# Thermal Stresses and Temperature Control of Mass Concrete

## 1st Edition

**Authors:**Zhu Bofang Zhu Bofang

**eBook ISBN:**9780124078543

**Hardcover ISBN:**9780124077232

**Imprint:**Butterworth-Heinemann

**Published Date:**31st October 2013

**Page Count:**518

## Description

Methods of controlling mass concrete temperatures range from relatively simple to complex and from inexpensive too costly. Depending on a particular situation, it may be advantageous to use one or more methods over others. Based on the author’s 50 years of personal experience in designing mass concrete structures, *Thermal Stresses and Temperature Control of Mass Concrete *provides a clear and rigorous** **guide to selecting the right techniques to meet project-specific and financial needs. New techniques such as long time superficial thermal insulation, comprehensive temperature control, and MgO self-expansive concrete are introduced.

## Key Features

- Methods for calculating the temperature field and thermal stresses in dams, docks, tunnels, and concrete blocks and beams on elastic foundations
- Thermal stress computations that take into account the influences of all factors and simulate the process of construction
- Analytical methods for determining thermal and mechanical properties of concrete
- Formulas for determining water temperature in reservoirs and temperature loading of arched dams
- New numerical monitoring methods for mass and semi-mature aged concrete

## Readership

Civil Engineers, Construction Engineers, Construction Managers, Structural Engineers, Geotechnical Engineers, and Earthquake Engineers

## Table of Contents

Preface

About the Author

1. Introduction

1.1 The Significance of Thermal Stress in Mass Concrete

1.2 The Features of Thermal Stresses in Concrete Structures

1.3 The Variation of Temperature and Thermal Stress of Mass Concrete with Time

1.4 Kinds of Thermal Stress

1.5 Analysis of Thermal Stress of a Massive Concrete Structure

1.6 Thermal Stress—The Cause of Crack

1.7 Technical Measures for Control of Thermal Stress and Prevention of Cracking

1.8 The Experience of the Temperature Control and Crack Prevention of Mass Concrete in the Last 30 Years

2. Conduction of Heat in Mass Concrete, Boundary Conditions, and Methods of Solution

2.1 Differential Equation of Heat Conduction, Initial and Boundary Conditions

2.2 Surface Conductance and Computation of Superficial Thermal Insulation

2.3 Air Temperature

2.4 Temperature Increments due to Sunshine

2.5 Estimation of Water Temperature in Reservoir

2.6 Numerical Computation of Water Temperature in Reservoir

2.7 Thermal Properties of Concrete

2.8 Heat of Hydration of Cement and the Adiabatic Temperature Rise of Concrete

2.9 Temperature on the Surface of Dam

2.10 The Autogenous Deformation of Concrete

2.11 Semi-Mature Age of Concrete

2.12 Deformation of Concrete Caused by Change of Humidity

2.13 Coefficients of Thermal Expansion of Concrete

2.14 Solution of Temperature Field by Finite Difference Method

3. Temperature Field in the Operation Period of a Massive Concrete Structure

3.1 Depth of Influence of the Variation of Exterior Temperature in the Operation Period

3.2 Variation of Concrete Temperature from the Beginning of Construction to the Period of Operation

3.3 Steady Temperature Field of Concrete Dams

4. Placing Temperature and Temperature Rise of Concrete Lift due to Hydration Heat of Cement

4.1 Mixing Temperature of Concrete—*T***0**

4.2 The Forming Temperature of Concrete *T*1

4.3 Placing Temperature of Concrete *T*p

4.4 Theoretical Solution of Temperature Rise of Concrete Lift due to Hydration Heat of Cement

4.5 Theoretical Solution of Temperature Field of Concrete Lift due to Simultaneous Action of Natural Cooling and Pipe Cooling

