Table of Contents

An overview of clinical research: the lay of the land.
Descriptive studies: what they can and cannot do.
Bias and causal associations in observational research.
Cohort studies: marching towards outcome.
Case-control studies: research in reverse.
Generation of allocation sequences in randomized trials: chance, not choice.
Allocation concealment in randomized trials: defending against deciphering.
Sample size slippages in randomized trials: exclusions and the lost and wayward.
Blinding in randomized trials: hiding who got what.
Uses and abuses of screening tests.
Unequal group sizes in randomized trials: guarding against guessing.
Sample size calculations in randomized trials: mandatory and mystical.
Compared to what? Finding controls for case-control studies.
Refining clinical diagnosis with likelihood ratios.
Multiplicity in randomized trials I: endpoints and treatments.
Multiplicity in randomized trials II: subgroup and interim analyses.


The Lancet
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