The Thyroid Hormones

The Thyroid Hormones

1st Edition - January 1, 1959

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  • Authors: Rosalind Pitt-Rivers, Jamshed R. Tata
  • eBook ISBN: 9781483279220

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Description

International Series of Monographs on Pure and Applied Biology, Volume 1: The Thyroid Hormones focuses on the reactions, characteristics, and chemistry of thyroid hormones. The selection first offers information on the chemistry of thyroxine, iodinated compounds of the thyroid glands, and biosynthesis of the thyroid hormones. Discussions focus on the constitution of desiodothyroxine, diiodotyrosine, biological significance of the iodothyronines, rate of secretion of the thyroid hormone into the circulation, and formation of thyroxine from diiodotyrosine in vitro. The manuscript then takes a look at the transport and physiological actions of the thyroid hormones. Topics include thyroxine-binding by other serum proteins, extravascular fluids, and tissue proteins, effect on nitrogen and lipid metabolism, growth, maturation, and differentiation, and effect on the cardiovascular system and blood. The book examines the mechanism of action of thyroid hormones, extrathyroidal distribution and metabolism of iodine, and biochemical pathways of thyroid hormone metabolism. The text is a dependable reference for readers interested in the reactions, characteristics, and chemistry of thyroid hormones.

Table of Contents


  • Introduction

    Chapter 1. Chemistry of Thyroxine

    Chapter 2. The Iodinated Compounds of the Thyroid Gland

    Chapter 3. Biosynthesis of the Thyroid Hormones

    (I) Formation of Thyroxine from Diiodotyrosine in Vitro

    (II) Biosynthesis of the Thyroid Hormones in Vivo Studied with Radioactive Iodine

    (III) Factors that Influence Thyroid Function

    (a) The Pituitary-Thyroid Relationship

    (b) Dietary Factors

    (c) The Antithyroid Drugs

    (d) Effect of Cold on Thyroid Function

    (e) Effect of the Adrenal Gland and Stress on Thyroid Function

    (IV) The Iodide-Concentrating Mechanism of the Thyroid

    (V) Organic Binding of Iodine in the Thyroid, as Influenced by the Anterior Pituitary

    (VI) Iodine Metabolism in the Developing Thyroid Gland

    (VII) Rate of Secretion of the Thyroid Hormone into the Circulation

    Chapter 4. Transport of the Thyroid Hormone

    (I) The Circulating Thyroid Hormone

    (II) The Binding of Thyroid Hormones to Serum Proteins: Thyroxine-Binding Protein

    (a) Attempts to Isolate and Characterize Thyroxine-Binding Protein

    (b) Binding Properties of Thyroxine-Binding Protein

    (c) Comparative Aspects of Thyroxine-Binding in Serum

    (d) Conditions that Modify Thyroxine-Binding in Serum

    (III) Thyroxine-Binding by Other Serum Proteins, Extravascular Fluids and Tissue Proteins

    (a) Other Serum Proteins

    (b) Extravascular Fluids

    (c) Thyroxine-Binding by Tissue Proteins

    (IV) Physiological Significance of Thyroxine-Binding

    (V) Methods Used in the Study of Binding Proteins

    Chapter 5. Physiological Actions of Thyroid Hormones

    (I) Calorigenic Action and Thermoregulation

    (II) Growth, Maturation and Differentiation

    (a) Growth in Higher Vertebrates

    (b) Effect on Bone and Tooth Formation

    (c) Effect on Growth and Differentiation in Lower Vertebrates: Metamorphosis

    (III) Effect on Water and Electrolyte Metabolism

    (IV) Effect on Nitrogen and Lipid Metabolism

    (a) Nitrogen Metabolism

    (b) Lipid Metabolism

    (V) Effect on the Central Nervous System

    (VI) Effect on Lactation

    (VII) Effect on the Cardiovascular System and Blood

    (VIII) Other Actions of the Thyroid Hormones

    (IX) The Latent Period of Action of Thyroid Hormones

    (X) Chemical Structure and Biological Activity of Substances Related to Thyroid Hormones

    Chapter 6. Some Current Concepts of the Mechanism of Action of Thyroid Hormones

    (I) Earlier Theories

    (II) Current Hypotheses

    (a) Direct Action on Enzymes

    (b) Interaction with Metal Ions

    (c) Effect on Membrane Permeability

    Chapter 7. Extrathyroidal Distribution and Metabolism of Iodine

    (I) Extrathyroidal Distribution and Metabolism of Iodide

    (a) Distribution and Concentration

    (b) Excretion of Iodide

    (c) Extrathyroidal Conversion of Iodide to Organically Bound Iodine

    (d) Is There an Extrathyroidal Synthesis of Thyroid Hormones?

    (II) Distribution and Metabolism of Thyroid Hormones

    (a) Some Observations on the Use of 131I-Labelled Thyroid Hormones

    (b) The Overall Rate of Metabolism of Thyroid Hormones

    (c) Distribution of Thyroid Hormones in Tissues

    (d) Liver Metabolism and Enterohepatic Circulation of Thyroid Hormones

    (e) Excretion of Thyroid Hormones

    Chapter 8. Biochemical Pathways of Thyroid Hormone Metabolism

    (I) Deiodination

    (II) Phenolic Oxidation and Hydroxylation

    (III) Conjugation of the Phenolic Group

    (IV) Rupture of the Diphenyl Ether Linkage

    (V) Oxidative Deamination of the Iodothyronines

    (VI) Decarboxylation

    Chapter 9. Diseases of the Thyroid

    (I) Non-Toxic Goitre

    (a) Endemic Goitre

    (b) Drug Goitre

    (c) Sporadic Goitrous Cretinism

    (d) Goitre with Congenital Deafness

    (e) Sporadic Goitre

    (II) Spontaneous Myxoedema and Lymphadenoid Goitre

    (III) Graves' Disease

    (IV) Thyroid Cancer

    Appendix

    (I) Assay Methods

    (a) Chemical Estimations

    (b) Biological Assay

    (II) Some Physical Properties of Thyroid Hormones and Related Compounds

    (III) Purification of Thyroglobulin

    References

    Index

Product details

  • No. of pages: 262
  • Language: English
  • Copyright: © Pergamon 1959
  • Published: January 1, 1959
  • Imprint: Pergamon
  • eBook ISBN: 9781483279220

About the Authors

Rosalind Pitt-Rivers

Jamshed R. Tata

About the Editors

R.K. Callow

P.N. Campbell

Affiliations and Expertise

Department of Biochemistry, University College of London, Gower Street, London, UK

S.P. Datta

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