The Rat Nervous System - 4th Edition - ISBN: 9780123742452, 9780080921372

The Rat Nervous System

4th Edition

Editors: George Paxinos
Hardcover ISBN: 9780123742452
eBook ISBN: 9780080921372
Imprint: Academic Press
Published Date: 3rd September 2014
Page Count: 1052
Tax/VAT will be calculated at check-out
Compatible Not compatible
VitalSource PC, Mac, iPhone & iPad Amazon Kindle eReader
ePub & PDF Apple & PC desktop. Mobile devices (Apple & Android) Amazon Kindle eReader
Mobi Amazon Kindle eReader Anything else

Institutional Access


The previous editions of The Rat Nervous System were indispensable guides for those working on the rat and mouse as experimental models. The fourth edition enhances this tradition, providing the latest information in the very active field of research on the brain, spinal cord, and peripheral nervous system. The structure, connections, and function are explained in exquisite detail, making this an essential book for any graduate student or scientist working on the rat or mouse nervous system.

Key Features

  • Completely revised and updated content throughout, with entirely new chapters added
  • Beautifully illustrated so that even difficult concepts are rendered comprehensible
  • Provides a fundamental analysis of the anatomy of all areas of the central and peripheral nervous systems, as well as an introduction to their functions
  • Appeals to researchers working on other species, including humans


Researchers working with the rat as a model system for brain anatomy, physiology, pharmacology, behavior, and genetics