4.6 Temperature Field in Concrete Lift Computed by Finite Difference Method

4.7 Practical Method for Computing Temperature Field in Construction Period of Concrete Dams

5. Natural Cooling of Mass Concrete

5.1 Cooling of Semi-Infinite Solid, Third Kind of Boundary Condition

5.2 Cooling of a Slab with First Kind of Boundary Condition

5.3 Cooling of a Slab with Third Kind of Boundary Condition

5.4 Temperature in a Concrete Slab with Harmonic Surface Temperature

5.5 Temperature in a Slab with Arbitrary External Temperature

5.6 Cooling of Mass Concrete in Two and Three Directions, Theorem of Product

6. Stress–Strain Relation and Analysis of Viscoelastic Stress of Mass Concrete

6.1 Stress–Strain Relation of Concrete

6.2 Stress Relaxation of Concrete

6.3 Modulus of Elasticity, Unit Creep, and Relaxation Coefficient of Concrete for Preliminary Analysis

6.4 Two Theorems About the Influence of Creep on the Stresses and Deformations of Concrete Structures

6.5 Classification of Massive Concrete Structures and Method of Analysis

6.6 Method of Equivalent Modulus for Analyzing Stresses in Matured Concrete due to Harmonic Variation of Temperature

7. Thermal Stresses in Fixed Slab or Free Slab

7.1 Thermal Stresses in Fixed Slab

7.2 Method for Computing Thermal Stresses in a Free Slab

7.3 Thermal Stresses in Free Concrete Slab due to Hydration Heat of Cement

7.4 Thermal Stresses in Free Slabs with Periodically Varying Surface Temperature

7.5 Thermal Stress in Free Slab with Third Kind of Boundary Condition and Periodically Varying Air Temperature

7.6 Thermal Stresses Due to Removing Forms

8. Thermal Stresses in Concrete Beams on Elastic Foundation

8.1 Self-Thermal Stress in a Beam

8.2 Restraint Thermal Stress of Beam on Foundation of Semi-infinite Plane

8.3 Restraint Stresses of Beam on Old Concrete Block

8.4 Approximate Analysis of Thermal Stresses in Thin Beam on Half-Plane Foundation

8.5 Thermal Stress on the Lateral Surface of Beam on Elastic Foundation

8.6 Thermal Stresses in Beam on Winkler Foundation

8.7 Thermal Stresses in Beams on Elastic Foundation When Modulus of Elasticity of Concrete Varying with Time

9. Finite Element Method for Computing Temperature Field

9.1 Variational Principle for the Problem of Heat Conduction

9.2 Discretization of Continuous Body

9.3 Fundamental Equations for Solving Unsteady Temperature Field by FEM

9.4 Two-Dimensional Unsteady Temperature Field, Triangular Elements

9.5 Isoparametric Elements

9.6 Computing Examples of Unsteady Temperature Field

10. Finite Element Method for Computing the Viscoelastic Thermal Stresses of Massive Concrete Structures

10.1 FEM for Computing Elastic Thermal Stresses

10.2 Implicit Method for Solving Viscoelastic Stress–Strain Equation of Mass Concrete

10.3 Viscoelastic Thermal Stress Analysis of Concrete Structure

10.4 Compound Element

10.5 Method of Different Time Increments in Different Regions

11. Stresses due to Change of Air Temperature and Superficial Thermal Insulation

11.1 Superficial Thermal Stress due to Linear Variation of Air Temperature During Cold Wave

11.2 Superficial Thermal Insulation, Harmonic Variation of Air Temperature, One-Dimensional Heat Flow

11.3 Superficial Thermal Insulation, Harmonic Variation of Air Temperature, Two-Dimensional Heat Flow

11.4 Thermal Stresses in Concrete Block During Winter and Supercritical Thermal Insulation

11.5 Comprehensive Analysis of Effect of Superficial Thermal Insulation for Variation of Air Temperature

11.6 The Necessity of Long Time Thermal Insulation for Important Concrete Surface

11.7 Materials for Superficial Thermal Insulation

12. Thermal Stresses in Massive Concrete Blocks

12.1 Thermal Stresses of Concrete Block on Elastic Foundation due to Uniform Cooling

12.2 Influence Lines of Thermal Stress in Concrete Block

12.3 Influence of Height of Cooling Region on Thermal Stresses

12.4 Influence of Height of Cooling Region on Opening of Contraction Joints

12.5 Two Kinds of Temperature Difference Between Upper and Lower Parts of Block

12.6 Two Principles for Temperature Control and the Allowable Temperature Differences of Mass Concrete on Rock Foundation

12.7 Approximate Formula for Thermal Stress in Concrete Block on Rock Foundation in Construction Period

12.8 Influence of Length of Concrete Block on the Thermal Stress

12.9 Danger of Cracking due to Over-precooling of Concrete

12.10 Thermal Stresses in Concrete Blocks Standing Side by Side

12.11 Equivalent Temperature Rise due to Self-Weight of Concrete

13. Thermal Stresses in Concrete Gravity Dams

13.1 Thermal Stresses in Gravity Dams due to Restraint of Foundation

13.2 Influence of Longitudinal Joints on Thermal Stress in Gravity Dam

13.3 The Temperatures and Stresses in a Gravity Dam without Longitudinal Joint

13.4 Gravity Dam with Longitudinal Crack

13.5 Deep Crack on the Upstream Face of Gravity Dam

13.6 Opening of Longitudinal Joint of Gravity Dam in the Period of Operation

13.7 Thermal Stresses of Gravity Dams in Severe Cold Region

13.8 Thermal Stresses due to Heightening of Gravity Dam

13.9 Technical Measures to Reduce the Thermal Stress due to Heightening of Gravity Dam

14. Thermal Stresses in Concrete Arch Dams

14.1 Introduction

14.2 Temperature Loading on Arch Dam for Constant Water Level

14.3 Temperature Loading on Arch Dam for Variable Water Level

14.4 Temperature Loadings on Arch Dams in Cold Region with Superficial Thermal Insulation Layer

14.5 Measures for Reducing Temperature Loadings of Arch Dam

14.6 Temperature Control of RCC Arch Dams

14.7 Observed Thermal Stresses and Deformations of Arch Dams

15. Thermal Stresses in Docks, Locks, and Sluices

15.1 Self-Thermal Stresses in Walls of Docks and Piers of Sluices

15.2 Restraint Stress in the Wall of Dock

15.3 Restraint Stress in the Piers of Sluices

15.4 Restraint Stress in the Wall of Dock or the Pier of Sluice on Narrow Bottom Plate

15.5 Simplified Computing Method

15.6 Thermal Stresses in a Sluice by FEM

16. Simulation Analysis, Dynamic Temperature Control, Numerical Monitoring, and Model Test of Thermal Stresses in Massive Concrete Structures

