Theory and application of Microbiological Assay

Theory and application of Microbiological Assay

1st Edition - December 28, 1988

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  • Author: William Hewitt
  • eBook ISBN: 9780323155281

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Description

Theory and Application of Microbiological Assay first presents an overview of microbiological assay, including general principles, basic techniques, capabilities, and limitations. This book also explains when to use a certain microbiological assay for specific analysis, citing examples to further clarify the matter. Some chapters discuss the test organisms and solutions, wherein test solutions are the final dilutions at a series of two or more concentrations that have been prepared from reference standard and unknown for application to the test system. Other chapters explore the various aspects of agar diffusion assays, tube assays, and diffusion assays. The book further looks into the quality control procedures, assay design and evaluation, and assay replication. This book will serve as an introduction to newcomers to the field and as a reference source for established workers in microbiological assay.

Table of Contents


  • Preface

    Acknowledgments

    Chapter 1 Microbiological Assay, An Overview

    1.1 Introduction

    1.2 General Principles of Biological Assay

    1.3 Basic Techniques of Microbiological Assay

    1.4 Capability and Limitations

    1.5 Current Status of Antibiotic Assays

    1.6 When to Use Microbiological Assays

    References

    Chapter 2 Test Organisms

    2.1 Introduction

    2.2 Safety

    2.3 Culture Media

    2.4 Freeze-Dried Assay Cultures

    2.5 Culture Checks

    2.6 Culture Maintenance

    2.7 Preparation of the Inoculum

    2.8 Preparation of Spore Suspensions

    2.9 Preliminary Assay Considerations

    2.10 Minimum Inhibitory Concentration

    References

    Chapter 3 Test Solutions

    3.1 Introduction

    3.2 Reference Standards: Principles and Problems

    3.3 Reference Standards: Practical Approaches

    3.4 Preparation of Test Solution

    References

    Chapter 4 The Agar Diffusion Assay

    4.1 Essential Features of the Assay

    4.2 Practical Methods of Zone Production

    4.3 Factors Influencing Zone Size

    4.4 Dose-Response Relationship

    4.5 Practical Assay Designs

    4 4. The Plate Method in Practice

    5 References

    Chapter 5 Tube Assays for Growth-Inhibiting Substances

    5.1 Introduction

    5.2 Outline of the Method

    5.3 Nature of the Response

    5.4 Critical Factors

    5.5 The Tube Method in Practice

    5.6 Automated Methods

    References

    Chapter 6 Tube Assays for Growth-Promoting Substances

    6.1 Introduction

    6.2 Outline of the Method

    6.3 Nature of the Response

    6.4 Critical Factors

    6.5 The Tube Method in Practice

    References

    Chapter 7 Quality Control Procedures

    7.1 Introduction

    7.2 Media

    7.3 Diluents

    7.4 Stock Cultures

    7.5 Inoculum

    7.6 Spore Suspension

    7.7 Working Standards

    7.8 Standard Solutions

    7.9 Dilutions

    7.10 Plating-Out Pipettes

    7.11 Miscellaneous Equipment

    7.12 Designs Used in Microbiological Assays

    7.13 Zone-Reading Performance

    7.14 Washing Performance

    7.15 Finding the Correct Dose Levels

    7.16 Adjusting Zone Size

    7.17 Testing Agar for Suitability in Diffusion Assays

    7.18 Staff Selection and Training

    References

    Chapter 8 Assay Design and Evaluation

    8.1 Definitions

    8.2 Dose-Response Lines: Type 1

    8.3 Dose-Response Lines: Type 2

    8.4 Selection of Experimental Design

    References

    Chapter 9 Diffusion Assay Methods for Antibiotics

    9.1 Introduction

    9A Routine Methods

    9.2 Amikacin

    9.3 Amoxicillin

    9.4 Ampicillin

    9.5 Azlocillin

    9.6 Bacitracin

    9.7 Benzalkonium Chloride

    9.8 Carbenicillin

    9.9 Cefazolin

