The Pancreatic Beta Cell - 1st Edition - ISBN: 9780128001745, 9780128004401

The Pancreatic Beta Cell, Volume 95

1st Edition

Serial Editors: Gerald Litwack
eBook ISBN: 9780128004401
Hardcover ISBN: 9780128001745
Imprint: Academic Press
Published Date: 28th February 2014
Page Count: 520
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Table of Contents

Former Editors
Chapter One: Metabolic Regulation of Insulin Secretion

1 Introduction

2 Glucose Metabolism and Insulin Secretion

3 Fatty Acid Metabolism and Insulin Secretion

4 Amino Acid Metabolism and Insulin Secretion

5 Association of Nutrient Metabolism with Pancreatic β-Cell Dysfunction

6 Conclusions

Chapter Two: Proinsulin Entry and Transit Through the Endoplasmic Reticulum in Pancreatic Beta Cells

1 Overview of Insulin Biosynthesis in Pancreatic Beta Cells

2 Proinsulin Entry into the ER

3 Proinsulin Transit Through the ER

4 Conclusion and Perspective


Chapter Three: Metabolism–Secretion Coupling and Mitochondrial Calcium Activities in Clonal Pancreatic β-Cells

1 Introduction

2 The Importance of Mitochondria to β-Cell Function

3 Oxidative Metabolism of β-Cells

4 Mitochondrial Ca2 + and Energy Metabolism

5 Ca2 + Handling in β-Cells


Chapter Four: Metabolic Syndrome and Ionic Channels in Pancreatic Beta Cells

1 Introduction

2 A Rapid Fly on Metabolic Syndrome

3 Physiology of Pancreatic Islets in Glucose Homeostasis

4 Physiology and Pathophysiology of Ionic Channels

5 Concluding Remarks

Chapter Five: The Beta Cell Immunopeptidome

1 Introduction

2 Autoantigens in T1D

3 Antigen Processing

4 Identifying T Cell Epitopes in T1D

5 Peptide-Based Intervention and the Role of Small Molecules

6 Advances in Mass Spectrometry for the Identification of PTMs

7 Conclusions

Chapter Six: Autophagy and Pancreatic β-Cells

1 Introduction

2 Autophagy

3 Autophagy and Pancreatic β-Cell Homeostasis

4 Adaptive Autophagy in Pancreatic β-Cell

5 Autophagy and Diabetes

6 Modulation of Autophagy as Therapeutic Strategy

7 Conclusions and Future Directions


Chapter Seven: The Somatostatin Receptor in Human Pancreatic β-Cells

1 Introduction

2 SST in Pancreatic Islets

3 Regulation of SST Secretion from Pancreatic δ-Cells

4 Effects of Exogenous SST on Hormone Secretion from Pancreatic Islets

5 Cellular Mechanisms Underlying SST Inhibition of Pancreatic Hormone Secretion

6 SSTRs in Pancreatic Islet Cells

7 Physiological Role of SST Signaling in Pancreatic Islets

8 SST and δ-Cells in Diabetes Mellitus

9 Clinical Uses of SSTR Agonists and Pancreatic Islets

10 Conclusions and Future Directions


Chapter Eight: Modulation of the Pancreatic Islet-Stress Axis as a Novel Potential Therapeutic Target in Diabetes Mellitus

1 Introduction

2 Factors and Conditions Predisposing to the Development of Diabetes Mellitus

3 Current Options and Concepts for the Prevention and Treatment of Diabetes Mellitus

4 Implication of the Pancreatic Islet-Stress Axis in Diabetes Mellitus: A Potential Target for Prevention and Therapy

5 Conclusions and Future Directions


Chapter Nine: Regenerative Medicine for Diabetes: Differentiation of Human Pluripotent Stem Cells into Functional β-Cells In Vitro and Their Proposed Journey to Clinical Translation

1 Introduction

2 Diabetes and Its History

3 Differentiation Protocols for Human Pluripotent Stem Cells to β-Cells

4 hESC/hPSC-Derived Beta Islets-Based Cell Therapy for Diabetes

5 Conclusion

Chapter Ten: The Calcium-Sensing Receptor and β-Cell Function

1 Introduction

2 The Calcium-Sensing Receptor (CaSR)

3 Effects of CaSR on β-Cell Adhesion, Coupling, and Communication

4 Effects of the CaSR on Insulin Secretion

5 Effects of the CaSR on β-Cell Proliferation

6 The CaSR and Diabetes Mellitus

7 Conclusion


Chapter Eleven: Cellular Inhibitor of Apoptosis Protein-1 and Survival of Beta Cells Undergoing Endoplasmic Reticulum Stress

1 Introduction

2 ER Stress in the Balance Between Cell Death and Survival

3 ER Stress and Lipotoxicity in Beta Cell Failure

4 Role of cIAP1 in Beta Cell Survival Under ER Stress


Chapter Twelve: β-Cell Responses to Nitric Oxide

1 Introduction

2 Cytokine-Induced Damage

3 Mechanisms of Nitric Oxide-Induced β-Cell Death: Apoptosis or Necrosis?

4 Recovery from Nitric Oxide-Induced Damage

5 Conclusions

Chapter Thirteen: Activated Protein C and Its Potential Applications in Prevention of Islet β-Cell Damage and Diabetes

