The Science, Technology and Application of Titanium

The Science, Technology and Application of Titanium

Proceedings of an International Conference Organized by the Institute of Metals, the Metallurgical Society of Aime, and the American Society for Metals in Association with the Japan Institute of Metals and the Academy of Sciences, U.S.S.R., and Held at th

1st Edition - January 1, 1970

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  • Editors: R. I. Jaffee, N. E. Promisel
  • eBook ISBN: 9781483158815

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The Science, Technology and Application of Titanium contains the proceedings of an International Conference organized by the Institute of Metals, The Metallurgical Society of AIME, and the American Society for Metals in association with the Japan Institute of Metals and the Academy of Sciences of the USSR and held at the Royal Festival Hall in London, on May 21-24, 1968. The papers explore scientific and technological developments as well as applications of titanium and cover topics ranging from processing of titanium to its chemical and environmental behavior, physics, thermodynamics, and kinetics. Deformation and fracture, phase transformations and heat treatment, and alloying are also discussed. This book is comprised of 114 chapters and begins with an overview of the titanium industry in Europe and the United States. The reader is then introduced to primary and secondary fabrication of titanium; corrosion and oxidation; physical properties of titanium alloys; interaction of titanium with elements of the periodic system; and elastic interactions between dislocations and twin and grain boundaries in titanium. The crystallography of deformation twinning in titanium is also examined, along with superplasticity and transformation plasticity in titanium. The remaining chapters focus on interstitial strengthening of titanium alloys; mechanism of martensitic transformation in titanium and its alloys; phase relationships in titanium-oxygen alloys; strengthening of titanium alloys by shock deformation; and titanium hot forming. This monograph will be of interest to chemists and metallurgists.

Table of Contents

  • Foreword


    Section I. Introductory Papers

    Opening Address

    Titanium in U.S.A.

    Titanium in Europe

    Section II. Processing of Titanium

    Part A. Primary Fabrication

    Application of Solidification Theory to Titanium Alloys

    Research on the Quality of Commercially Pure Titanium and Ti-6A1-4V Ingots

    Chemical and Structural Microinhomogeneity, Diffusion and Mechanical Properties of Titanium Alloys in Connection with Phase Transformation Characteristics

    Choice of Vacuum-Arc Melting Parameters to Ensure Ingot Chemical Homogeneity

    Properties of Wrought Shapes Formed from Electroslag-Melted Titanium

    Titanium in the U.S.S.R.

    Part B. Secondary Fabrication

    Forgings in Titanium Alloys

    The Beta Forging of Titanium Alloys

    The Effect of Beta Processing on Properties of Titanium Alloys

    Heavy Press Forging of Large Titanium Alloy Parts for Aircraft and Aerospace Applications

    The Mono Graf Casting Process

    Precision Casting of Titanium

    Discussion Part A

    Discussion Part B

    Section III. Chemical and Environmental Behavior

    Part A. General Corrosion and Oxidation

    Hydriding of Titanium Used in Chemical Plant and Protective Measures

    Anodizing of Titanium Equipment

    Reaction Rate of Titanium and Titanium Alloys with Titanium Lower Chlorides

    The Oxidation of Titanium Films

    Air Contamination and Embrittlement of Titanium Alloys

    Corrosion Resistance of Titanium and Titanium-5% Tantalum Alloy in Hot Concentrated Nitric Acid

    Utilization of Anodic Breakdown of Titanium Alloys as a Method of Characterization

    Corrosion Test for Evaluating the Corrosion Resistance of Titanium

    Titanium Electrode for the Manufacture of Electrolytic Manganese Dioxide

    Part B. Stress Corrosion

    Electrochemical Mechanism in the Stress Corrosion Cracking of Titanium Alloys

    The Stress Corrosion Cracking of α-Titanium Alloys at Room Temperature

    Some Characteristics of Aqueous Stress Corrosion in Titanium Alloys (Summary)

