The Sea Cucumber Apostichopus japonicus

The Sea Cucumber Apostichopus japonicus

History, Biology and Aquaculture

1st Edition - January 1, 2015
This is the Latest Edition
  • Editors: Hongsheng Yang, Jean-Francois Hamel, Annie Mercier
  • eBook ISBN: 9780128004678
  • Hardcover ISBN: 9780127999531

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While sea cucumber is one of China's and Asia’s most prized seafoods, and aquaculture programs are being developed on a huge commercial scale, Chinese expertise and knowledge in this area has not been well disseminated worldwide. The Sea Cucumber Apostichopus japonicus is the first book to bridge this gap by compiling key information related to hatchery and aquaculture techniques, nutritional and medical values, markets, and trade flow of the number one sea cucumber species. It summarizes the historical and most recent developments in the trade and aquaculture of Apostichopus japonicus, as well as important aspects of its anatomy, population dynamics, reproduction, development, physiology, and biochemistry. With sea cucumber harvest and aquaculture booming worldwide, comprehensive knowledge of China’s technological breakthroughs in this rapidly expanding field is key. The Sea Cucumber Apostichopus japonicus is essential to understanding the cultural underpinnings of the insatiable market demands for sea cucumber and what drives sea cucumber trade. It also provides biological information and aquaculture techniques that can be adapted to other species, making it a valuable resource for researchers and practitioners involved in sea cucumber harvesting, aquaculture, and conservation.

Key Features

  • Explores the historical and current importance of Apostichopus japonicus in China, Japan, and the two Koreas
  • Presents innovative production technologies in sea cucumber aquaculture
  • Provides the latest scientific methods to maximize efficiency and production
  • Includes important information on the design and operation of farms
  • Discusses hot topics, current challenges, and future opportunities in aquaculture
  • Highlights important advances in the study of sea cucumbers at the behavioral, cellular, and molecular levels


Aquaculture scientists and extension agents, environmental biologists, aquatic scientists, graduate students, government officials and policy-makers, and aquaculture practitioners

