The Science and Technology of Counterterrorism - 1st Edition - ISBN: 9780124200562, 9780124200616

The Science and Technology of Counterterrorism

1st Edition

Measuring Physical and Electronic Security Risk

Authors: Carl Young
eBook ISBN: 9780124200616
Paperback ISBN: 9780124200562
Imprint: Butterworth-Heinemann
Published Date: 12th March 2014
Page Count: 512
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Scientists with little or no background in security and security professionals with little or no background in science and technology often have difficulty communicating in order to implement the best counterterrorism strategies. The Science and Technology of Counterterrorism offers the necessary theoretical foundation to address real-world terrorism scenarios, effectively bridging the gap. It provides a powerful security assessment methodology, coupled with counterterrorism strategies that are applicable to all terrorism attack vectors. These include biological, chemical, radiological, electromagnetic, explosive, and electronic or cyber attacks. In addition to rigorous estimates of threat vulnerabilities and the effectiveness of risk mitigation, it provides meaningful terrorism risk metrics.

The Science and Technology of Counterterrorism teaches the reader how to think about terrorism risk, and evaluates terrorism scenarios and counterterrorism technologies with sophistication punctuated by humor. Both students and security professionals will significantly benefit from the risk assessment methodologies and guidance on appropriate counterterrorism measures contained within this book.

Key Features

  • Offers a simple but effective analytic framework to assess counterterrorism risk and realistic measures to address threats
  • Provides the essential scientific principles and tools required for this analysis
  • Explores the increasingly important relationship between physical and electronic risk in meaningful technical detail
  • Evaluates technical security systems to illustrate specific risks using concrete examples


Security and counterterrorism practitioners; engineers and scientists in terrorism-related fields; students of security or security technologies

