Preface. Part I: Isoelectric Focusing: Fundamentals. Perspectives and Limits. Optimization of the Separation Process. Part I.I: Isoelectric Focusing: Fundamentals. Introduction. Isoelectric Focusing: Principles and Historical Aspects. References. Electrolyte Dissociation in Water Solution.
Stepwise and parallel dissociation schemes for a bivalent protolyte.
Relative concentration of different protolyte forms for stepwise and parallel schemes.
Hydrogen ions concentration and buffer capacity.
Mobility of protolyte molecule.
Non additive sum for buffer capacity in case of stepwise dissociation.
Non amphoteric compounds and buffer capacity in "isoprotic state".
Dissociation of Polyvalent Electrolytes.
Acid-base equilibria, macroscopic and microscopic constants.
Dissociation schemes of a hybrid type.
Proton transfer tautomerism.
Schemes with independent dissociation.
Titration curve modeling.
Calculation of the complete set of microconstants.
Relative concentration of microstates for a homopolymer (independent dissociation).
Kinetic Aspects of Acid-base Equilibria.
Life-time of microscopic states.
Relaxation of the ionic atmosphere.
Modeling of the electrophoretic flux, electrophoretic mobility and conductivity.
References. Natural pH Gradients. Simplest examples of natural pH-gradients.
pH-gradients created with a multi-component mixture of amphoteric compounds.
Immobilized pH Gradients.
Classical immobilized pH-gradients created with linear density gradient.