The Uniqueness of Biological Materials

The Uniqueness of Biological Materials

International Series of Monographs in Pure and Applied Biology: Zoology

1st Edition - January 1, 1965

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  • Author: A. E. Needham
  • eBook ISBN: 9781483156705

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Description

The Uniqueness of Biological Materials deals with the unique properties of biological materials, carbohydrates, lipids, proteins, and nucleic acids and the extent to which this uniqueness is related to the uniqueness of life in general. More specifically, it examines whether the uniqueness of life is inherent in the material of living organisms. This volume is comprised of 32 chapters and begins with an introduction to the nature of biological uniqueness and how it is related to the uniqueness of life by comparing the elemental composition of living organisms with that of their environment. The discussion then turns to the uniqueness of hydrogen and oxygen which make up water; carbon; carbohydrates; and ternary compounds that are more fully oxidized than carbohydrates. Ternary compounds of intermediate grades of reduction are also considered, along with fatty acids and related lipids, paraffins, and olefins and ternary unsaturated compounds. Other biological materials discussed include peptides, proteins, amino acids, and halogens. This book will be of interest to students and practitioners of biology and biochemistry.

Table of Contents


  • Periodic Table of the Elements

    Atomic Scale Models

    Preface

    Acknowledgments

    Abbreviations Used

    1 Introduction

    2 Hydrogen and Oxygen

    2.1 The Uniqueness of Water

    2.2 Hydrogen

    2.3 Oxygen

    3 The Uniqueness of Carbon

    3.1 Other Elements of Group IV

    4 Carbohydrates

    4.1 Monoses and their Derivatives

    4.2 Oligosaccharides

    4.3 Polysaccharides

    5 Ternary Compounds More Fully Oxidised than Carbohydrates

    5.1 Polyhydroxycarboxylic Acids

    5.2 Compounds of the Respiratory Pathways

    6 Ternary Compounds of Intermediate Grades of Reduction

    6.1 Polyhydroxy Alcohols

    6.2 Cyclitols

    6.3 Cyclitol Derivatives

    7 Fatty Acids and Related Lipids

    7.1 The Fatty Acids (Acylic Acids)

    7.1.1 Unsaturated Fatty Acids

    7.1.2 Branched Chain Fatty Acids

    7.1.3 Dicarboxylic Fatty Acids

    7.1.4 Hydroxy Fatty Acids

    7.2 Esters of Fatty Acids

    7.3 Oligohydric Aliphatic Alcohols

    7.4 Aliphatic Ethers (R1•CH2—O—CH2•R2)

    7.5 Alkyl Aldehydes and Ketones

    8 Paraffins (CnH2n+2)

    8.1 Cycloparaffins

    9 Olefines and Ternary Unsaturated Compounds

    9.1 Oxy-isoprenoid Compounds

    9.2 Steroids

    10 Aromatic Hydrocarbons and their Ternary Compounds

    10.1 Monocyclic Biological Aromatic Compounds

    10.2 Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons and Ternary Compounds