1 Introduction

2 Protein C and Activated Protein C

3 Pancreas and Pancreatic Islet β-Cell Function

4 APC and β-Cell Preservation in Diabetes

5 Conclusions

Chapter Fourteen: Zinc and Its Transporters, Pancreatic β-Cells, and Insulin Metabolism

1 Introduction

2 Zinc and Its Transporters in Insulin Synthesis and Secretion in Pancreatic β-Cells

3 Zinc Transporters and their Physiological Roles and Contributions to Insulin Metabolism and Glucose Homeostasis: Studies in Mouse Knockout Models of Zinc Transporters

4 Zinc and Its Transporters in the Development of Diabetes in Humans

5 Conclusions and Future Directions


Chapter Fifteen: The NOTCH Pathway in β-Cell Growth and Differentiation

1 Introduction

2 Role of the NOTCH Pathway in Pancreas Development

3 Evidence for Reactivation of the NOTCH Pathway in Adult Pancreatic Cells

4 Effect of the NOTCH Pathway on Proliferation, Dedifferentiation, and Redifferentiation of Cultured Human β-Cell-Derived Cells


Chapter Sixteen: Roles of HNF1α and HNF4α in Pancreatic β-Cells: Lessons from a Monogenic Form of Diabetes (MODY)

1 Introduction

2 Clinical Features of HNF1α Diabetes (MODY3)

3 Functional Regulation of β-Cells by HNF1α

4 HNF1α Regulates β-Cell Growth

5 HNF4α Gene and Diabetes

6 Functional Role of HNF4α in β-Cells

7 Anks4b Is a Novel Target of HNF4α in β-Cells

8 Concluding Remarks


Chapter Seventeen: Role of the Mammalian Target of Rapamycin (mTOR) Complexes in Pancreatic β-Cell Mass Regulation

1 Introduction

2 Pancreatic β-Cell Mass

3 Structure of mTORC1/mTORC2 Complexes

4 Insulin and mTORC2 Signaling in Pancreatic β-Cells

5 Integration of Insulin, Energy, and Stress Signals by mTORC1

6 Conclusions and Future Directions



First published in 1943, Vitamins and Hormones is the longest-running serial published by Academic Press.

The Series provides up-to-date information on vitamin and hormone research spanning data from molecular biology to the clinic. A volume can focus on a single molecule or on a disease that is related to vitamins or hormones.  A hormone is interpreted broadly so that related substances, such as transmitters, cytokines, growth factors and others can be reviewed.

This volume focuses on the pancreatic beta cell.

Key Features

  • Expertise of the contributors
  • Coverage of a vast array of subjects
  • In depth current information at the molecular to the clinical levels
  • Three-dimensional structures in color
  • Elaborate signaling pathways


Researchers, faculty, and graduate students interested in cutting-edge review concerning the molecular and cellular biology of vitamins, hormones, and related factors and co-factors. Libraries and laboratories at institutes with strong programs in cell biology, biochemistry, molecular biology, gene regulation, hormone control, and signal transduction are likely to be interested.


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About the Serial Editors

Gerald Litwack Serial Editor

Following a liberal arts education with a major in chemistry and biology at Hobart College, Gerald (Gerry) Litwack earned M.S. and PhD degrees in biochemistry from the University of Wisconsin, Madison where he served as a Lecturer in Enzymology before starting a postdoctoral fellowship from the National Foundation for Infantile Paralysis at the Biochemical Institute of the Sorbonne in Paris. His first academic position was assistant professor of biochemistry at Rutgers University where he started his work on hormone action for six years. During this period, he did a sabbatical at the University of California, Berkeley, where he concentrated on rapid enzyme kinetics. In 1960 he accepted an offer of an associate professorship at the University of Pennsylvania Graduate School of Medicine. In 1964, he was invited to be full professor of biochemistry at The Fels Institute for Cancer Research and Molecular Biology at Temple Medical School, simultaneously with a Career Development Award from the NIH, where he later was named Deputy Director of the Institute and the Laura H. Carnell Professor in biochemistry. Subsequently, he was given the Faculty Research Award. He co-discovered ligandin, later found to be in the family of glutathione S-transferases, enzymes that protect the body from carcinogens. In 1991, he moved to the Jefferson Medical College at Thomas Jefferson University as Professor of Biochemistry, Chair of the Department of Pharmacology and Deputy Director of the Kimmel Cancer Research Institute. Later, he became chair of the combined Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Pharmacology and concurrently held the position of Vice Dean for Research. In 2003, he moved to Los Angeles and from 2004-2006 was a Visiting Scholar at the University of California, Los Angeles, in the Department of Biological Chemistry of the Geffen School of Medicine and, in this period, wrote “Human Biochemistry and Disease” a volume of 1254 pages. In 2007, he moved to Scranton, Pennsylvania, as Founding Chair of Basic Sciences and Acting Associate Dean for Research to start a new medical school, The Commonwealth Medical College. Having completing his mission in 2010, he moved to The Institute for Regenerative Medicine, Texas A & M Health Science Center, as Professor of Biochemistry and Associate Director. Currently, he is retired and lives in North Hollywood, California, where he continues as an author and as Series Editor of Vitamins and Hormones. He is involved in writing another textbook and has written a first novel, “One-Eighty”.

Affiliations and Expertise

Toluca Lake, North Hollywood, California, USA