The Molecular Nutrition of Amino Acids and Proteins - 1st Edition - ISBN: 9780128021675, 9780128023754

The Molecular Nutrition of Amino Acids and Proteins

1st Edition

A Volume in the Molecular Nutrition Series

Editors: Dominique Dardevet
eBook ISBN: 9780128023754
Paperback ISBN: 9780128021675
Imprint: Academic Press
Published Date: 9th June 2016
Page Count: 368
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The Molecular Nutrition of Amino Acids and Proteins provides an in-depth look at the involvement and role of amino acids and proteins in molecular nutrition. Editor Dominique Dardevet has assembled a collection of chapters written by leading researchers and top professors that provide the reader with a comprehensive understanding of amino acids and proteins.

The book provides an introduction to the fundamentals of amino acids and proteins as well as the composition of food. It then delves into the molecular biology of the cell and genetic machinery and its function. The Molecular Nutrition of Amino Acids and Proteins also features reference guides for terms and bullet-point summaries, making it readily accessible to novices while still providing the most up-to-date and detailed information that experienced researchers need.

Key Features

  • Provides a gentle introduction to the subject by first addressing nutritional information and then building in molecular aspects, clearly establishing fundamental information for the reader
  • Facilitates reader comprehension by including succinct summary points in each chapter
  • Contains a glossary of definitions that allows readers to easily reference terms
  • Provides both a deep and broad understanding of the subject by containing overviews as well as detail-focused chapters


PRIMARY AUDIENCE: Nutrition researchers, graduate students in molecular nutrition programs, molecular biologists and chemists studying proteins and amino acids. SECONDARY AUDIENCE: clinicians, health professionals, and dieticians working in cross-functional teams, epidemiologists and public health professionals.

