Theory and application of Microbiological Assay - 1st Edition - ISBN: 9780123464453, 9780323155281

Theory and application of Microbiological Assay

1st Edition

Authors: William Hewitt
eBook ISBN: 9780323155281
Imprint: Academic Press
Published Date: 28th December 1988
Page Count: 338
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Description

Theory and Application of Microbiological Assay first presents an overview of microbiological assay, including general principles, basic techniques, capabilities, and limitations. This book also explains when to use a certain microbiological assay for specific analysis, citing examples to further clarify the matter. Some chapters discuss the test organisms and solutions, wherein test solutions are the final dilutions at a series of two or more concentrations that have been prepared from reference standard and unknown for application to the test system. Other chapters explore the various aspects of agar diffusion assays, tube assays, and diffusion assays. The book further looks into the quality control procedures, assay design and evaluation, and assay replication. This book will serve as an introduction to newcomers to the field and as a reference source for established workers in microbiological assay.

Table of Contents


Preface

Acknowledgments

Chapter 1 Microbiological Assay, An Overview

1.1 Introduction

1.2 General Principles of Biological Assay

1.3 Basic Techniques of Microbiological Assay

1.4 Capability and Limitations

1.5 Current Status of Antibiotic Assays

1.6 When to Use Microbiological Assays

References

Chapter 2 Test Organisms

2.1 Introduction

2.2 Safety

2.3 Culture Media

2.4 Freeze-Dried Assay Cultures

2.5 Culture Checks

2.6 Culture Maintenance

2.7 Preparation of the Inoculum

2.8 Preparation of Spore Suspensions

2.9 Preliminary Assay Considerations

2.10 Minimum Inhibitory Concentration

References

Chapter 3 Test Solutions

3.1 Introduction

3.2 Reference Standards: Principles and Problems

3.3 Reference Standards: Practical Approaches

3.4 Preparation of Test Solution

References

Chapter 4 The Agar Diffusion Assay

4.1 Essential Features of the Assay

4.2 Practical Methods of Zone Production

4.3 Factors Influencing Zone Size

4.4 Dose-Response Relationship

4.5 Practical Assay Designs

4 4. The Plate Method in Practice

5 References

Chapter 5 Tube Assays for Growth-Inhibiting Substances

5.1 Introduction

5.2 Outline of the Method

5.3 Nature of the Response

5.4 Critical Factors

5.5 The Tube Method in Practice

5.6 Automated Methods

References

Chapter 6 Tube Assays for Growth-Promoting Substances

6.1 Introduction

6.2 Outline of the Method

6.3 Nature of the Response

6.4 Critical Factors

6.5 The Tube Method in Practice

References

Chapter 7 Quality Control Procedures

7.1 Introduction

7.2 Media

7.3 Diluents

7.4 Stock Cultures

7.5 Inoculum

7.6 Spore Suspension

7.7 Working Standards

7.8 Standard Solutions

7.9 Dilutions

7.10 Plating-Out Pipettes

7.11 Miscellaneous Equipment

7.12 Designs Used in Microbiological Assays

7.13 Zone-Reading Performance

7.14 Washing Performance

7.15 Finding the Correct Dose Levels

7.16 Adjusting Zone Size

7.17 Testing Agar for Suitability in Diffusion Assays

7.18 Staff Selection and Training

References

Chapter 8 Assay Design and Evaluation

8.1 Definitions

8.2 Dose-Response Lines: Type 1

8.3 Dose-Response Lines: Type 2

8.4 Selection of Experimental Design

References

Chapter 9 Diffusion Assay Methods for Antibiotics