Table of Contents

    • List of Contributors
    • Preface
    • Acknowledgments
    • Chapter 1: Apostichopus japonicus in the Life of Chinese People
      • Summary
      • Keywords
      • 1.1. Ancient tales of sea cucumber
      • 1.2. Nutritional and medicinal value of sea cucumber
      • 1.3. Sea cucumber in Chinese diet
      • 1.4. Cultural expression
    • Chapter 2: From Fisheries Toward Aquaculture
      • Summary
      • Keywords
      • 2.1. The history of A. japonicus fishery
      • 2.2. Aquaculture development
      • 2.3. Perspective on the aquaculture industry of A. japonicus
    • Chapter 3: Taxonomy and Identification
      • Summary
      • Keywords
      • 3.1. Introduction
      • 3.2. Holothuroid taxonomy
      • 3.3. Methods of classifying holothuroids
      • 3.4. The evolution of holothuroids
      • 3.5. A. japonicus Taxonomy
    • Chapter 4: Anatomy
      • Summary
      • Keywords
      • 4.1. Body wall
      • 4.2. Calcareous ring
      • 4.3. Endoskeleton
      • 4.4. Nervous system
      • 4.5. Coelom and coelomocytes
      • 4.6. Digestive system
      • 4.7. Respiratory system
      • 4.8. Water vascular system
      • 4.9. Hemal system
      • 4.10. Reproductive system
    • Chapter 5: Spatial Distribution, Population Structures, Management, and Conservation
      • Summary
      • Keywords
      • 5.1. Spatial distribution
      • 5.2. Population structure
      • 5.3. Fisheries management and conservation
    • Chapter 6: Reproductive Biology
      • Summary
      • Keywords
      • 6.1. Anatomy of the reproductive system
      • 6.2. Gonad development
      • 6.3. Reproductive cycle
      • 6.4. Control of reproduction
    • Chapter 7: Broodstock Conditioning and Spawning
      • Summary
      • Keywords
      • 7.1. Collection and conditioning of broodstock
      • 7.2. Spawning behavior
      • 7.3. Spawning induction
      • 7.4. Artificial oocyte maturation
    • Chapter 8: Development, Settlement, and Post-settlement Growth
      • Summary
      • Keywords
      • 8.1. Embryonic and larval development
      • 8.2. Effects of temperature on larval development and biological zero
      • 8.3. Effects of salinity variations on growth, development, and vitality of embryos and larvae
      • 8.4. Effect of suspended sediment on larval survival and settlement
      • 8.5. Substrate selection
      • 8.6. Behavioral characteristics during settlement and shift in function of locomotory and feeding organs
      • 8.7. Interindividual variation in growth
    • Chapter 9: Environmental Drivers of Behavior
      • Summary
      • Keywords
      • 9.1. Daily activity patterns
      • 9.2. Monthly and seasonal activities
    • Chapter 10: Feeding, digestion, nutritional physiology, and bioenergetics
      • Summary
      • 10.1. Feeding habits and food sources
      • 10.2. Digestive enzymology
      • 10.3. Nutritional physiology
      • 10.4. Energy budget
      • 10.5. Conclusion
    • Chapter 11: Aestivation and regeneration
      • Summary
      • 11.1. Aestivation
      • 11.2. Regeneration
    • Chapter 12: Albinism
      • Summary
      • 12.1. Research on albinism
      • 12.2. Biochemical and genetic pathways underlying albinism
      • 12.3. Differences in nutrient and melanin contents between albino and normal A. japonicus
      • 12.4. Differences in histological and ultrastructural characteristics between albino and normal A. japonicus
      • 12.5. Differences in MITF gene expressions in albino and normal A. japonicus
      • 12.6. Differences in astacin gene expressions in albino and normal A. japonicus
    • Chapter 13: Tissue biochemistry
      • Summary
      • 13.1. Proximate composition
      • 13.2. Amino acids
      • 13.3. Fatty acids
      • 13.4. Vitamins
      • 13.5. Minerals
    • Chapter 14: Larval, juvenile, and adult predators
      • Summary
      • 14.1. Predators of Apostichopus japonicus at different life stages
      • 14.2. Control of predators in rearing systems
      • 14.3. Conclusion
    • Chapter 15: Immunology and diseases
      • Summary
      • 15.1. The immune system of sea cucumbers
      • 15.2. Symptoms and treatments of diseases
    • Chapter 16: Aquaculture, stock enhancement, and restocking
      • Summary
      • 16.1. Introduction
      • 16.2. Industrial culture
      • 16.3. Pond (cofferdam) culture
      • 16.4. Suspended culture
      • 16.5. Sea ranching
      • 16.6. Restocking and stock enhancement
      • 16.7. Conclusion
    • Chapter 17: Apostichopus japonicus: A key species in integrated polyculture systems
      • Summary
      • 17.1. Introduction
      • 17.2. Types of sea cucumber IMTA in eastern Asia
      • 17.3. Bioremediation capability of A. japonicus when combined with bivalve and/or macroalgae
      • 17.4. Conclusion and future prospects
    • Chapter 18: Habitat Enhancement and Rehabilitation
      • Summary
      • Keywords
      • 18.1. Introduction
      • 18.2. Habitat enhancement
      • 18.3. Habitat rehabilitation
      • 18.4. Conclusion
    • Chapter 19: Nutritional and Medicinal Value
      • Summary
      • Keywords
      • 19.1. Active ingredients of sea cucumber
      • 19.2. Pharmaceutical properties of sea cucumber
      • 19.3. Conclusion
    • Chapter 20: Processing and Cuisine
      • Summary
      • Keywords
      • 20.1. Introduction
      • 20.2. History of sea cucumbers as edible food
      • 20.3. Modern processing methods
      • 20.4. Cooking sea cucumbers
    • Chapter 21: Apostichopus japonicus in the Worldwide Production and Trade of Sea Cucumbers
      • Summary
      • Keywords
      • 21.1. Introduction
      • 21.2. Sea cucumber fishery resources
      • 21.3. Market trade
      • 21.4. Sea cucumber markets in China
    • Chapter 22: Apostichopus japonicus: Fisheries, Trade, and Foodways in Japan
      • Summary
      • Keywords
      • 22.1. Introduction
      • 22.2. History of Japanese sea cucumber fisheries and foodways
      • 22.3. Export of Japanese dried sea cucumber (iriko) to China between the seventeenth and nineteenth centuries
      • 22.4. Sea cucumber fisheries in contemporary Japan
      • 22.5. Japanese A. japonicus in Hong Kong and Chinese markets
      • 22.6. Problems and prospects in sustainable A. japonicus production in Japan
    • Chapter 23: Apostichopus japonicus: “Dolgi haesam” in the Republic of Korea (South Korea)
      • Summary
      • 23.1. Tradition
      • 23.2. Population distribution, production, and management
      • 23.3. Consumption and cooking recipes
      • 23.4. Imports and exports
      • 23.5. Recent development of sea cucumber farming and some prospects
    • Chapter 24: Apostichopus japonicus: In the Democratic People’s Republic of Korea
      • Summary
      • 24.1. Introduction
      • 24.2. Fishery
      • 24.3. Aquaculture
    • Index