Table of Contents

  • List of Contributors
  • Preface
  • Section I: General and Introductory Aspects
    • Chapter 1. Bioactive Peptides Derived From Food Proteins
      • Abstract
      • 1.1 Physiological Effects of Food-Derived Peptides
      • 1.2 In Vivo Evidence of Food-Derived Peptide Effects
      • 1.3 Bioactive Peptides Released During Digestion
      • 1.4 Peptide Bioavailability
      • 1.5 Conclusion
      • References
    • Chapter 2. Protein Intake Throughout Life and Current Dietary Recommendations
      • Abstract
      • 2.1 Introduction
      • 2.2 Current Estimates for Protein and Amino Acid Requirements Throughout Life
      • 2.3 Theoretical and Practical Limitations and Uncertainties
      • 2.4 Evidence for Defining Requirements Based on Meals Rather Than an Average Daily Intake in Older People
      • 2.5 Toward Other Criteria to Define Requirements, Using Health-Related Parameters?
      • 2.6 Current Dietary Intake of Protein and Amino Acids
      • 2.7 Conclusion and Perspectives
      • References
    • Chapter 3. Cellular Mechanisms of Protein Degradation Among Tissues
      • Abstract
      • 3.1 Introduction
      • 3.2 Proteolytic Systems
      • 3.3 Skeletal Muscle Proteolysis
      • 3.4 Proteolysis in Viscera
      • 3.5 Concluding Remarks
      • Acknowledgments
      • References
    • Chapter 4. Cellular and Molecular Mechanisms of Protein Synthesis Among Tissues
      • Abstract
      • 4.1 Introduction
      • 4.2 Cellular and Molecular Regulation of Hypertrophy
      • 4.3 Myogenesis: The Development and Regeneration of Muscle
      • 4.4 Applied Implications of Protein Synthesis In Vivo
      • 4.5 Conclusions and Summary of Key Points
      • Disclosures
      • References
    • Chapter 5. Role of Amino Acid Transporters in Protein Metabolism
      • Abstract
      • 5.1 Amino Acid Transporters: Structure and Molecular Function
      • 5.2 AA Transporters and Cellular Function
      • 5.3 AA Transporters in Whole-Body Nutrition
      • 5.4 AA Transporters in Mammalian Embryonic Development and Growth
      • 5.5 AA Transporters and the Immune Response
      • 5.6 AA and Peptide Transporters as Therapeutic Targets
      • Acknowledgment
      • References
  • Section II: Cellular Aspects of Protein and Amino Acids Metabolism in Anabolic and Catabolic Situations
    • Chapter 6. Amino Acids and Exercise: Molecular and Cellular Aspects
      • Abstract
      • 6.1 Introduction
      • 6.2 Regulation of the Size of Human Muscle Mass
      • 6.3 Exercise Mode
      • 6.4 Protein Type
      • 6.5 Dose Response of MPS to Protein Ingestion Following Resistance Exercise
      • 6.6 Timing and Distribution
      • 6.7 The Influence of the Aging Process
      • 6.8 The Role of the Essential and Branched-Chain Amino Acids
      • 6.9 The Mechanistic Target of Rapamycin Complex 1 (mTORC1)
      • 6.10 Resistance Exercise, Amino Acids, and mTORC1
      • 6.11 Future Directions
      • 6.12 Conclusion
      • References
    • Chapter 7. Protein Metabolism in the Elderly: Molecular and Cellular Aspects
      • Abstract
      • 7.1 Aging and Sarcopenia
      • 7.2 Protein Metabolism in the Aging Body
      • 7.3 Age-Related Changes in Nutrient Sensitivity
      • 7.4 Regulation of mTOR Signaling in Aging
      • 7.5 The Role of Physical Activity During Aging
      • 7.6 Aging and Changes in Endocrine Function
      • 7.7 Molecular Dysregulation of Protein Metabolism During Aging
      • References
    • Chapter 8. Specificity of Amino Acids and Protein Metabolism in Obesity
      • Abstract
      • 8.1 Introduction: Fat-Free Mass in Obesity
      • 8.2 Insulin Resistance and Protein Metabolism
      • 8.3 Lipotoxicity and Muscle Protein Metabolism
      • 8.4 Role of Adipose and Muscular Cytokines in the Cross-Talk Between Muscle and Adipose Tissue
      • 8.5 Sarcopenic Obesity and Metabolic Impairments
      • 8.6 BCAA Levels and Metabolism in Obesity
      • 8.7 Conclusion
      • References
    • Chapter 9. Feeding Modulation of Amino Acid Utilization: Role of Insulin and Amino Acids in Skeletal Muscle
      • Abstract