Table of Contents



About the Author


Part I: Modeling Terrorism Risk

Chapter 1: Terrorism Threats, Risk, and Risk Assessments

1.1 Introduction: Decisions and Risk

1.2 Threats and the Components of Risk

1.3 Risk Assessments

1.4 Security Risk Trade-Offs

1.5 Security Risk in Context

1.6 Risk Factors

1.7 Counterterrorism Controls

1.8 Counterterrorism Methods

1.9 Operational Requirements

1.10 Performance Specifications

1.11 Security Risk Assessment Frameworks, Security Standards, and Security Risk Metrics



Chapter 2: Organizing and Assessing Terrorism Risk

2.1 A Taxonomy of Terrorism Threats

2.2 Counterterrorism Standards and Risk Metrics

2.3 The Cost of Risk Mitigation

2.4 Medical Analogies

2.5 Simple Risk Assessments

2.6 Security Theatre



Chapter 3: Uncertainty and Terrorism

3.1 Introduction

3.2 Uncertainty, Entropy, and Randomness

3.3 The Normal Distribution

3.4 Uncertainty Applied to Terrorism



Chapter 4: Physical Models of Terrorism

4.1 Introduction

4.2 Point Sources of Radiation

4.3 Exponential Growth and Decay

4.4 Harmonic Motion and the Single Degree of Freedom Model

4.5 Gaussian Plumes



Supplementary Problems

Chapter 5: Exploiting Terrorism Uncertainty

5.1 Introduction: Addressing Terrorism Risk Factors

5.2 Risk Factor-Related Incidents; Indirect Measurements of Security Risk

5.3 The "Probability of Protection" Method

5.4 The Probability of Protection Method Summary

5.5 Physical Access Control System Risk Statistics



Part II: Measuring Terrorism Risk

Chapter 6: Conventional Explosive Threats and Risk Mitigation

6.1 Introduction

6.2 Applying the Single Degree of Freedom Model

6.3 Explosive Overpressure and Impulse Parametric Scaling

6.4 Blast Effects: A Qualitative Description

6.5 The Effects of Distance and Payload

6.6 Vehicle-Borne Explosives

6.7 Vehicle-Borne Explosive Risk: A Simple Calculation

6.8 Barriers and Bollards

6.9 Assessing Bollard Effectiveness

6.10 Antiblast Film

6.11 Explosive Detection

6.12 X-Ray Inspection Technology

6.13 The Dangling Crane: Terror Without Terrorists



Chapter 7: Nontraditional Terrorist Threats and Risk Mitigation

7.1 Introduction

7.2 Radiological Dispersion Devices (RDDs)

7.3 Biological Threats and Risk

7.4 Chemical Threats and Risk

7.5 Electromagnetic Pulse Threats and Risk



Chapter 8: Electronic Terrorism Threats, Risk, and Risk Mitigation

8.1 Introduction to Electronic Security

8.2 Denial-of-Service (DoS) Attacks and Security Controls

8.3 Advanced Persistent Threats (APT)/Malware, Client-Side Exploits, and Security Controls



Chapter 9: The Convergence of Electronic and Physical Security Risk

9.1 Introduction: Cultural and Organizational Drivers of Security

9.2 Electronic and Physical Security Vulnerabilities of a Physical Access Control System

9.3 Physical Security of Data Centers

9.4 An Indicative Data Center Physical Security Standard

9.5 Virtualized Environments and the Concentration of Information Security Risk

9.6 The Integration of Physical and Electronic Security within Active Directory

9.7 Physical Security Risk and Electronic Vulnerabilities



Part III: Counterterrorism Controls

Chapter 10: Authentication, Authorization, and Affiliation

10.1 Introduction

10.2 Organizational Affiliation

10.3 Background Investigations

10.4 Insider Threats and Risk Mitigation

10.5 A Mantra for Affiliation

10.6 Confirming Authorization for Access to Restricted Space

10.7 Physical Access Control IDs and Credentials

10.8 Contactless Smart Cards and Proximity Cards

10.9 Radiofrequency IDs (RFID)

10.10 The Security of Contactless Smart Cards Versus Magnetic Stripe Technologies

10.11 Multifactor Authentication of Identity

10.12 Biometric Authentication of Identity



Chapter 11: Closed Circuit Television

11.1 Introduction

11.2 Analog and IP CCTV Cameras

11.3 CCTV Cameras and Optics

11.4 Lighting

11.5 Focal Length and f-Number

11.6 Angle-of-View and Field-of-View

11.7 Depth-of-Field

11.8 Sensitivity

11.9 Signal-to-Noise (S/N) Ratio

11.10 CCTV Image Creation

11.11 CCTV Image Recording

11.12 CCTV Signal Bandwidth and Storage Requirements

11.13 CCTV Image Resolution

11.14 Resolution Requirements for Submegapixel CCTV Systems

11.15 Resolution Requirements for Megapixel CCTV Systems

11.16 CCTV Video Compression

11.17 CCTV and Security Systems Integration

11.18 CCTV Cabling

11.19 CCTV Signal Security

11.20 CCTV Operational Summary

11.21 Special CCTV System Requirements

11.22 CCTV System Performance Specifications


Chapter 12: Physical Access Restriction, Incident Detection, and Scenario Monitoring

12.1 Introduction

12.2 Electric Strikes and Magnetic Locks

12.3 Doors and Portals

12.4 The Ten Plus One Commandments of Physical Access

12.5 The Importance of Physical Access Control System Specifications

12.6 Physical Access Control System Architecture and Signaling

12.7 Physical Access Control System Specifications

12.8 Security Incident Monitoring and Detection




Appendix A: Linearity, Nonlinearity, and Parametric Scaling

Appendix B: Exponents, Logarithms, and Sensitivity to Change

Appendix C: The Exponential Functions ex and e− x

Appendix D: The Decibel (dB)

Appendix E: Parameters for Anti-Explosive and Bullet-Resistant Window Treatments

Appendix F: Half-Life

Appendix G: Near Fields from Radiated Radio-Frequency Identification (RFID) Power Data

Deduction of M from the Radiated Power

Magnetic Field Magnitude in the Near Field



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About the Author

Carl Young

Carl S. Young is a recognized subject matter expert in information and physical security risk management. He is currently a Managing Director and the Chief Security Officer at Stroz Friedberg, an international security risk consulting firm. He is the former Global Head of Physical Security Technology at Goldman Sachs as well as a former Senior Executive and Supervisory Special Agent at the FBI. He was also a consultant to the JASON Defense Advisory Group. Mr. Young is the author of Metrics and Methods for Security Risk Management (Syngress, 2010), and The Science and Technology of Counterterrorism (Butterworth-Heinemann, 2014) as well as numerous journal publications. In 1997 he was awarded the President’s Foreign Intelligence Advisory Board (PFIAB) James R. Killian Award by the White House for significant individual contributions to U.S. national security. Mr. Young received undergraduate and graduate degrees in mathematics and physics from the Massachusetts Institute of Technology.

Affiliations and Expertise

Managing Director and Chief Security Officer, Stroz Friedberg and Adjunct Professor, John Jay College, City University of New York, NY, USA


"After completing the entire book and applying its lessons, the security professional may have the means to better justify security-related expenditures by using math and science to explain the effectiveness of the proposed technology."--ASIS Dynamics Newsletter, February 2015