The Vegetation of Poland

The Vegetation of Poland

International Series of Monographs in Pure and Applied Biology: Botany

1st Edition - January 1, 1966

Write a review

  • Editor: Władysław Szafer
  • eBook ISBN: 9781483185095

Purchase options

Purchase options
DRM-free (PDF)
Sales tax will be calculated at check-out

Institutional Subscription

Free Global Shipping
No minimum order


International Series of Monographs in Pure and Applied Biology, Volume 9: The Vegetation of Poland focuses on the plant geography of Poland, including climate, hydrography, geology, and ecology. The selection first offers information on the historical outline of the development of plant geography and the factors affecting the geographical distribution of plants in Poland. Discussions focus on the development of phytogeographical cartography, floristic and ecological plant geography, and the climate, boundaries, land-relief, hydrography, and geology of Poland. The text then ponders on the influence of man and his economic activities on the vegetation of Poland and the floristic statistics and the elements of the Polish flora. The publication examines the terrestrial and fresh-water plant communities and vegetation of the Polish Baltic. Topics include composition and structure of plant communities and methods of their study, associations of coastal and inland dunes, aquatic and swamp associations, and the most important representatives of the benthic flora of the Polish Baltic. The manuscript is a dependable source of data for botanists and those concerned with the plant resources of nature, including agriculturists, horticulturists, and soil scientists.

Table of Contents

  • Preface

    Chapter I Historical Outline of the Development of Plant Geography in Poland

    1. Introductory Remarks

    2. Floristic Plant Geography

    Floristic Foundations

    Geographical Distribution of Trees

    Studies on the Distribution of Herbaceous Plants

    Further Studies on the Distribution of Trees

    Endemic Species

    Economically Important Plants

    Statistical-Comparative Studies

    3. Ecological Plant Geography

    Climate and Phenology

    Light, Temperature, Humidity


    Edaphic Factors


    Aquatic Habitats


    Ecologic Types

    Mycotrophism and Parasitism

    Regional Monographs


    4. Historical Plant Geography

    Two Methods of Research

    The Palaeobotanical Method


    The Epiontological Method

    5. Development of Phytogcographical Cartography


    Regional Geobotanical Maps

    Mapping of Associations

    Geobotanical Maps of Poland

    The Statistical Method in Cartography

    6. Conclusion

    Chapter II Factors Affecting the Geographical Distribution of Plants in Poland

    1. Introductory Remarks

    2. Poland's Position in Europe

    Geographical Differentiation of Europe

    Boundary Between Western and Eastern Europe

    Poland on the Geobotanical Map of Europe

    3. Poland's Boundaries

    The Sea Boundary

    The Mountain Boundaries

    Character of the Eastern and Western Boundaries

    4. Poland's Land-Relief

    Influence of Land-Relief on Vegetation

    Predominance of Lowlands and Zoned Configuration of Land-Relief in Poland

    Coastal Low-Lands


    Belt of the Great Valleys

    The Old Hills and Highlands

    The Carpathians

    5. Poland's Hydrography




    6. Poland's Climate

    a. General Climate

    b. Microclimate

    7. Geology

    a. Northern and Central Poland

    b. Southern Poland

    8. Poland's Soils

    General Characters of Soils and their Origin

    Influence of Various Soil Characters on Vegetation

    Polish Soil Types

    Initial Stages of Soils



    Swamp Soils

    Peat Soils

    Humic-Gley Soils

    Black Earths

    Alluvial Soils

    Brown Soils


    Distribution of Various Soil Types in Poland

    Correlation Between Soil Types and Plant Associations

    Chapter III Influence of Man and his Economic Activities on the Vegetation of Poland. The Synanthropic Flora

