The Study of Metal Structures and Their Mechanical Properties - 1st Edition - ISBN: 9780080067506, 9781483184265

The Study of Metal Structures and Their Mechanical Properties

1st Edition

Pergamon Unified Engineering Series

Authors: W. A. Wood
Editors: William F. Hughes Arthur T. Murphy William H. Davenport
eBook ISBN: 9781483184265
Imprint: Pergamon
Published Date: 1st January 1971
Page Count: 400
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The Study of Metal Structures and Their Mechanical Properties focuses on metal structures and their mechanical properties. Topics covered range from the crystalline state of metal structures to lattice geometry and crystal symmetry, along with dislocations and lattice faults. Electrons in metals are also discussed, along with alloys and dispersions.

Comprised of 13 chapters, this book begins with an introduction to networks of points in space, or "space lattices", followed by a detailed account of the geometry of crystal lattices and the symmetry of crystals. Subsequent chapters focus on electrons in metals; alloys and dispersions; lattice faults; some properties of dislocations; and elastic strain and internal stress. Some basic techniques are purposely illustrated by simple but significant applications. The unidirectional plastic strain and static strength displayed by a single-phase metal at normal temperature are examined, together with the basic processes of cyclic strain and fatigue strength. The final three chapters deal with combined unidirectional and cyclic strain; deformation at elevated temperatures and creep strength; and the problem of developing economic material with small plasticity that is small enough to permit high strength but large enough to damp any sudden crack growth.

This monograph will be of interest to undergraduates who plan a serious study of material science and to established engineers who still like to think about how things work.

Table of Contents



One. The Crystalline State

1.1 The Space-Lattice

1.2 Crystalline Solids

1.3 Typical Structures

Two. Lattice Geometry and Crystal Symmetry

2.1 Lattice Planes

2.2 Lattice Direction

2.3 Lattice Spacings

2.4 Zones

2.5 Crystal Symmetry

2.6 Hermann-Mauguin System

2.7 The 230 Space Groups

2.8 Some Reference Sources

Three. Electrons in Metals

3.1 Basic Problem

3.2 Drude-Lorentz Model

3.3 Sommerfeld Model

3.4 Bloch or Brillouin Zone Model

3.5 Conductors and Insulators

3.6 Stability Factor

3.7 Developments

Four. Alloys and Dispersions

4.1 Solid Solution

4.2 Interstitial Alloying

4.3 Substitutional Solution

4.4 Chemical Equilibrium

4.5 Physical Conditions of Alloys

4.6 Ordering

4.7 Some Reference Sources

Five. Lattice Faults

5.1 Structure-Sensitivity

5.2 Typical Insensitive Properties

5.3 Contrast with Structure-Sensitive Properties

5.4 Boundary Faults

5.5 For Further References

Six. Some Properties of Dislocations

(A) The Single Dislocation

6.1 The Continuum Dislocation

6.2 Stress Round a Dislocation

6.3 Dislocation Energy

6.4 Dislocation Density ρ

6.5 Dislocation Movement and Plastic Strain

6.6 Force on a Dislocation

6.7 Dislocations and Observed Slip

6.8 Compound Dislocations

6.9 Dislocation Sources

6.10 Partial Dislocations and Stacking Faults

6.11 Climb of Dislocations and Cross Slip

6.12 Reversible and Irreversible Slip

(B) Dislocation Interactions and Strain-Hardening

6.13 Force Between Parallel Dislocations

6.14 Strain-Hardening

6.15 For Further Reference

Seven. Experimental Approach

7.1 Main Techniques

(A) Optical Metallography

7.2 Principles

7.3 Slip Markings

7.4 Surface Rumpling

7.5 Etching

(B) Metal Monocrystals

7.6 Large Metal Monocrystals

(C) X-Ray Diffraction

7.7 Principles

7.8 Reflection Geometry

7.9 Recording the Reflections

7.10 Applications to Deformation

(D) Electron Microscopy

7.11 Principles

7.12 Replica Technique

7.13 Structure of Thin Foils

Eight. Elastic Strain and Internal Stress

8.1 Static Elasticity

8.2 X-Ray Procedure

8.3 Mild-Steel Type of Lattice Stress/Strain Curve

8.4 Copper Type of Lattice Stress/Strain Curve

8.5 Scatter of Internal Stress

8.6 Macrostresses

8.7 Heyn Stresses

8.8 Developments

Nine. Unidirectional Plastic Strain and Static Strength at Normal Temperature

9.1 Basic Problem

9.2 Single Crystal

9.3 Ductile Polycrystalline Metal

9.4 Ductile-Brittle Transition

9.5 Strain-Ageing

9.6 Prolonged Yield

9.7 Asymmetry of Hardening

9.8 Thermal Recovery and Recrystallization

9.9 Twinning

9.10 Fracture by Unidirectional Stress or Strain

9.11 Prolonged Strain and Preferred Orientation

9.12 Other Developments

Ten. Cyclic Strain and Fatigue Strength

10.1 Plastic Fatigue

10.2 Distinctive Mechanical Properties

10.3 Distinctive Microstructural Changes

10.4 H Range

10.5 F Range

10.6 S Range

10.7 Special Cases

10.8 Pseudo-Elastic Fatigue

10.9 Failure Processes in General

10.10 Other Developments

Eleven. Combined Unidirectional and Cyclic Strain

11.1 Cycle-Induced Instability

11.2 Creep Under Repeated Stress

11.3 Creep Under Cyclic Torsion and Steady Axial Tension (Cold-Worked Metal)

11.4 Creep Under Cyclic Torsion and Steady Axial Tension (Annealed Metal)

11.5 Creep Under Cyclic Torsion Alone

11.6 Yield Criteria Under Combined Axial Tension and Cyclic Torsion

11.7 Fracture by Combined Unidirectional and Cyclic Strain

11.8 Developments

Twelve. Deformation at Elevated Temperatures and Creep Strength

12.1 Basic Problem

12.2 The Distinctive Mechanical Properties

12.3 Distinctive Structural Changes

12.4 Analytical Representation of Creep Curves

12.5 Creep Fracture

12.6 Creep Resistance

12.7 Other Developments

Thirteen. Search for Strong Solids

13.1 Problem of Strength

13.2 Solute Strengthening

13.3 Precipitation and Dispersion Hardening

13.4 Composites

13.5 Other Developments


A(1) Atomic Radii

A(2) Crystal Structure of Solid Elements

B Formula for Spacing d of Plane (hkl)

C Some Standard Reference Sources



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© Pergamon 1971
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About the Author

W. A. Wood

About the Editor

William F. Hughes

Arthur T. Murphy

William H. Davenport

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