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The Vegetation of Poland - 1st Edition - ISBN: 9780080102214, 9781483185095

The Vegetation of Poland

1st Edition

International Series of Monographs in Pure and Applied Biology: Botany

Editor: Władysław Szafer
eBook ISBN: 9781483185095
Imprint: Pergamon
Published Date: 1st January 1966
Page Count: 766
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International Series of Monographs in Pure and Applied Biology, Volume 9: The Vegetation of Poland focuses on the plant geography of Poland, including climate, hydrography, geology, and ecology.

The selection first offers information on the historical outline of the development of plant geography and the factors affecting the geographical distribution of plants in Poland. Discussions focus on the development of phytogeographical cartography, floristic and ecological plant geography, and the climate, boundaries, land-relief, hydrography, and geology of Poland. The text then ponders on the influence of man and his economic activities on the vegetation of Poland and the floristic statistics and the elements of the Polish flora.

The publication examines the terrestrial and fresh-water plant communities and vegetation of the Polish Baltic. Topics include composition and structure of plant communities and methods of their study, associations of coastal and inland dunes, aquatic and swamp associations, and the most important representatives of the benthic flora of the Polish Baltic.

The manuscript is a dependable source of data for botanists and those concerned with the plant resources of nature, including agriculturists, horticulturists, and soil scientists.

Table of Contents


Chapter I Historical Outline of the Development of Plant Geography in Poland

1. Introductory Remarks

2. Floristic Plant Geography

Floristic Foundations

Geographical Distribution of Trees

Studies on the Distribution of Herbaceous Plants

Further Studies on the Distribution of Trees

Endemic Species

Economically Important Plants

Statistical-Comparative Studies

3. Ecological Plant Geography

Climate and Phenology

Light, Temperature, Humidity


Edaphic Factors


Aquatic Habitats


Ecologic Types

Mycotrophism and Parasitism

Regional Monographs


4. Historical Plant Geography

Two Methods of Research

The Palaeobotanical Method


The Epiontological Method

5. Development of Phytogcographical Cartography


Regional Geobotanical Maps

Mapping of Associations

Geobotanical Maps of Poland

The Statistical Method in Cartography

6. Conclusion

Chapter II Factors Affecting the Geographical Distribution of Plants in Poland

1. Introductory Remarks

2. Poland's Position in Europe

Geographical Differentiation of Europe

Boundary Between Western and Eastern Europe

Poland on the Geobotanical Map of Europe

3. Poland's Boundaries

The Sea Boundary

The Mountain Boundaries

Character of the Eastern and Western Boundaries

4. Poland's Land-Relief

Influence of Land-Relief on Vegetation

Predominance of Lowlands and Zoned Configuration of Land-Relief in Poland

Coastal Low-Lands


Belt of the Great Valleys

The Old Hills and Highlands

The Carpathians

5. Poland's Hydrography




6. Poland's Climate

a. General Climate

b. Microclimate

7. Geology

a. Northern and Central Poland

b. Southern Poland

8. Poland's Soils

General Characters of Soils and their Origin

Influence of Various Soil Characters on Vegetation

Polish Soil Types

Initial Stages of Soils



Swamp Soils

Peat Soils

Humic-Gley Soils

Black Earths

Alluvial Soils

Brown Soils


Distribution of Various Soil Types in Poland

Correlation Between Soil Types and Plant Associations

Chapter III Influence of Man and his Economic Activities on the Vegetation of Poland. The Synanthropic Flora