    10.3 Chain-linked Cyclic Compounds

    11 Heterocyclic Ternary Compounds

    12 The Uniqueness of Nitrogen

    12.1 Ammonia

    12.2 Organic Oxides of Nitrogen

    12.3 Cyanides

    12.4 Amino Compounds

    13 Amino Acids

    13.1 The α-Complex

    13.2 The Side Chains

    13.3 The Individual Amino Acids

    13.4 Interactions between Amino Acids

    13.5 Conclusions

    14 Peptides

    15 Proteins

    15.1 Classification of Proteins

    15.2 Molecular Size

    15.3 Molecular Shape

    15.4 The Structure of Protein Molecules

    15.5 Solubility and Related Properties of Proteins

    15.5.1 Colloidal States of Proteins

    15.5.2 Gels

    15.5.3 Liquid Crystals

    15.5.4 Coacervates

    15.6 Denaturation of Proteins

    15.7 Amino Acid Composition of Proteins

    15.7.1 Conclusions

    15.8 The Sequence of Amino Acids in Proteins

    15.9 Proteins as Catalysts

    15.10 Proteins and Immunity Reactions

    15.11 Conclusions

    16 Other Open Chain Nitrogen Compounds

    16.1 Amides

    16.1.1 Polyamides: Urea

    16.2 Amines

    16.2.1 Conjugated Amines: Phosphatides and Cerebrosides

    16.3 Betaines

    16.4 Amidines and Guanidines

    16.4.1 Guanidines

    16.5 Conclusions

    17 Heterocyclic Nitrogen Compounds: Pyrroles and Porphyrins

    17.1 Pyrrolidines and Pyrroles

    17.2 Open Chain Polypyrroles

    17.3 Porphyrins

    17.4 Porphyrans

    17.4.1 Chlorophylls

    17.4.2 Cyanocobalamin (Vitamin B12)

    17.5 Porphyranoproteins

    17.6 Models and Pseudoporphyrins

    17.7 Conclusions

    18 Pyridine and Piperidine Compounds

    18.1 Pyridines

    18.1.1 Pyridoxine (Vitamin B6)

    18.2 Piperidine and Pyridine Alkaloids

    18.3 Quinolines

    18.4 Acridines

    18.5 Conclusions

    19 Compounds with more than one Nitrogen Atom per Ring

    20 Pyrimidines, Purines, Nucleotides and Nucleic Acids

    20.1 Pyrimidine and Purine Bases

    20.2 Nucleotides

    20.3 Polynucleotides: Nucleic Acids

    20.4 Nucleic Acids and the Specification of Proteins

    20.5 Biosynthesis of Nucleic Acids

    20.6 Nucleoproteins

    20.7 Conclusions

    21 Pteridines

    21.1 Pterins

    21.1.1 Pteroyl Glutamic Acid (PGA)

    21.2 Benzpteridines

    21.3 Conclusions

    22 Oxazines

    23 Sulphur Compounds

    23.1 Open Chain Biological Sulphur Compounds

    23.2 Sulphur Heterocyclic Compounds

    23.3 Conclusions

    24 Phosphorus Compounds

    24.1 Phosphates

    24.1.1 Biological Phosphates and Phosphoryl Compounds

    24.2 Other Phosphorus Compounds

    24.3 Conclusions

    24.4 Arsenic and Antimony

    25 The Physiological Inorganic Ions

    25.1 The Four Main Physiological Salts

    25.1.1 Sodium

    25.1.2 Potassium

    25.1.3 Magnesium

    25.1.4 Calcium

    25.2 Chloride

    25.3 Lithium, Beryllium and Fluorine

    25.4 Conclusions

    26 The Catalytic Metals

    26.1 Iron

    26.2 Cobalt and Nickel

    26.3 Copper

    26.3.1 Silver and Gold

    26.4 Manganese

    26.5 Zinc

    26.5.1 Cadmium and Mercury

    26.6 Chromium

    26.7 Molybdenum

    26.7.1 Tungsten and Uranium

    26.8 Selenium

    26.9 Vanadium

    26.10 Titanium

    26.11 Conclusions

    27 The Halogens

    27.1 Chlorine

    27.2 Iodine

    27.3 Bromine

    27.4 Fluorine

    27.5 Conclusions

    28 Silicon and Boron

    28.1 Silicon

    28.1.1 Germanium

    28.2 Boron

    28.3 Conclusions

    29 Higher Grades of Organisation

    29.1 Membranes of Cells and Organelles

    29.2 Structures Based on Fibrous Proteins

    29.3 Systemic Dictation at the Molecular Level

    29.4 Models of Higher Grades of Organisation

    29.5 Conclusions

    30 How Unique?

    30.1 Uniqueness of Chain-length

    30.2 Detoxication

    30.3 Conclusions

    31 Other Forms of Life?

    32 The Origin and Evolution of Biological Uniqueness

    Bibliography

    Author Index

    Subject Index

    Other Titles in the Zoology Division

Product details

  • No. of pages: 614
  • Language: English
  • Copyright: © Pergamon 1965
  • Published: January 1, 1965
  • Imprint: Pergamon
  • eBook ISBN: 9781483156705

About the Author

A. E. Needham

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