chapters. Part I contains papers on the thermal radiation properties of solids, including measuring techniques for solar reflectance and infrared emittance determination, and a paper on radiative transfer. Part II deals with the lunar and planetary thermal environment and includes research papers on emissivities, reflectivities, and polarization by planetary atmospheres and planetary surfaces. Part III discusses the effects of the space environment on the optical properties of thermal control surfaces. This part also presents results of flight experiments with sensors of environmental effects and flight experience with thermal coatings of satellites. Part IV covers the thermophysical measurements of ablative materials and with the char layers formed during the actual vehicle entry period or during laboratory simulation tests. Part V looks into the two comparatively areas of thermophysics, namely, the thermal similitude (thermal modeling) and interface resistance of joints under space conditions. Part VI summarizes the practical experience in thermal design gained on spacecraft flights. Thermophysicists, space engineers and designers, and research workers who are interested in thermophysical technology will find this book invaluable.

Table of Contents


The Thermophysics Committee 1965

The Thermophysics Committee 1966

Preface

I. Thermal Radiation Properties of Solids

Far Infrared Reflectance of Spacecraft Coatings

Low-Temperature Spectral Emittance Measurements

Total Normal Emittance Measurements to 2200°C in Air

Solar Absorptance and Thermal Emittance of Aluminum Coated with Surface Films of Evaporated Aluminum Oxide

Low-Temperature Emittance Determinations

Thermal Radiation Properties of Binary Mixtures

Directionally Reflective Coating Study

Apparatus for Spectral Bidirectional Reflectance Measurements During Ultraviolet Irradiation in Vacuum

Total Hemispherical Thermal Emittance of Nickel as a Function of Oxide Thickness in the Temperature Range 400°-900°C

Effect of Surface Roughness on Emittance of Nonmetals

Radiant Heat Transfer from Nongray Surfaces with External Radiation

II. Lunar and Planetary Thermal Environment

Effect of Specular Ground Reflection on Radiation Leaving Top of a Planetary Atmosphere

Effect of Surface Properties on Planetary Albedo

Irradiation above Atmosphere Due to Rayleigh Scattering and Diffuse Terrestrial Reflections

Theory of Diffuse Spectral Reflectance of a Thick Layer of Absorbing and Scattering Particles

Far-Infrared Studies of Silicate Minerals

Directional Radiative Characteristics of Conical Cavities and Their Relation to Lunar Phenomena

III. Effects of the Space Environment on Optical Properties of Thermal Control Surfaces

Low-Energy Charged Particle Environment of the Earth

Exploratory Trapped-Particle and Trapped-Particle-Plus-Ultraviolet Effects on the Optical Properties of Spacecraft Thermal Control Coatings

Effects of Simulated Solar-Wind Bombardment on Spacecraft Thermal Control Surfaces

Effects of Low Energy Protons on Thermal Control Coatings

Effects of Protons and Alpha Particles on Thermal Properties of Spacecraft and Solar Concentrator Coatings

Mariner-Mars Absorptance Experiment

Preliminary Results from the Ames Emissivity Experiment on OSO-II

SNAP 10A Thermal Control Coatings

IV. Physics of Vehicle and Missile Entry

Determination of Temperature Profile in Charred Phenolic Compositions by Reconstruction of the Ablation Process

Effects of Uncertainties in Thermophysical Properties on Ablation Efficiency

Determination of Thermal Performance of Char under Heating Conditions Simulating Atmospheric Entry

Ablation of Magnesia

Thermal Diffusivity Measurements of Graphites and Chars Using a Pulsed Laser

V. Thermal Modeling and Interface Conductance in Space

Test on a Thermally Scaled Model Space Station in a Simulated Solar Environment

Results of Transient Thermal Modeling in a Simulated Space Environment

Scaling of Transient Temperature Distributions of Simple Bodies in a Space Chamber

Thermal Scale Modeling of the Mariner IV Spacecraft

Thermal Conductance of Metallic Contacts in a Vacuum

Measurements of Contact Coefficients of Thermal Conductance

Performance of Multilayer Insulation Systems for the 300° to 800°K Temperature Range

Thermal Contact Conductance of Nominally Flat, Rough Surfaces in a Vacuum Environment

VI. Spacecraft Thermal Design: Practical Experience

Ranger and Mariner Temperature Control Experiences

Problems in the Thermal Design of Spacecraft

Thermal Control Experience at TRW Systems

Thermal Problems Revealed by Flight Experience with Small, Spin-Stabilized Satellites

Contributors to Volume 18

Details

No. of pages:
888
Language:
English
Copyright:
© Academic Press 1966
Published:
Imprint:
Academic Press
eBook ISBN:
9780323142083

About the Editor

Gerhard Heller