The Uniqueness of Biological Materials - 1st Edition - ISBN: 9780080107486, 9781483156705

The Uniqueness of Biological Materials

1st Edition

International Series of Monographs in Pure and Applied Biology: Zoology

Authors: A. E. Needham
eBook ISBN: 9781483156705
Imprint: Pergamon
Published Date: 1st January 1965
Page Count: 614
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The Uniqueness of Biological Materials deals with the unique properties of biological materials, carbohydrates, lipids, proteins, and nucleic acids and the extent to which this uniqueness is related to the uniqueness of life in general. More specifically, it examines whether the uniqueness of life is inherent in the material of living organisms. This volume is comprised of 32 chapters and begins with an introduction to the nature of biological uniqueness and how it is related to the uniqueness of life by comparing the elemental composition of living organisms with that of their environment. The discussion then turns to the uniqueness of hydrogen and oxygen which make up water; carbon; carbohydrates; and ternary compounds that are more fully oxidized than carbohydrates. Ternary compounds of intermediate grades of reduction are also considered, along with fatty acids and related lipids, paraffins, and olefins and ternary unsaturated compounds. Other biological materials discussed include peptides, proteins, amino acids, and halogens. This book will be of interest to students and practitioners of biology and biochemistry.

Table of Contents

Periodic Table of the Elements

Atomic Scale Models



Abbreviations Used

1 Introduction

2 Hydrogen and Oxygen

2.1 The Uniqueness of Water

2.2 Hydrogen

2.3 Oxygen

3 The Uniqueness of Carbon

3.1 Other Elements of Group IV

4 Carbohydrates

4.1 Monoses and their Derivatives

4.2 Oligosaccharides

4.3 Polysaccharides

5 Ternary Compounds More Fully Oxidised than Carbohydrates

5.1 Polyhydroxycarboxylic Acids

5.2 Compounds of the Respiratory Pathways

6 Ternary Compounds of Intermediate Grades of Reduction

6.1 Polyhydroxy Alcohols

6.2 Cyclitols

6.3 Cyclitol Derivatives

7 Fatty Acids and Related Lipids

7.1 The Fatty Acids (Acylic Acids)

7.1.1 Unsaturated Fatty Acids

7.1.2 Branched Chain Fatty Acids

7.1.3 Dicarboxylic Fatty Acids

7.1.4 Hydroxy Fatty Acids

7.2 Esters of Fatty Acids

7.3 Oligohydric Aliphatic Alcohols

7.4 Aliphatic Ethers (R1•CH2—O—CH2•R2)

7.5 Alkyl Aldehydes and Ketones

8 Paraffins (CnH2n+2)

8.1 Cycloparaffins

9 Olefines and Ternary Unsaturated Compounds

9.1 Oxy-isoprenoid Compounds

9.2 Steroids

10 Aromatic Hydrocarbons and their Ternary Compounds

10.1 Monocyclic Biological Aromatic Compounds

10.2 Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons and Ternary Compounds

10.3 Chain-linked Cyclic Compounds

11 Heterocyclic Ternary Compounds

12 The Uniqueness of Nitrogen

12.1 Ammonia

12.2 Organic Oxides of Nitrogen

12.3 Cyanides

12.4 Amino Compounds

13 Amino Acids

13.1 The α-Complex

13.2 The Side Chains

13.3 The Individual Amino Acids

13.4 Interactions between Amino Acids

13.5 Conclusions

14 Peptides

15 Proteins

15.1 Classification of Proteins

15.2 Molecular Size

15.3 Molecular Shape

15.4 The Structure of Protein Molecules

15.5 Solubility and Related Properties of Proteins

15.5.1 Colloidal States of Proteins

15.5.2 Gels

15.5.3 Liquid Crystals

15.5.4 Coacervates

15.6 Denaturation of Proteins

15.7 Amino Acid Composition of Proteins

15.7.1 Conclusions

15.8 The Sequence of Amino Acids in Proteins

15.9 Proteins as Catalysts

15.10 Proteins and Immunity Reactions

15.11 Conclusions

16 Other Open Chain Nitrogen Compounds

16.1 Amides

16.1.1 Polyamides: Urea

16.2 Amines

16.2.1 Conjugated Amines: Phosphatides and Cerebrosides

16.3 Betaines

16.4 Amidines and Guanidines

16.4.1 Guanidines

16.5 Conclusions

17 Heterocyclic Nitrogen Compounds: Pyrroles and Porphyrins

17.1 Pyrrolidines and Pyrroles

17.2 Open Chain Polypyrroles

17.3 Porphyrins

17.4 Porphyrans

17.4.1 Chlorophylls

17.4.2 Cyanocobalamin (Vitamin B12)

17.5 Porphyranoproteins

17.6 Models and Pseudoporphyrins

17.7 Conclusions

18 Pyridine and Piperidine Compounds

18.1 Pyridines

18.1.1 Pyridoxine (Vitamin B6)

18.2 Piperidine and Pyridine Alkaloids

18.3 Quinolines

18.4 Acridines

18.5 Conclusions

19 Compounds with more than one Nitrogen Atom per Ring

20 Pyrimidines, Purines, Nucleotides and Nucleic Acids

20.1 Pyrimidine and Purine Bases

20.2 Nucleotides

20.3 Polynucleotides: Nucleic Acids

20.4 Nucleic Acids and the Specification of Proteins

20.5 Biosynthesis of Nucleic Acids

20.6 Nucleoproteins

20.7 Conclusions

21 Pteridines

21.1 Pterins

21.1.1 Pteroyl Glutamic Acid (PGA)

21.2 Benzpteridines

21.3 Conclusions

22 Oxazines

23 Sulphur Compounds

23.1 Open Chain Biological Sulphur Compounds

23.2 Sulphur Heterocyclic Compounds

23.3 Conclusions

24 Phosphorus Compounds

24.1 Phosphates

24.1.1 Biological Phosphates and Phosphoryl Compounds

24.2 Other Phosphorus Compounds

24.3 Conclusions

24.4 Arsenic and Antimony

25 The Physiological Inorganic Ions

25.1 The Four Main Physiological Salts

25.1.1 Sodium

25.1.2 Potassium

25.1.3 Magnesium

25.1.4 Calcium

25.2 Chloride

25.3 Lithium, Beryllium and Fluorine

25.4 Conclusions

26 The Catalytic Metals

26.1 Iron

26.2 Cobalt and Nickel

26.3 Copper

26.3.1 Silver and Gold

26.4 Manganese

26.5 Zinc

26.5.1 Cadmium and Mercury

26.6 Chromium

26.7 Molybdenum

26.7.1 Tungsten and Uranium

26.8 Selenium

26.9 Vanadium

26.10 Titanium

26.11 Conclusions

27 The Halogens

27.1 Chlorine

27.2 Iodine

27.3 Bromine

27.4 Fluorine

27.5 Conclusions

28 Silicon and Boron

28.1 Silicon

28.1.1 Germanium

28.2 Boron

28.3 Conclusions

29 Higher Grades of Organisation

29.1 Membranes of Cells and Organelles

29.2 Structures Based on Fibrous Proteins

29.3 Systemic Dictation at the Molecular Level

29.4 Models of Higher Grades of Organisation

29.5 Conclusions

30 How Unique?

30.1 Uniqueness of Chain-length

30.2 Detoxication

30.3 Conclusions

31 Other Forms of Life?

32 The Origin and Evolution of Biological Uniqueness


Author Index

Subject Index

Other Titles in the Zoology Division


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About the Author

A. E. Needham

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