      • 9.1 Overview of the Metabolic Role of Skeletal Muscle and as an Amino Acid Repository
      • 9.2 Impact of Splanchnic Extraction and Source of Dietary Amino Acid on Bioavailability and Muscle Protein Synthesis
      • 9.3 Influence of Amino Acid, Macronutrient Composition, and Caloric Load on Muscle Protein Synthesis
      • 9.4 Effects of Dose and Delivery Profile of Amino Acid on the Feeding-Induced Stimulation of Muscle Protein Synthesis
      • 9.5 Influence of Microvascular Responses to Feeding in Relation to Muscle Protein Synthesis
      • 9.6 The Role of Insulin in Regulating Muscle Protein Turnover
      • 9.7 The Molecular Regulation of Skeletal Muscle Protein Synthesis and Muscle Protein Breakdown by Amino Acid and Insulin
      • 9.8 Conclusions
      • References
    • Chapter 10. Protein Metabolism and Requirement in Intensive Care Units and Septic Patients
      • Abstract
      • 10.1 Introduction
      • 10.2 Protein Metabolism in the Critically Ill Patient
      • 10.3 Protein Requirement of Critically Ill Patients: Mechanistic Studies
      • 10.4 Protein Requirements of Critically Ill Patients: Outcome-Based Studies
      • 10.5 Application in Clinical Practice
      • 10.6 Protein–Energy Ratio
      • 10.7 Conclusion
      • References
    • Chapter 11. Muscle Protein Kinetics in Cancer Cachexia
      • Abstract
      • 11.1 Introduction: Muscle Wasting as the Main Feature of Cancer Cachexia
      • 11.2 Control of Skeletal Mass in Healthy Conditions
      • 11.3 Anabolic Signals
      • 11.4 Inflammation and Muscle Protein Degradation
      • 11.5 Cross-Talk Between Anabolic and Catabolic Mediators
      • 11.6 Therapeutic Approaches to Influence Protein Kinetics
      • 11.7 Conclusions and Future Directions
      • References
    • Chapter 12. Amino Acid and Protein Metabolism in Pulmonary Diseases and Nutritional Abnormalities: A Special Focus on Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease
      • Abstract
      • 12.1 Introduction
      • 12.2 Epidemiology and Definition of Nutritional Abnormalities in Chronic Respiratory Patients
      • 12.3 Diagnosis of Nutritional Abnormalities in Patients
      • 12.4 Etiologic Factors and Biological Mechanisms Involved in the Nutritional Abnormalities of Patients With Chronic Respiratory Conditions: COPD as the Paradigm
      • 12.5 Protein Metabolism, Muscles, and Exercise in Humans
      • 12.6 Potential Therapeutic Targets of Nutritional Abnormalities in Chronic Respiratory Patients
      • 12.7 Other Chronic Respiratory Conditions
      • 12.8 Conclusions and Future Perspectives
      • References
    • Chapter 13. Amino Acids, Protein, and the Gastrointestinal Tract
      • Abstract
      • 13.1 Introduction
      • 13.2 Gastrointestinal Amino Acid and Protein Metabolism in Health
      • 13.3 The First-Pass Effect of a Bolus Meal
      • 13.4 Gastrointestinal Amino Acid and Protein Metabolism in Stress Conditions
      • 13.5 The Production of a Substrate Mix to Support Host Response in Stress
      • 13.6 Protein Metabolism in Stress Starvation
      • 13.7 Substrate Metabolism in Stress Starvation to Spare Protein
      • 13.8 The Role of Individual Amino Acids in the Gastrointestinal Tract
      • 13.9 The Role of the Intestine in Bile Salt and Amino Acid Metabolism
      • 13.10 Role of the Intestine in Amino Acid Metabolism in Liver Failure
      • References
    • Chapter 14. Regulation of Macroautophagy by Nutrients and Metabolites
      • Abstract
      • 14.1 Introduction
      • 14.2 Overview of the Autophagic Pathway
      • 14.3 The Nutrient Code of Autophagy
      • 14.4 Metabolites and Autophagy
      • 14.5 Conclusion
      • Acknowledgments
      • References
  • Section III: Cellular and Molecular Actions of Amino Acids in non Protein Metabolism
    • Chapter 15. Dietary Protein and Colonic Microbiota: Molecular Aspects
      • Abstract
      • 15.1 Introduction
      • 15.2 Conclusion
      • References
    • Chapter 16. Control of Food Intake by Dietary Amino Acids and Proteins: Molecular and Cellular Aspects
      • Abstract
      • 16.1 Introduction
