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The Nature of Metals - 1st Edition - ISBN: 9781483213675, 9781483227108

The Nature of Metals

1st Edition

Author: Bruce A. Rogers
eBook ISBN: 9781483227108
Imprint: Pergamon
Published Date: 1st January 1964
Page Count: 334
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The Nature of Metals focuses on the characteristics, properties, composition, and reactions of metals.

The publication first takes a look at the composition of metals, arrangement of atoms in metals, and alloys. Discussions focus on solubility of metals in each other, constitutional diagrams, naming of planes, patterns of complex structures, sizes of atoms, space lattices, removal of metal by etching reagents, and how etching reveals structure. The text then examines solidification, movement of atoms in solid metals, some effects of atomic movements, and hardening of steel. Topics include effect of rate of cooling, hardenability, tempering, mechanism of age hardening, effect of temperature on the hardening behavior, effect of rate of cooling on the precipitation of tin, mechanism of diffusion, and relative rates of diffusion. The manuscript explores metals in nuclear reactors, recrystallization, and special arrangements of atoms, including peculiar behavior in copper-gold alloys, formation of subgrains, and screw dislocations.

The book is a valuable source of information for researches interested in the nature of metals.

Table of Contents


1 The Metals

Which Chemical Elements Are Metals?

The Periodic Table

A Bit of History

Some Interesting Relationships

The Rare Earths

The Lanthanide Series

The Actinide Series

2 Looking Inside the Metals

The Microscope

How Etching Reveals Structure

The Removal of Metal by Etching Reagents

Grain Boundaries Under the Microscope

A Coin of Tiberius Caesar

The Electron Microscope

3 How Atoms Are Arrmged in Metals

Metallic Crystals Formed by Freezing

What X-rays Yield

How the Powder Pattern Is Obtained

A Simple Way of Describing an Arrangement of Atoms

Two Additional Simple Arrangements

Patterns of Complex Structures

The Sizes of Atoms

Space Lattices

Planes That Reflect X-rays

The Naming of Planes

Some General Comments

4 Alloys

Solubility of Metals in Each Other

How Atoms Are Arranged in Solid Solutions

Constitutional Diagrams

How Copper-Nickel Alloys Solidify

How Alloys May Be Made Homogeneous

5 More About Alloys

Tin-Lead Alloys

The 8% Tin Alloy

The Law of Levers

The 45% Tin Alloy

The Melting Process

Factors That Influence Alloying—Atomic Diameter

Factors That Influence Alloying-Chemical Properties

Some General Remarks on Diagrams

6 Solidification

Crystals Grow in Particular Directions

Flow of Heat Influences Crystal Growth

Effect of Rapid Cooling on Alloys

The Correction of Nonuniformity of Composition

Single Crystals

7 Movement of Atoms in Solid Metals

An Example of the Movement of Atoms

Movement of Copper Atoms in Aluminum

Diffusion Homogenizes Alloys

Relative Rates of Diffusion

The Mechanism of Diffusion

Diffusion of a Metal's Own Atoms (Self-Diffusion)

Diffusion in Interstitial Solid Solutions

Diffusion of Carbon in Iron

Gases Can Diffuse Through Metals

Chemical Character Influences Rate of Diffusion

8 Some Effects of Atomic Movements

Significance of Lines DF and EG in the Lead-Tin Diagram

The Rejected Tin

Effect of Rate of Cooling on Precipitation of Tin

Changing Solid Solubility—The Solvus Line

The Practical Use of Changes in Solubility-Age Hardening

An Age-Hardening Aluminum Alloy

The Effect of Temperature on the Hardening Behavior

The Mechanism of Age Hardening

A Third Element Influences Age Hardening

General Comments on Age Hardening

9 Iron, Steel, and the A3 Transformation

Iron Changes the Arrangement of Its Atoms

The A3 Transformation

Change in Dimensions

The Heat Effect

Change in Magnetic Properties

Other Changes

What Carbon Does

The Iron-Carbon Diagram

Cooling Through the Transformation Range

How the Transformation Ends

The Transformation in Higher Carbon Steels

10 The Hardening of Steel

The Hardening Transformation

The Isothermal Transformation Curve

Transformation to Martensite Depends on Temperature Only

Effect of Carbon on the Martensite Range

Effect of Rate of Cooling


The Quenching of Large Bars



The Importance of the Iron-Carbon Alloys

11 Alloy Diagrams

Atomic Percentages

A Peritectic Situation

Effect of Fast Cooling

Peritectic Reaction May Not Yield a Compound

Two Ways of Forming Compounds

The Monotectic Reaction

Allotropie Transformations Complicate Alloy Diagrams

How Transformations Alter Diagrams

The Iron-Chromium Diagram

12 Special Arrangements of Atoms

Peculiar Behavior in the Copper-Gold Alloys

The Constitutional Diagram of the Copper-Gold Alloys

Ordering in the 50 Atomic Per Cent Alloys

The X-ray Powder Pattern of the 50 a/o Alloy

The Second Form of Ordered 50 a/o Alloy

Ordering in the 25 a/o Gold Alloy

Change in Resistivity of the 25 a/o Gold Alloy

Mechanical Changes Related to Ordering in the 25 a/o Alloy

Ordering in Other Alloys

Ordering of a Different Kind

13 How Metals Are Deformed

Relative Slip

The Plane of Slip

The Weakness of Single Crystals

Degree of Slip and Ease of Slip

Deformation by Twinning

Twins in a Body-Centered Cubic Metal

Deformation in Industrial Metals

The Mechanism of Extremely Slow Deformation

14 Recrystallization

Meaning of Recrystallization

Growth of Grains

Conditions for Recrystallization

Temperature Factor

Prior Grain Size

Alloying Affects Recrystallization

The Degree of Deformation

Recrystallization Softens

Preferred Orientation

The Texture of Cold-Rolled Copper

Changes Without Recrystallization—Recovery

The Formation of Subgrains

15 Some New Concepts Concerning Metals

Ideas About Vacant Atom Sites

Evidence for the Existence of Vacancies

The Diffusion of Quenched-in Vacancies

Deformation Makes Diffusion of Vacancies Easier

A Peculiar Defect in Metals

A Simple Dislocation

Edge Dislocations—The Dislocation Line

Screw Dislocations

Burgers Circuit and Burgers Vector

Dislocations and Slip in Crystals

The Experimental Evidence for Dislocations

16 Metals in Nuclear Reactors




The Capacity of Metals for Capturing Neutrons

The Need for Control Rods

How Radiation Affects Reactor Materials

Appendix: Terms in Alloy Diagrams




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© Pergamon 1964
1st January 1964
eBook ISBN:

About the Author

Bruce A. Rogers

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