Table of Contents

  • Dedication
  • Preface
  • Acknowledgements
  • Section I. Development
    • Chapter 1. Gene Maps and Related Histogenetic Domains in the Forebrain and Midbrain
      • Molecular Versus Anatomical Distinction of Brain Subdivisions: The Specification State
      • Sharing of Molecularly Distinct Brain Domains Among Vertebrates
      • Differential Aspects of Histogenesis
      • The Bauplan of the Brain
      • The Neural Plate Subdivisions
      • The Closed Neural Tube
      • Basal Plate Regions
      • Alar Plate Regions
    • Chapter 2. Neuromeric Landmarks in the Rat Midbrain, Diencephalon and Hypothalamus, Compared with Acetylcholinesterase Histochemistry
      • Emergence of Ache-Positive (Ache+) Cells Between E11 And E14.5
      • Correlation with Autoradiographic Data
      • Differences Between the Rat and Chicken Patterns
    • Chapter 3. Tangential Migration in the Telencephalon
      • Tangential Migration of Cortical Interneurons
      • The Rostral Migratory Stream
      • Subpallial Tangential Migrations
      • Tangential Migration of Pallial Neurons
      • Tangential Migration of Glial Cells
      • Tangential Migration and the Assembly of Telencephalic Structures
  • Section II. Peripheral Nervous System
    • Chapter 4. Peripheral Autonomic Nervous System
      • Divisions of the Autonomic Nervous System
      • Arrangements of Autonomic Ganglia and Nerves
      • Visceral Afferent (Sensory) Neurons and Afferent Inputs to Autonomic Reflexes
      • Chemical Coding of Neurons and its Relevance to Understanding Autonomic Nervous System Organization
    • Chapter 5. Primary Afferent Projections to the Spinal Cord
      • Dorsolateral Fasciculus (Lissauer’s Tract)
      • Terminations of Primary Afferent Projections in the Spinal Cord
      • Somatotopic Arrangement of Primary Afferent Projections
      • Projections of Primary Afferents to Rexed’s Laminae and Spinal Cord Nuclei
    • Chapter 6. Spinal Cord Cyto- and Chemoarchitecture
      • The Laminae of Rexed
      • Nuclei of the Spinal Cord
    • Chapter 7. Substantia Gelatinosa of the Spinal Cord
      • Introduction
      • Definition
      • Termination of Primary Afferents in the Superficial Dorsal Horn
      • Characteristics of Neurons of the Superficial Laminae of the Spinal Cord
      • Ultrastructure of the Spinal Dorsal Horn
      • Neurochemistry of the Dorsal Horn
      • Synaptic Circuits
    • Chapter 8. Ascending and Descending Pathways in the Spinal Cord
      • Ascending Spinal Pathways
      • Descending Pathways
  • Section III. Brainstem and Cerebellum
    • Chapter 9. Cerebellum and Cerebellar Connections
      • Introduction
      • Morphology of the Cerebellum
      • The Cerebellar Cortex
      • The Cerebellar Nuclei
      • Organization of the Corticonuclear Projection
      • Organization of the Olivocerebellar Projection
      • Organization of Mossy Fiber Projections
      • Molecular and Genetic Organization of the Cerebellar Cortex
      • Organization Of Cerebellar Output
      • Cerebellar Functional Units
    • Chapter 10. Periaqueductal Gray
      • Introduction: Early Cytoarchitectural Studies
      • PAG Columnar Organization
      • The PAG and Parallel Circuits for Emotional Coping
      • The Rostral PAG
      • Conclusions
    • Chapter 11. Oromotor Nuclei
      • Introduction
      • Motor Trigeminal Nucleus
      • Facial Nucleus
      • Hypoglossal Nucleus
      • Summary and Conclusions
    • Chapter 12. The Lower Urinary Tract
      • Introduction
      • The Anatomy and Innervation of the Lower Urinary Tract
      • Conclusions
  • Section IV. Diencephalon, Basal Ganglia, Amygdala, and Septum
    • Chapter 13. Organization of the Hypothalamus
      • Introduction
      • Morphological Organization of the Hypothalamus
      • Functional Neural Systems
    • Chapter 14. Hypothalamic Supraoptic and Paraventricular Nuclei
      • Magnocellular Neurosecretory System
      • Parvocellular Neurosecretory System
      • Pituitary Gland
      • Supraoptic Nucleus
      • Paraventricular Nucleus
      • Accessory Magnocellular Neurosecretory Neurons
    • Chapter 15. Circumventricular Organs
      • Introduction and General Features
      • Subfornical Organ (SFO)
      • Vascular Organ of the Lamina Terminalis (OVLT)
      • Area Postrema
      • Median Eminence and Neurohypophysis
      • Subcommissural Organ (SCO)
      • Pineal Gland
      • Choroid Plexus
    • Chapter 16. Thalamus
      • Some General Aspects of Thalamic Organization
      • Functional Subdivisions of the Thalamus
      • Categorization of Thalamic Afferents as “Drivers” or “Modulators”
      • Reciprocity of Thalamo-Corticothalamic Relationships
      • Lateral Geniculate Nucleus
      • Ventral Posterior Complex
      • Posterior Nucleus
      • Ventral Posterior Parvicellular Region
      • Medial Geniculate Nucleus
      • Ventral Anterior and Ventral Lateral Nuclei
      • Ventral Medial Nucleus
      • Mediodorsal Nucleus
      • Submedial Nucleus
      • Anterior Nuclei
      • Lateral Nuclei
      • Intralaminar Nuclei
      • Midline Nuclei
      • Reticular Nucleus
    • Chapter 17. The Basal Ganglia
      • Introduction
      • Cortical Input to the Striatum
      • Striatum
      • Indirect Pathway
      • Direct/Indirect Striatal Output Systems
      • Striatal Patch/Matrix Compartments
      • Nigrostriatal Dopamine System
      • Basal Ganglia Outputs
      • Dual Output Systems of Striatal Output Pathways
      • Summary
    • Chapter 18. Amygdala: Structure and Function
      • Introduction
      • Development and Territories in the Rat Amygdala
      • Cytoarchitectonics and Chemoarchitectonics of the Amygdala
      • Functional Connectivity of the Amygdala
      • Behavioral Neurobiology of the Amygdala
      • Is the Amygdala a Functional System?
      • Abbreviation List
    • Chapter 19. Organization of the Basal Forebrain Cholinergic Projection System: Specific or Diffuse?
      • Introduction
      • Afferents in the BASAL Forebrain Show Regionally Restricted Localization
      • Cholinergic Cell Groups Show Regionally Selective Dendritic Orientation
      • Gross Organization of Cholinergic BF Cells
      • Cholinergic Cell Clusters and Overlapping Pools of Projection Neurons
      • Concluding Remarks
  • Section V. Cortex
    • Chapter 20. Hippocampal Formation
      • Anatomy of the Hippocampal Formation (HF)
      • Anatomy of the Parahippocampal Region (PHR)
      • Connectivity of the Hippocampal Formation and Parahippocampal Region
      • The Organization of Hippocampal Circuitry and the Flow of Information Processing
      • Internet Resources
    • Chapter 21. Cingulate Cortex and Pain Architecture
      • Introduction
      • Area, Layer and Regional Organization
      • Cingulate Connections
      • A Theory of Rodent MCC Function
      • Retrosplenial Cortex
      • Cingulate Pain Architecture
      • Comparative Organization of Rat and Human Cingulate Cortices
    • Chapter 22. Isocortex
      • Frontal Cortex
      • Parietal Cortex
      • Temporal Cortex
      • Occipital Cortex
      • Receptor Architecture and Hierarchical Organization of Rat Isocortical Areas
      • Abbreviation List
  • Section VI. Systems
    • Chapter 23. Central Autonomic System
      • Medullospinal Level: Reflex Control
      • Mesopontine Level: Modulation and Integration of Reflex Control and Arousal
      • Forebrain Level: Behavioral and Metabolic Integration of Autonomic Control and Arousal
      • Summary and Conclusion
    • Chapter 24. Somatosensory System
      • Introduction
      • Receptors and Peripheral Nerve Afferents
      • Relay Nuclei of the Brainstem and Upper Spinal Cord
      • The Thalamic Stage of Somatic Sensory Processing in Rats
      • Cortical Areas Involved in Processing Somatosensory Information
      • Importance of Descending Sensory Cortical Projections
    • Chapter 25. Pain System
      • Nociceptors
      • Dorsal Horn Interneurons
      • Ascending Nociceptive Pathways
      • Thalamus and Cortex
      • Descending Control Systems
      • Plastic Changes in Pathological Conditions
    • Chapter 26. Gustatory System
      • Introduction
      • Peripheral Anatomy
      • Central Organization
      • Cytoarchitecture
      • Neurochemistry
      • Functional Considerations
      • Conclusion
    • Chapter 27. The Olfactory System
      • Introduction
      • The Olfactory Epithelium
      • Main Olfactory Bulb
      • Neuromodulatory Inputs to Mob
      • Primary Olfactory Cortex
      • The Accessory Olfactory System
      • Non-Canonical Olfactory Systems
      • Olfaction and Behavior
    • Chapter 28. The Vestibular System
      • The Vestibular Receptors
      • Primary Vestibular Afferents
      • Anatomy of the Vestibular Nuclei
      • Vestibular Processing in Alert Animals
      • Vestibular Pharmacology
      • Membrane and Firing Properties of Central Vestibular Neurons
      • Vestibulo-Autonomic Interactions
      • Vestibular Plasticity
      • The Vestibular System and Spatial Navigation
    • Chapter 29. Auditory System
      • The Organ of Corti
      • The Cochlear Nuclear Complex
      • The Superior Olivary Complex
      • The Nuclei of the Lateral Lemniscus
      • The Inferior Colliculus
      • The Medial Geniculate Body
      • The Auditory Cortex
      • The Descending Auditory Pathway
    • Chapter 30. Visual System
      • Introduction
      • Distribution of Retinal Ganglion Cells
      • Retinal Output
      • Optic Nerve, Chiasm, and Tract
      • Retino-Recipient Nuclei
      • Associated Visual Nuclei
      • Visual Cortex
    • Chapter 31. Cerebral Vascular System
      • Introduction
      • Methodology
      • Cerebral Blood Vessels
      • Spinal Cord Blood Vessels
      • Vascular Innervation
      • Functional Localization with Blood Flow
  • Index