16.1 Full Course Simulation Analysis of Concrete Dams

16.2 Dynamic Temperature Control and Decision Support System of Concrete Dam

16.3 Numerical Monitoring of Concrete Dams

16.4 Model Test of Temperature and Stress Fields of Massive Concrete Structures

17. Pipe Cooling of Mass Concrete

17.1 Introduction

17.2 Plane Temperature Field of Pipe Cooling in Late Stage

17.3 Spatial Temperature Field of Pipe Cooling in Late Stage

17.4 Temperature Field of Pipe Cooling in Early Stage

17.5 Practical Formulas for Pipe Cooling of Mass Concrete

17.6 Equivalent Equation of Heat Conduction Considering Effect of Pipe Cooling

17.7 Theoretical Solution of the Elastocreeping Stresses Due to Pipe Cooling and Self-Restraint

17.8 Numerical Analysis of Elastocreeping Self-Thermal Stress of Pipe Cooling

17.9 The FEM for Computing Temperatures and Stresses in Pipe Cooled Concrete

17.10 Three Principles for Pipe Cooling

17.11 Research on the Pattern of Early Pipe Cooling

17.12 Research on the Pattern of the Medium and the Late Cooling

17.13 Strengthen Cooling by Close Polythene Pipe

17.14 Advantages and Disadvantages of Pipe Cooling

17.15 Superficial Thermal Insulation of Mass Concrete During Pipe Cooling in Hot Seasons

18. Precooling and Surface Cooling of Mass Concrete

18.1 Introduction

18.2 Getting Aggregates from Underground Gallery

18.3 Mixing with Cooled Water and Ice

18.4 Precooling of Aggregate

18.5 Cooling by Spraying Fog or Flowing Water over Top of the Concrete Block

19. Construction of Dam by MgO Concrete

19.1 MgO Concrete

19.2 Six Peculiarities of MgO Concrete Dams

19.3 The Calculation Model of the Expansive Deformation of MgO Concrete

19.4 The Application of MgO Concrete in Gravity Dams

19.5 The Application of MgO Concrete in Arch Dams

20. Construction of Mass Concrete in Winter

20.1 Problems and Design Principles of Construction of Mass Concrete in Winter

20.2 Technical Measures of Construction of Mass Concrete in Winter

20.3 Calculation of Thermal Insulation of Mass Concrete Construction in Winter

21. Temperature Control of Concrete Dam in Cold Region

21.1 Climate Features of the Cold Region

21.2 Difficulties of Temperature Control of Concrete Dam in Cold Region

21.3 Temperature Control of Concrete Dam in Cold Region

22. Allowable Temperature Difference, Cooling Capacity, Inspection and Treatment of Cracks, and Administration of Temperature Control

22.1 Computational Formula for Concrete Crack Resistance

22.2 Laboratory Test of Crack Resistance of Concrete

22.3 The Difference of Tensile Properties Between Prototype Concrete and Laboratory Testing Sample

22.4 Reasonable Value for the Safety Factor of Crack Resistance

22.5 Calculation of Allowable Temperature Difference and Ability of Superficial Thermal Insulation of Mass Concrete

22.6 The Allowable Temperature Difference Adopted by Practical Concrete Dam Design Specifications

22.7 Practical Examples for Temperature Control of Concrete Dams

22.8 Cooling Capacity

22.9 Inspection and Classification of Concrete Cracks

22.10 Treatment of Concrete Cracks

23. Key Principles for Temperature Control of Mass Concrete

23.1 Selection of the Form of Structure

23.2 Optimization of Concrete Material

23.3 Calculation of Crack Resistance of Concrete

23.4 Control of Temperature Difference of Mass Concrete

23.5 Analysis of Thermal Stress of Mass Concrete

23.6 Dividing the Dam into Blocks

23.7 Temperature Control of Gravity Dam

23.8 Temperature Control of Arch Dam

23.9 Control of Placing Temperature of Mass Concrete

23.10 Pipe cooling of Mass Concrete

23.11 Surface Thermal Insulation

23.12 Winter Construction

23.13 Conclusion

Appendix. Unit Conversion

References

Part I. Monographs

Part II. Scientific Papers

Index

## Details

- No. of pages:
- 518

- Language:
- English

- Copyright:
- © Butterworth-Heinemann 2014

- Published:
- 31st October 2013

- Imprint:
- Butterworth-Heinemann

- eBook ISBN:
- 9780124078543

- Hardcover ISBN:
- 9780124077232