9.1 Introduction

9A Routine Methods

9.2 Amikacin

9.3 Amoxicillin

9.4 Ampicillin

9.5 Azlocillin

9.6 Bacitracin

9.7 Benzalkonium Chloride

9.8 Carbenicillin

9.9 Cefazolin

9.10 Cefotaxime

9.11 Ceftazidime

9.12 Cefuroxime

9.13 Cephalexin

9.14 Cephaloridine

9.15 Cephalothin

9.16 Chlortetracycline

9.17 Cloxacillin

9.18 Dihydro streptomycin

9.19 Gentamicin

9.20 Neomycin

9.21 Novobiocin

9.22 Nystatin

9.23 Oxytetracycline

9.24 Penicillin G

9.25 Penicillin V

9.26 Phenylmercuric Acetate

9.27 Streptomycin

9.28 Tetracycline

9.29 Thiomersal

9.30 Tobramycin

9B Code of Federal Regulations (21 CFR) Methods

9.31 Amoxicillin

9.32 Amphomycin

9.33 Amphotericin

9.34 Ampicillin

9.35 Bacitracin

9.36 Bleomycin

9.37 Carbenicillin

9.38 Cefactor

9.39 Cefadroxil

9.40 Cefamandole

9.41 Cefazolin

9.42 Cefotaxime

9.43 Cefoxitin

9.44 Cephalexin

9.45 Cephaloglycin

9.46 Cephaloridine

9.47 Cephalothin

9.48 Cephapirin

9.49 Cephradine

9.50 Clindamycin

9.51 Cloxacillin

9.52 Colistimethate Sodium

9.53 Colistin

9.54 Cyclacillin

9.55 Dactinomycin

9.56 Dicloxacillin

9.57 Dihydrostreptomycin

9.58 Erythromycin

9.59 Gentamicin

9.60 Kanamycin

9.61 Methicillin

9.62 Mitomycin

9.63 Nafcillin

9.64 Natamycin

9.65 Neomyci

9.66 Netilmicinn

9.67 Novobiocin

9.68 Nystatin

9.69 Oleandomycin

9.70 Oxacillin

9.71 Paromomycin

9.72 Penicillin

9.73 Penicillin

9.74 Plicamycin

9.75 Polymyxin

9.76 Rifampin

9.77 Sisomicin

9.78 Streptomycin

9.79 Ticarcillin

9.80 Vancomycin

References

Chapter 10 Diffusion Assay Methods for Vitamins

10.1 Introduction

10.2 Thiamine

10.3 Riboflavin

10.4 Pyridoxine

10.5 Cyanocobalamin

10.6 Biotin

10.7 Folic Acid

10.8 Nicotinic Acid

10.9 Pantothenate

References

Chapter 11 Practical Tube Assays

11A Antibiotics

11.1 Introduction

11.2 Amikacin

11.3 Candicidin

11.4 Capreomycin

11.5 Chloramphenicol

11.6 Chlortetracycline

11.7 Cycloserine

11.8 Demeclocycline

11.9 Dihydro streptomycin

11.10 Doxycycline

11.11 Erythromycin

11.12 Gramicidin

11.13 Kanamycin

11.14 Lincomycin

11.15 Meclocycline

11.16 Methacycline

11.17 Minocycline

11.18 Neomycin

11.19 Oxytetracycline

11.20 Rifamycin Sodium

11.21 Rolitetracycline

11.22 Spectinomycin

11.23 Streptomycin

11.24 Tetracycline

11.25 Tobramycin

11.26 Troleandomycin

11.27 Tyrothricin

11B Vitamins

11.28 Introduction

11.29 Common Techniques

11.30 Thiamine

11.31 Riboflavin

11.32 Pyridoxine

11.33 Cyanocobalamin

11.34 Folic Acid

11.35 Niacin

11.36 Pantothenate

References

Chapter 12 Assay Replication

12.1 Introduction

12.2 Replication for Routine Samples

12.3 Replication for Stability Samples

12.4 Replication for Raw Materials

12.5 Replication for Calibration of In-House Standards

12.6 Replication for Collaborative Assays

References

Appendix 1 Disinfectants and Detergents Suitable for Use in Microbiological Assay Laboratories

Appendix 2 Suppliers of Bacteriological Culture Media

Appendix 3 Formulas and Preparation of Bacteriological Culture Media

Appendix 4 List of Media and Diluents Used in Antibiotic Assays

Appendix 5 Sources of Reference Substances and Cultures

Appendix 6 Expressions for the Calculation of E and F for Potency Estimation from Parallel Line Assays

Appendix 7 Basic Bacteriological Staining Techniques

Appendix 8 Some Practical Assay Designs

Index


Details

No. of pages:
338
Language:
English
Copyright:
© Academic Press 1989
Published:
Imprint:
Academic Press
eBook ISBN:
9780323155281

About the Author

William Hewitt