No. of pages:
© Academic Press 2015
Academic Press
Hardcover ISBN:
eBook ISBN:

About the Editor

George Paxinos

Professor George Paxinos, AO (BA, MA, PhD, DSc) completed his BA at The University of California at Berkeley, his PhD at McGill University, and spent a postdoctoral year at Yale University. He is the author of almost 50 books on the structure of the brain of humans and experimental animals, including The Rat Brain in Stereotaxic Coordinates, now in its 7th Edition, which is ranked by Thomson ISI as one of the 50 most cited items in the Web of Science. Dr. Paxinos paved the way for future neuroscience research by being the first to produce a three-dimensional (stereotaxic) framework for placement of electrodes and injections in the brain of experimental animals, which is now used as an international standard. He was a member of the first International Consortium for Brain Mapping, a UCLA based consortium that received the top ranking and was funded by the NIMH led Human Brain Project. Dr. Paxinos has been honored with more than nine distinguished awards throughout his years of research, including: The Warner Brown Memorial Prize (University of California at Berkeley, 1968), The Walter Burfitt Prize (1992), The Award for Excellence in Publishing in Medical Science (Assoc Amer Publishers, 1999), The Ramaciotti Medal for Excellence in Biomedical Research (2001), The Alexander von Humbolt Foundation Prize (Germany 2004), and more.

Affiliations and Expertise

Neuroscience Research Australia and The University of New South Wales, Sydney, Australia