    9.10 Cefotaxime

    9.11 Ceftazidime

    9.12 Cefuroxime

    9.13 Cephalexin

    9.14 Cephaloridine

    9.15 Cephalothin

    9.16 Chlortetracycline

    9.17 Cloxacillin

    9.18 Dihydro streptomycin

    9.19 Gentamicin

    9.20 Neomycin

    9.21 Novobiocin

    9.22 Nystatin

    9.23 Oxytetracycline

    9.24 Penicillin G

    9.25 Penicillin V

    9.26 Phenylmercuric Acetate

    9.27 Streptomycin

    9.28 Tetracycline

    9.29 Thiomersal

    9.30 Tobramycin

    9B Code of Federal Regulations (21 CFR) Methods

    9.31 Amoxicillin

    9.32 Amphomycin

    9.33 Amphotericin

    9.34 Ampicillin

    9.35 Bacitracin

    9.36 Bleomycin

    9.37 Carbenicillin

    9.38 Cefactor

    9.39 Cefadroxil

    9.40 Cefamandole

    9.41 Cefazolin

    9.42 Cefotaxime

    9.43 Cefoxitin

    9.44 Cephalexin

    9.45 Cephaloglycin

    9.46 Cephaloridine

    9.47 Cephalothin

    9.48 Cephapirin

    9.49 Cephradine

    9.50 Clindamycin

    9.51 Cloxacillin

    9.52 Colistimethate Sodium

    9.53 Colistin

    9.54 Cyclacillin

    9.55 Dactinomycin

    9.56 Dicloxacillin

    9.57 Dihydrostreptomycin

    9.58 Erythromycin

    9.59 Gentamicin

    9.60 Kanamycin

    9.61 Methicillin

    9.62 Mitomycin

    9.63 Nafcillin

    9.64 Natamycin

    9.65 Neomyci

    9.66 Netilmicinn

    9.67 Novobiocin

    9.68 Nystatin

    9.69 Oleandomycin

    9.70 Oxacillin

    9.71 Paromomycin

    9.72 Penicillin

    9.73 Penicillin

    9.74 Plicamycin

    9.75 Polymyxin

    9.76 Rifampin

    9.77 Sisomicin

    9.78 Streptomycin

    9.79 Ticarcillin

    9.80 Vancomycin

    References

    Chapter 10 Diffusion Assay Methods for Vitamins

    10.1 Introduction

    10.2 Thiamine

    10.3 Riboflavin

    10.4 Pyridoxine

    10.5 Cyanocobalamin

    10.6 Biotin

    10.7 Folic Acid

    10.8 Nicotinic Acid

    10.9 Pantothenate

    References

    Chapter 11 Practical Tube Assays

    11A Antibiotics

    11.1 Introduction

    11.2 Amikacin

    11.3 Candicidin

    11.4 Capreomycin

    11.5 Chloramphenicol

    11.6 Chlortetracycline

    11.7 Cycloserine

    11.8 Demeclocycline

    11.9 Dihydro streptomycin

    11.10 Doxycycline

    11.11 Erythromycin

    11.12 Gramicidin

    11.13 Kanamycin

    11.14 Lincomycin

    11.15 Meclocycline

    11.16 Methacycline

    11.17 Minocycline

    11.18 Neomycin

    11.19 Oxytetracycline

    11.20 Rifamycin Sodium

    11.21 Rolitetracycline

    11.22 Spectinomycin

    11.23 Streptomycin

    11.24 Tetracycline

    11.25 Tobramycin

    11.26 Troleandomycin

    11.27 Tyrothricin

    11B Vitamins

    11.28 Introduction

    11.29 Common Techniques

    11.30 Thiamine

    11.31 Riboflavin

    11.32 Pyridoxine

    11.33 Cyanocobalamin

    11.34 Folic Acid

    11.35 Niacin

    11.36 Pantothenate

    References

    Chapter 12 Assay Replication

    12.1 Introduction

    12.2 Replication for Routine Samples

    12.3 Replication for Stability Samples

    12.4 Replication for Raw Materials

    12.5 Replication for Calibration of In-House Standards

    12.6 Replication for Collaborative Assays

    References

    Appendix 1 Disinfectants and Detergents Suitable for Use in Microbiological Assay Laboratories

    Appendix 2 Suppliers of Bacteriological Culture Media

    Appendix 3 Formulas and Preparation of Bacteriological Culture Media

    Appendix 4 List of Media and Diluents Used in Antibiotic Assays

    Appendix 5 Sources of Reference Substances and Cultures

    Appendix 6 Expressions for the Calculation of E and F for Potency Estimation from Parallel Line Assays

    Appendix 7 Basic Bacteriological Staining Techniques

    Appendix 8 Some Practical Assay Designs

    Index


Product details

  • No. of pages: 338
  • Language: English
  • Copyright: © Academic Press 1988
  • Published: December 28, 1988
  • Imprint: Academic Press
  • eBook ISBN: 9780323155281

About the Author

William Hewitt

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