1. Changes of the Landscape Due to Man

The Landscape as a Biological Whole

Historical Changes in the Polish Landscape

The present Landscape of Poland

2. Destruction of the Original Vegetation

Ways in which Man Destroys Vegetation

Destruction of Primeval Forests

Destruction of the Aquatic and Swamp Vegetation

Destruction of the Natural Grassland Communities

Destruction of the Flora

LINKOLA'S Classification

3. Formation of New Plant Communities under the Influence of Man

Primeval and Natural Communities

Semi-Natural Communities

Synanthropic Communities

4. Synanthropic Flora

Classification of Synanthropic Plants According to THELLUNG

Present-Day Migrations of Synanthropes

Factors Affecting the Present-Day Migrations of Synanthropes

Geographical Characteristics of the Synanthropic Flora of Poland

5. General Appraisal of Man's Activity in Nature

Chapter IV Floristic Statistics and the Elements of the Polish Flora

A. Floristic Statistic of Poland

B. Elements of the Polish Flora

I. Geographical elements

II. Genetic Elements

III. Historical Elements

IV. Migratory Elements

V. Ecological Elements

Chapter V Review of Terrestrial and Fresh-Water Plant Communities

A. Composition and Structure of Plant Communities and Methods of their Study

1. Introductory Remarks

2. Plant Communities, Associations and Formations

3. Stand of an Association

4. Fragmentary Association

5. Habitat, Biotope, Biocenosis

6. Fundamental Factors in the Grouping of Plants into Communities. Degree of Organization in Communities

7. Methods of Investigating Plant Communities

8. Layering

9. Abundance (Quantitative Relations)

10. Sociability

11. Vitality

12. Periodicity; Seasonal Stages of Development and Aspects

13. Phytosociological Record

14. Study of the Habitat Factors

15. Study of Life Phenomena of Plants in Plant Communities

16. Phytosociological Constancy (Presence)

17. Phytosociological Fidelity

18. Characteristic Combination of Species

19. Association Table

20. Analytical Determination of Abundance

21. Taxonomic Value of a Group of Species

B. Systematics of Polish Plant Communities

1. Foundations of the System

2. Systematic-Phytosociological Units

3. Methods of Determining Phytosociological Units in Research Practice

C. Survey of the Most Important Plant Associations in Poland

I. List of the Higher Phytosociological Units

II. Associations of Coastal and Inland Dune

III. Associations of Saline Soils

IV. Aquatic and Swamp Associations

V. Peat-Bog Associations

VI. Meadow and Heathland Associations

VII. Associations of Steppes and Dry Grasslands

VIII. High-Mountain Associations

IX. Forest and Scrub Associations

X. Synanthropic Associations

XI. Communities of Cryptogams

D. Dynamics of Plants Communities

1. Introductory Remarks

2. The Internal Dynamics of Communities: The Regeneration of Phyto-Cenoses

3. Successions of Vegetation

4. Dynamic Value of Species

5. Methods of Studying Plant Successions

6. The Origin of Associations

7. Colonization of Bare Ground by Plants

8. Examples of Succession Series

9. General Features of Succession Series. Communities of Short and Long Duration. Climax Communities

10. Historical Successions of Vegetation

Chapter VI The Vegetation of the Polish Baltic

1. Introductory Remarks

2. The Baltic as an Environment of Plant Life

Geographical Character

Water Dynamics


Thermic Conditions


3. The most Important Representatives of the Benthic Flora of the Polish Baltic

Green Algae

Brown Algae

Red Algae

Flowering Plants

4. Vertical Distribution of the Vegetation

Vegetational Zones

Influence of Light

5. Plant Associations of the Polish Baltic

Present Stage of Studies

Associations of the Littoral

Shallow-Water Sublittoral Associations

Successions of Associations

The Deep Sublittoral

Coastal Reedswamps

6. Plankton

7. Biogeography of the Baltic Flora

Present Stage of Studies of the Baltic Flora

Poverty of the Flora

Geographical Elements

Derivative Character of the Baltic Flora

Cold-Water Species

8. The Past History of the Baltic Flora

The Baltic Ice Lake and the Yoldia Sea

The Ancylus Lake, Arctic Relicts

The Littorina Sea

The Present Period

Chapter VII Outline of the Historical Development of the Vegetation of Poland in the Late-Glacial and Post-Glacial Periods

1. Introductory Remarks

2. Methods and the Development of Research

Methods of Studying Macroscopic Remains


New methods

3. The Problem of the Lower Limit of the Holocene and its Duration

The Relative and Absolute Limit

The Role of the Late-Glacial Period

4. Late-Glacial Climatic Periods

Various Stratigraphic Schemes

The Older Dryas

The Allerod Period

The Younger Dryas

5. Post-Glacial Changes of Climate and Flora

Pollen Diagrams and their Classification

Period of Expansion of the First Forests

Period of Expansion of Warmth-Loving Trees

Period of Dominance of Warmth-Loving Trees

Period of Regression of Warmth-Loving Trees in Connection with Cooling and Humidification of the Climate

Period of Forest Development Associated with Human Activities

6. History of the Most Important Species of Forest Trees

Common Pine





Common Spruce




Silver Fir

Other Tree Species

7. The Role of Herbaceous Plants in Pollen Diagrams

Non-Arboreal Pollen (NAP)

Traces of the Presence of Man


Chapter VIII The Role of Cultivated Plants in the Historical Development of Material Culture in Poland

1. The Mesolithic Period

Palaeolithic Man

Migratory Movements after the Retreat of the Ice Sheet

Climatic Fluctuations

Food-Gatherers and Hunters

2. The Neolithic Period

Regional Differences in Colonization

Culture of Striped Pottery

Early Neolithic Settlements

Species of Wheat and their Origin


Culture of Funnel-Neck Beakers

Origin of the Emmer

Culture of Globular Amphorae

The Wane of the Neolithic Period

3. The Bronze Age and the Early Iron Age

Decline of Agriculture

Indo-European Peoples

The Lusatian Culture

Burning of Forests

Cultural Relations with the South

Cultivated Plants





Broad Bean

Pea and Lentil

Oil-Bearing Plants




4. Gathering of Wild Plants

5. The Middle and Late Iron Age up to Photo-Polish Times



The Wends

Pottery-Kiln and Ard

Migration Period

6. The Early Piast Period

Cultivation of Cereal Crops








7. Orchards in the Early Piast Period




Plum Tree

Steppe Cherry




8. The Late Middle Ages



Tartar Invasions


Staple Plant Foods




9. The period from the Renaissance to the Eighteenth Century

Apricot and Southern Fruits







10. Recent Times

Papilionaceous Plants





Chapter IX Foundations of a Geobotanical Division of Poland

Aim of the Division

Economic Significance

Geographical Divisions

Economic Regionalization

Raciborski's Conception and its Development

Geobotanical Units of the First Order

The Concept of Altitudinal Zones

Geobotanical Units of the Second Order

Geobotanical Units of the Third Order


Index of Latin Names

Other Titles in the Botany Division


No. of pages:
© Pergamon 1966
1st January 1966
eBook ISBN:

About the Editor

Władysław Szafer

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