    1. Changes of the Landscape Due to Man

    The Landscape as a Biological Whole

    Historical Changes in the Polish Landscape

    The present Landscape of Poland

    2. Destruction of the Original Vegetation

    Ways in which Man Destroys Vegetation

    Destruction of Primeval Forests

    Destruction of the Aquatic and Swamp Vegetation

    Destruction of the Natural Grassland Communities

    Destruction of the Flora

    LINKOLA'S Classification

    3. Formation of New Plant Communities under the Influence of Man

    Primeval and Natural Communities

    Semi-Natural Communities

    Synanthropic Communities

    4. Synanthropic Flora

    Classification of Synanthropic Plants According to THELLUNG

    Present-Day Migrations of Synanthropes

    Factors Affecting the Present-Day Migrations of Synanthropes

    Geographical Characteristics of the Synanthropic Flora of Poland

    5. General Appraisal of Man's Activity in Nature

    Chapter IV Floristic Statistics and the Elements of the Polish Flora

    A. Floristic Statistic of Poland

    B. Elements of the Polish Flora

    I. Geographical elements

    II. Genetic Elements

    III. Historical Elements

    IV. Migratory Elements

    V. Ecological Elements

    Chapter V Review of Terrestrial and Fresh-Water Plant Communities

    A. Composition and Structure of Plant Communities and Methods of their Study

    1. Introductory Remarks

    2. Plant Communities, Associations and Formations

    3. Stand of an Association

    4. Fragmentary Association

    5. Habitat, Biotope, Biocenosis

    6. Fundamental Factors in the Grouping of Plants into Communities. Degree of Organization in Communities

    7. Methods of Investigating Plant Communities

    8. Layering

    9. Abundance (Quantitative Relations)

    10. Sociability

    11. Vitality

    12. Periodicity; Seasonal Stages of Development and Aspects

    13. Phytosociological Record

    14. Study of the Habitat Factors

    15. Study of Life Phenomena of Plants in Plant Communities

    16. Phytosociological Constancy (Presence)

    17. Phytosociological Fidelity

    18. Characteristic Combination of Species

    19. Association Table

    20. Analytical Determination of Abundance

    21. Taxonomic Value of a Group of Species

    B. Systematics of Polish Plant Communities

    1. Foundations of the System

    2. Systematic-Phytosociological Units

    3. Methods of Determining Phytosociological Units in Research Practice

    C. Survey of the Most Important Plant Associations in Poland

    I. List of the Higher Phytosociological Units

    II. Associations of Coastal and Inland Dune

    III. Associations of Saline Soils

    IV. Aquatic and Swamp Associations

    V. Peat-Bog Associations

    VI. Meadow and Heathland Associations

    VII. Associations of Steppes and Dry Grasslands

    VIII. High-Mountain Associations

    IX. Forest and Scrub Associations

    X. Synanthropic Associations

    XI. Communities of Cryptogams

    D. Dynamics of Plants Communities

    1. Introductory Remarks

    2. The Internal Dynamics of Communities: The Regeneration of Phyto-Cenoses

    3. Successions of Vegetation

    4. Dynamic Value of Species

    5. Methods of Studying Plant Successions

    6. The Origin of Associations

    7. Colonization of Bare Ground by Plants

    8. Examples of Succession Series

    9. General Features of Succession Series. Communities of Short and Long Duration. Climax Communities

    10. Historical Successions of Vegetation

    Chapter VI The Vegetation of the Polish Baltic

    1. Introductory Remarks

    2. The Baltic as an Environment of Plant Life

    Geographical Character

    Water Dynamics


    Thermic Conditions


    3. The most Important Representatives of the Benthic Flora of the Polish Baltic

    Green Algae

    Brown Algae

    Red Algae

    Flowering Plants

    4. Vertical Distribution of the Vegetation

    Vegetational Zones

    Influence of Light

    5. Plant Associations of the Polish Baltic

    Present Stage of Studies

    Associations of the Littoral

    Shallow-Water Sublittoral Associations

    Successions of Associations

    The Deep Sublittoral

    Coastal Reedswamps

    6. Plankton

    7. Biogeography of the Baltic Flora

    Present Stage of Studies of the Baltic Flora

    Poverty of the Flora

    Geographical Elements

    Derivative Character of the Baltic Flora

    Cold-Water Species

    8. The Past History of the Baltic Flora

    The Baltic Ice Lake and the Yoldia Sea

    The Ancylus Lake, Arctic Relicts

    The Littorina Sea

    The Present Period

    Chapter VII Outline of the Historical Development of the Vegetation of Poland in the Late-Glacial and Post-Glacial Periods

    1. Introductory Remarks

    2. Methods and the Development of Research

    Methods of Studying Macroscopic Remains


    New methods

    3. The Problem of the Lower Limit of the Holocene and its Duration

    The Relative and Absolute Limit

    The Role of the Late-Glacial Period

    4. Late-Glacial Climatic Periods

    Various Stratigraphic Schemes

    The Older Dryas

    The Allerod Period

    The Younger Dryas

    5. Post-Glacial Changes of Climate and Flora

    Pollen Diagrams and their Classification

    Period of Expansion of the First Forests

    Period of Expansion of Warmth-Loving Trees

    Period of Dominance of Warmth-Loving Trees

    Period of Regression of Warmth-Loving Trees in Connection with Cooling and Humidification of the Climate

    Period of Forest Development Associated with Human Activities

    6. History of the Most Important Species of Forest Trees

    Common Pine





    Common Spruce




    Silver Fir

    Other Tree Species

    7. The Role of Herbaceous Plants in Pollen Diagrams

    Non-Arboreal Pollen (NAP)

    Traces of the Presence of Man


    Chapter VIII The Role of Cultivated Plants in the Historical Development of Material Culture in Poland

    1. The Mesolithic Period

    Palaeolithic Man

    Migratory Movements after the Retreat of the Ice Sheet

    Climatic Fluctuations

    Food-Gatherers and Hunters

    2. The Neolithic Period

    Regional Differences in Colonization

    Culture of Striped Pottery

    Early Neolithic Settlements

    Species of Wheat and their Origin


    Culture of Funnel-Neck Beakers

    Origin of the Emmer

    Culture of Globular Amphorae

    The Wane of the Neolithic Period

    3. The Bronze Age and the Early Iron Age

    Decline of Agriculture

    Indo-European Peoples

    The Lusatian Culture

    Burning of Forests

    Cultural Relations with the South

    Cultivated Plants





    Broad Bean

    Pea and Lentil

    Oil-Bearing Plants




    4. Gathering of Wild Plants

    5. The Middle and Late Iron Age up to Photo-Polish Times



    The Wends

    Pottery-Kiln and Ard

    Migration Period

    6. The Early Piast Period

    Cultivation of Cereal Crops








    7. Orchards in the Early Piast Period




    Plum Tree

    Steppe Cherry




    8. The Late Middle Ages



    Tartar Invasions


    Staple Plant Foods




    9. The period from the Renaissance to the Eighteenth Century

    Apricot and Southern Fruits







    10. Recent Times

    Papilionaceous Plants





    Chapter IX Foundations of a Geobotanical Division of Poland

    Aim of the Division

    Economic Significance

    Geographical Divisions

    Economic Regionalization

    Raciborski's Conception and its Development

    Geobotanical Units of the First Order

    The Concept of Altitudinal Zones

    Geobotanical Units of the Second Order

    Geobotanical Units of the Third Order


    Index of Latin Names

    Other Titles in the Botany Division

Product details

  • No. of pages: 766
  • Language: English
  • Copyright: © Pergamon 1966
  • Published: January 1, 1966
  • Imprint: Pergamon
  • eBook ISBN: 9781483185095

About the Editor

Władysław Szafer

Ratings and Reviews

Write a review

There are currently no reviews for "The Vegetation of Poland"