      • 16.2 The Effect of Protein Intake and Overall Energy Intake on Body Weight and Body Composition
      • 16.3 Detection of Protein and Amino Acids During Digestion and Control of Food Intake by Feedback Signaling
      • 16.4 Protein-Induced Reduction in Eating and Central Neuronal Pathways
      • 16.5 Conclusion
      • Acknowledgments
      • References
    • Chapter 17. Dietary Protein and Hepatic Glucose Production
      • Abstract
      • 17.1 Introduction
      • 17.2 Amino Acids as Glucose Precursors and Effect of Protein Intake
      • 17.3 Insulin and Glucagon Mediated Effects of Amino Acids and Proteins on Glucose Production
      • 17.4 Protein Meal and Hepatic Glucose Production
      • 17.5 High Protein Diet and Hepatic Glucose Production
      • 17.6 Conclusion
      • References
    • Chapter 18. Impact of Dietary Proteins on Energy Balance, Insulin Sensitivity and Glucose Homeostasis: From Proteins to Peptides to Amino Acids
      • Abstract
      • 18.1 Introduction
      • 18.2 Conclusion
      • References
    • Chapter 19. Sulfur Amino Acids Metabolism From Protein Synthesis to Glutathione
      • Abstract
      • 19.1 Introduction
      • 19.2 Functions of the SAAs
      • 19.3 Physiological Aspects of SAA Metabolism
      • 19.4 Nutritional Aspects of SAA Metabolism
      • 19.5 SAA Requirement
      • 19.6 Glutathione
      • 19.7 Conclusions
      • References
  • Section IV: Dietary Amino Acid and Protein on Gene Expression
    • Chapter 20. Adaptation to Amino Acid Availability: Role of GCN2 in the Regulation of Physiological Functions and in Pathological Disorders
      • Abstract
      • 20.1 Introduction
      • 20.2 The GCN2-EIF2α Pathway
      • 20.3 Control of Physiological Functions by GCN2
      • 20.4 Involvement of GCN2 in Pathology
      • 20.5 Conclusion
      • References
    • Chapter 21. Amino Acid-Related Diseases
      • Abstract
      • 21.1 Introduction
      • 21.2 Disorder of Phenylalanine and Tyrosine Metabolism (Phenylketonuria, Hyperphenylalaninemia, Tyrosinemia Type 1)
      • 21.3 Urea Cycle Disorders/Hyperammonemias
      • 21.4 Disorders of Branched-Chain Amino Acid Metabolism (Maple Syrup Urine Disease, Isovaleric Acidemia, Propionic Acidemia, Methylmalonic Acidemia)
      • 21.5 Classical Homocystinuria (HCU)
      • 21.6 Miscellaneous
      • References
    • Chapter 22. Genes in Skeletal Muscle Remodeling and Impact of Feeding: Molecular and Cellular Aspects
      • Abstract
      • 22.1 Cellular Events Involved in Skeletal Muscle Remodeling
      • 22.2 Molecular Pathways Involved in Skeletal Muscle Remodeling
      • 22.3 Effects of Feeding on Skeletal Muscle Remodeling
      • References
    • Chapter 23. Brain Amino Acid Sensing: The Use of a Rodent Model of Protein-Malnutrition, Lysine Deficiency
      • Abstract
      • 23.1 Introduction
      • 23.2 Brain Essential AA Sensing: The Case of the Rodent Model of Lysine Deficiency
      • 23.3 Brain Functional Changes Elicited by Intragastric Stimulation by Nutrients, Glucose, Glutamate, and Sodium Chloride
      • 23.4 Glutamate Signaling in the Gut Triggers Diet-Induced Thermogenesis and Aids in the Prevention of Obesity
      • 23.5 Conclusion
      • Acknowledgments
      • References
  • Index


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About the Editor

Dominique Dardevet

Dr. Dominique Dardevet is a senior member of the Institut National de la Recherche Agronomique (INRA) in France. He is attached to the Human Nutrition department in the Nutrition, Metabolism and Muscle Mass team (NuTriM). Dr. Dardavet has managed a number of pre-clinical and clinical studies on the effect of the quality of dietary proteins and amino acids on postprandial skeletal muscle anabolism. He collaborated with research groups in USA, Canada, Switzerland, Italy, Brazil and published about 80 peer-reviewed manuscripts on protein and amino acid metabolism. Dr. Dardavet obtained his PhD degree in Physiology, Endocrinology and Nutrition in 1993 at the Blaise Pascal University (France).

Affiliations and Expertise

Institut National de la Recherche Agronomique (INRA), France

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