Product details

  • No. of pages: 478
  • Language: English
  • Copyright: © Academic Press 2015
  • Published: January 1, 2015
  • Imprint: Academic Press
  • eBook ISBN: 9780128004678
  • Hardcover ISBN: 9780127999531

About the Editors

Hongsheng Yang

Hongsheng Yang has long been engaged in research on the biology and ecology of sea cucumber, ecological immunology, facilities and techniques for culture and stock enhancement of sea cucumber and artificial reef evaluation and resource restoration techniques. He participated in drafting many national strategy planning documents including the "Eleventh Five-Year plan", "Twelfth Five-Year Plan", “Marine agriculture” special plan of the Ministry of Science and Technology and "Conservation and sustainable use of marine biological resources”, the National Ocean and Technology Development Strategy, Program for Marine Development by Reliance on Science and Technology and several other regional development strategy plans of Shandong Province and Qingdao City. He has published over 100 papers, authorized more than 20 patents and presided over formulating a national industry standard.

Affiliations and Expertise

Deputy Director, Institute of Oceanology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Qingdao, P.R. China

Jean-Francois Hamel

Affiliations and Expertise

Researcher/Consultant, Society for the Exploration and Valuing of the Environment (SEVE), Newfoundland and Labrador, Canada

Annie Mercier

Annie Mercier is leading a research program focused on fundamental and applied aspects of benthic invertebrate ecology at the Department of Ocean Sciences of Memorial University (Canada). Her specific areas of expertise include: 1) chronobiology and phenology, centered on the drivers of gamete release, larval development, settlement, growth and activity cycles; 2) evolutionary ecology, chiefly offspring size and dispersal of marine organisms with complex life histories; 3) biology/conservation of ecologically and commercially important marine species, including the study of deep-sea corals as biogenic habitats and the management and conservation of sea cucumbers. To date, she has published over 100 peer-reviewed articles, book chapters and technical papers, and she has co-edited 2 scientific books.

Prior to her faculty position at Memorial University, Annie Mercier was conducting research in the Indo-Pacific islands. As echinoderm specialists, she and her husband Jean-François Hamel worked with international organizations (FAO, IUCN, CITES) and foreign institutions on a number of issues related to the so called “sea cucumber crisis.” Their work on the fundamental biology and reproductive habits of key commercial sea cucumbers in the Solomon Islands, the Marshall Islands, Ecuador, Brazil and Mexico has facilitated the development of aquaculture programs. Collaborations have been established with researchers and laboratories in these and other countries and, to this day, they continue to work on sea cucumber ecology and management in Canada and abroad.

Aside from being passionate scientists and fierce advocates of marine resources conservation, the husband and wife team have developed a solid reputation as writers-photographers. Their abundantly illustrated articles on wildlife, diving, aquarium hobby, travel destinations and environmental issues have been published in dozens of magazines around the world. They also write popular books and are periodically involved in the production of film documentaries.

Affiliations and Expertise

Associate Professor, Ocean Sciences Centre, Memorial University, Newfoundland and Labrador, Canada