    Ambient Temperature Stress Corrosion Cracking in Ti-8Al-1Mo-1V

    Stress Corrosion Cracking in Titanium and Titanium Alloys

    Stress Corrosion Cracking of Titanium and Ti-Al Alloys in Methanol-Iodine Solutions

    Effects of Halogen Containing Hydrocarbons Upon Stressed Ti-6Al-4V Alloy

    Cracking of Titanium Alloys under Stress during Oxidation in Air

    Hot-Salt Stress Corrosion Cracking of Titanium Alloys

    Discussion Part A

    Discussion Part B

    Section IV. Physics, Thermodynamics and Kinetics

    Physical Properties of Titanium Alloys

    The Crystallographic Structure of Ti3Al

    Thermodynamic Properties of the Body-Centered Cubic Beta-Phase in the Titanium-Copper and the Titanium-Aluminum Systems

    Calculation of Regular Solution Phase Diagrams for Titanium Base Binary Systems

    The Single Crystal Elastic Moduli of Beta-Titanium and Titanium-Chromium Alloys

    Computer Experiments on Point Defect Configurations and Energies in Ti-M Systems

    Behavior of Hydrogen in Titanium and its Alloys by Internal Friction Measurement

    Stress-Induced Diffusion of Carbon and Oxygen in Titanium

    Interaction of Titanium with Elements of the Periodic System


    Section V. Deformation and Fracture

    Elastic Properties of Dislocations in Titanium

    Elastic Interactions Between Dislocations and Twin and Grain Boundaries in Titanium

    Strain Distribution in Oxidized Alpha Titanium Crystals

    The Crystallography of Deformation Twinning in Titanium

    Slip Modes and Dislocation Substructures in Titanium and Titanium-Aluminum Single Crystals

    Interstitial Strengthening of Titanium Alloys

    Effects of Interstitial Content and Grain Size on the Mechanical Behavior of Alpha Titanium below 0.4Tm

    A Thermal Plastic Deformation in Commercial Purity Titanium

    Effect of Cyclic Stresses on Unalloyed Polycrystalline Titanium

    Fatigue Behavior of α-Titanium and α-Titanium-Hydrogen Alloys

    Deformation-Assisted Nucleation of Titanium Hydride in an Alpha-Beta Titanium Alloy

    The Temperature Dependence of Fracture Behavior in α-Titanium-Hydrogen Alloys

    Hydrogen Embrittlement of Titanium and its Alloys

    Hydrogen Embrittlement of Titanium as a Part of the Problem of the Brittle-Ductile Transition Temperature of Metals

    Phase Transformations During Welding and the Mechanism of Delayed Cracking of Titanium Alloys

    Transformation Plasticity of Titanium

    The Hot Plasticity of Ti-6Al-4V

    Superplasticity in Titanium


    Section VI. Phase Transformations and Heat Treatment

    Part A. Phase Transformations

    Some Aspects of Phase Transformations in Titanium Alloys

    Mechanism of the Martensitic Transformation in Titanium and its Alloys

    Martensitic Transformations in Titanium Alloys

    The Effect of Cooling Rate on the Beta Transformation in Titanium-Niobium and Titanium-Aluminum Alloys

    Thermodynamics of the Ms Points in Titanium Alloys

    Continuous Cooling-Transformation of Beta-Phase in Binary Titanium Alloys

    Phase Transformation of Titanium Alloys by Means of Automatic Transformation Apparatus

    The Morphology of the Omega Phase

    The Stability of the Omega Phase in Titanium and Zirconium Alloys

    Note on the Structure of the Omega Phase

    An Electron Microscopy Study of Phase Transformations in Titanium-Copper Alloys

    Phase Relationships in Titanium-Oxygen Alloys

    Part B. Effect on Mechanical Properties

    The Martensitic Transformation in Titanium Binary Alloys and its Effect on Mechanical Properties

    Using of the Jominy Test to Compare the Quench Hardenabilities of Titanium Alloys Ti-6Al-4V and Ti-6Al-6V-2Sn

