The Psychology of Learning

The Psychology of Learning

An Introduction for Students of Education

1st Edition - January 1, 1974

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  • Author: Gordon R. Cross
  • eBook ISBN: 9781483181653

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Description

The Psychology of Learning: An Introduction for Students of Education provides a comprehensive coverage of educational psychology. The title tackles various psychological variables that play a critical role in education. The text first deals with learning theories, such as classical conditioning, operant conditioning, and the Gestalt theory. Next, selection deals with the concept of memory, which includes perception, short- and long-term memory, and forgetting. The text also talks about motivation, along with skills and language. Chapter 7 covers thinking and problem-solving, while Chapter 8 tackles intelligence and ability. The coverage of the title also includes personality and morality. The book will be of great use to student teachers, instructors, and behavioral scientists.

Table of Contents


  • Introduction

    Chapter 1. Learning I

    Concept of Learning

    Imprinting

    Thorndike's Structure of S-R Bonds

    Pavlov's Classical Conditioning

    Skinner's Operant Conditioning

    Hull's Need Reduction

    Chapter 2. Learning II

    Tolman's Sign Learning

    The "Gestalt" School

    Servo-mechanisms and Theoretical Models

    Deutsch; Miller's TOTE Plan; Lunzer

    Additional reading

    Chapter 3. Memory

    Perception

    Broadbent's Model of Selective Attention

    Short-term Memory

    Long-term Memory

    Forgetting

    RNA and Memory

    Additional Reading

    Chapter 4. Motivation

    Concept of Motivation

    Objectives and Goals

    Bloom's Taxonomy

    Self-concepts and Ego-involvement

    Social-group Influences

    Arousal and Vigilance

    Additional Reading

    Chapter 5. Skills

    Nature of Skill

    Welford's Model of Sensori-motor Performance

    The Acquisition of Skill

    Teaching Skills

    Fatigue

    Transfer of Training

    Additional Reading

    Chapter 6. Language

    Communication in Man and Animals

    Acquisition of Language

    Behaviorist Theories

    Pavlov; Skinner

    Early Language Ddevelopment

    Babbling and Imitation; Open and Pivot Words; Expansion and Elaboration

    Social Aspects

    Bernstein; Luria and Yudovitch

    Chomsky's Rule Generation Theory

    Some Psycholinguistic Experiments

    Social Class Differences in Rule Mastery; Difficulty in Making Sentence Transformations; Yngve's Depth Hypothesis; Language and Memory Storage; Phrase Structure and Perception; Function Words and Inflections

    Semantics

    Word Association; Semantic Differential

    Language Learning

    Additional Reading

    Chapter 7. Thinking and Problem-solving

    Concepts

    Piaget's Theory

    (a) Sensori-motor

    (b) Preconceptual Thought

    (c) Intuitive Thought

    (d) Concrete Operations

    (e) Formal Operations

    Educational Implications of Piaget's Work

    Learning Concepts, Rules and Principles

    Harlow's Learning Set; Language and Thought; Gagnés Model

    Problem-solving

    Bruner on Scanning and Focusing; Algorithmic and Heuristic Approaches

    Principles of Problem-solving

    Additional Reading

    Chapter 8. Intelligence and Ability

    Concept of Intelligence

    Fallacies about Intelligence

    Innate and Fixed; Development Peaks; National Intelligence is Declining; Distribution of intelligence; Compensatory factors

    Types of Intelligence Test

    The Structure of Abilities and Factor Analysis

    Creativity and its Assessment

    Additional Reading

    Chapter 9. Personality

    Concept of Personality

    Personality Assessment

    Theories of Personality Development

    Eysenck; Cattell, Psychoanalytic

    Physique and Temperament

    Assessment in Schools

    Anxiety and Achievement

    Alleviating Stress

    Personality and Achievement

    Additional Reading

    Chapter 10. Educational Technology

    Introduction

    Programmed Learning

    Pressey's Teaching Machine; Skinner's Linear Program; Crowder's Branching Technique; Effectiveness of Programmed Learning; Computer-assisted Methods

    Audio-visual Aids

    Games and Simulation

    Algorithms

    Effectiveness of Audio-visual Techniques

    Additional Reading

    Chapter 11. Moral Behavior

    Concept of Morality

    Piaget's Theory

    Kohlberg's Theory

    Moral Development and Learning Theory

    Discipline and Order

    Rules

    Punishment

    Discipline: The School and the Community

    Additional Reading

    Notes on Some Statistical and Technical Terms Used in Psychometrics

    Standard Deviation

    Correlation Coefficient

    Reliability of a Test

    Validity

    Objectivity in Marking

    Standardization for Age

    Titles and Publishers of Tests Mentioned in the Text

    References to Authors Cited in the Text

    Author Index

    Subject Index


Product details

  • No. of pages: 302
  • Language: English
  • Copyright: © Pergamon 2013
  • Published: January 1, 1974
  • Imprint: Pergamon
  • eBook ISBN: 9781483181653

About the Author

Gordon R. Cross

About the Editor

Edmund King

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