    A Study of the Age Hardening Reaction in Titanium-2½% Copper

    Thermo-Mechanical Strengthening of High Strength Titanium Alloys

    The Theoretical Bases of the Development of the High-Strength Metastable Beta-Alloys of Titanium

    Strengthening Mechanisms During the Heat Treatment of Three Titanium Alloys—Ti-6Al-4V, Ti-6Al-6V-2Sn and Ti-8Al-1V-1Mo

    Strengthening of Titanium Alloys by Shock Deformation

    Long Time Stability of Ti-679 after Creep Exposure for Times to 15,000 Hours

    Effect of Elevated Temperature Exposure on the Room Temperature Properties of Titanium Alloys 8Al-1Mo-1V, 6Al-4V and 4Al-3Mo-1V

    The Development of the Structure and Mechanical Properties of Titanium Welds

    Discussion Part A

    Discussion Part B

    Section VII. Alloying of Titanium

    Part A. Alloy Theory and Properties

    Titanium Alloying in Theory and Practice

    The Effect of the Group III Elements Al, Ga, and In on the Creep and Stress Rupture of Titanium at 500°C

    Structure and Creep Properties of Ti7NbAl3-Base Alloys

    The Influence of Microstructure on the Mechanical Properties of Forged Alpha/Beta Titanium Alloys

    Properties and Application of Ti-5Al-2Cr-1Fe Alloy (KS150B)

    Influence of Carbon and Oxygen on Some Exploratory Ultra-High Strength Alpha-Beta Titanium Alloys

    The Effect of Fabrication Variables on the Properties of Age-Hardened Titanium-2½% Copper

    The Weldability, Tensile and Fatigue Properties of Some Titanium Alloys

    The Fatigue Properties of a High Strength Titanium Alloy (IMI.680)

    Elasticity of Titanium Sheet Alloys

    Part B. Alloy Development

    The Role of Depth Hardenability in the Selection of High Strength Alloys for Aircraft Applications

    Metallurgical Characteristics and Structural Properties of Ti-8Mo-8V-2Fe-3Al Sheet, Plate and Forgings

    High Strength Titanium Alloys for Aircraft Gas Turbine Application

    A Study of the Metallurgical Characteristics of Ti-6Al-6V-2Sn Alloy

    The Development of a Superior Titanium-Base Alloy for Cryogenic Applications

    Exploitation of a Simple Alpha Titanium Alloy Base in the Development of Alloys of Diverse Mechanical Properties

    Creep-Resistant Titanium Alloys

    Discussion Parts A and B

    Section VIII. Applications

    Part A. Techniques and Processes

    Fatigue Characteristics of Titanium Alloy Forgings for Rotary Wing Vehicles

    High Voltage Electron Beam Welding of Titanium Alloys in Partial Vacuum

    Porosity in Argon Arc Welds in Titanium

    Submerged Arc Welding of Titanium

    Titanium Hot Forming

    Forming Ti-6Al-4V Sheet Metal in Four Heat Treated Conditions

    On the Explosive Bonding and Forming of Titanium

    The Production and Properties of Some Wear Resistant Coatings on Titanium-4% Molybdenum-4% Aluminum-2% Tin Alloy (Hylite 50)

    Part B. Applications Experience

    Titanium in Jet Engines

    The Application of Titanium Alloys in the Olympus 593 Engine for the Concorde SST

    Titanium Metal Fabrications in Aero Engines

    Titanium Applications for Supersonic Airplanes

    Future Possibilities for Titanium in Primary Aircraft Structures

    Marine Applications of Titanium

    Titanium Applications—U.S. Army

    Titanium in the Process Industries Today

    Titanium Alloy Pressure Vessels in the Manned Space Program

    Discussion Part A

    Discussion Part B

    Name Index

    Subject Index

Product details

  • No. of pages: 1224
  • Language: English
  • Copyright: © Pergamon 1970
  • Published: January 1, 1970
  • Imprint: Pergamon
  • eBook ISBN: 9781483158815

About the Editors

R. I. Jaffee

Affiliations and Expertise

Electric Power Research Institute, Palo Alto, CA, USA

N. E. Promisel

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