The Islets of Langerhans

The Islets of Langerhans

Biochemistry, Physiology, and Pathology

1st Edition - January 28, 1981

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  • Editor: S.J. Cooperstein
  • eBook ISBN: 9780323147330

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Description

The Islets of Langerhans: Biochemistry, Physiology, and Pathology reviews the state of knowledge in the complex phenomena involved in the functioning of the multiendocrine organ, the islet of Langerhans, and the various influences that can lead to its abnormal functioning. The volume highlights major gaps in knowledge and indicates the directions for research on the major functioning of this organ and the defects leading to its major pathology, diabetes mellitus. The book is organized into three parts. Part I provides the necessary background information on the nature and development of the islet of Langerhans. It includes studies on the evolution of knowledge of the ever-increasing number of cell types found in islet tissue; and fetal development of the functional capacities of the islet cells. Part II is devoted to the synthesis and secretion of islet hormones, beginning with a chapter on the membrane transport systems of islet tissue as a prelude to subsequent examination of their role in the regulation of these processes. Part III examines the effects of deleterious conditions and agents on the morphology and function of islet cells. This book is intended for researchers in endocrinology, particularly those interested in pancreatic hormones, graduate students in endocrinology, and medical endocrinologists interested in diabetes. It will also be useful to physiologists and biochemists studying peptide synthesis and secretion.

Table of Contents


  • List of Contributors

    Foreword

    Preface

    I. Morphology and Development of Islet Tissue

    1. Morphological Characterization of Islet Cell Diversity

    I. Introduction

    II. Β Cells (β Cells)

    III. A Cells (α Cells and α2 Cells)

    IV. C Cells

    V. D Cells (α1 Cells)

    VI. Ε Cells

    VII. F Cells (PP Cells)

    VIII. Other Islet Cells

    IX. Innervation

    X. Vasculature

    References

    2. Functional Development of the Pancreatic Islets

    I. Introduction

    II. Stages of Metabolic Ontogeny

    III. Development of the Pancreas

    IV. Development of Related Endocrine Function

    V. Development of Target Systems

    VI. Role of Nutrition

    References

    II. Synthesis and Secretion of Islet Hormones

    3. Transport Systems of Islet Cells

    I. Introduction

    II. Sugars

    III. Amino Acids

    IV. Inorganic Ions

    V. Biogenic Amines

    VI. Sulfonylureas

    VII. Methylxanthines

    VIII. Thiol Reagents

    IX. β-Cytotoxic Agents

    X. Markers for Transmembrane pH or Electrical Potential Gradients

    References

    4. Biosynthesis of Insulin

    I. Insulin Biosynthesis

    II. Regulation of Insulin Biosynthesis

    References

    5. Interactions of Cell Organelles in Insulin Secretion

    I. Plasma Membrane

    II. Insulin Secretory Granules

    III. Microtubules and Microfilaments

    IV. Emiocytosis

    V. Concluding Comments

    References

    6. Metabolic Controls of Insulin Secretion

    I. Introduction

    II. General Considerations

    III. Insulin Secretory Responses to Potential β-Cell Metabolic Substrates

    IV. Experimental Manipulations

    V. Metabolites and Cofactors of Possible Importance in Stimulus-Secretion Coupling

    VI. Conclusions

    References

    7. Inorganic Ions in Insulin Secretion

    I. Introduction

    II. Participation of Ions in the Recognition of Insulinotropic Agents

    III. Participation of Ions in the Coupling of Stimulation to Release

    IV. Participation of Ions in the Mechanical Events Leading to Insulin Release

    V. Conclusion

    References

    8. Interrelationships between Prostaglandins and Biogenic Amines during Modulation of Beta-Cell Function

    I. Introduction

    II. Actions of Prostaglandins and Biogenic Amines on Insulin Secretion

    III. Biogenic Amines and Beta-Cell Function

    IV. Interrelationships between Prostaglandins and Biogenic Amines

    V. Implications for the Pathogenesis and Treatment of Diabetes Mellitus

    References

    9. Biosynthesis of Glucagon and Somatostatin

    I. Introduction

    II. Glucagon Biosynthesis

    III. Somatostatin Biosynthesis

    IV. Discovery of Preproglucagons and Preprosomatostatins

    V. Conversion of Islet Prohormones at the Subcellular Level

    VI. Current Directions in Research on Islet Hormone Biosynthesis

    References

    10. Secretion of Glucagon

    I. Introduction

    II. Determinants of Glucagon Secretion

    III. Future Research Directions

    References

    11. Somatostatin and Its Role in Insulin and Glucagon Secretion

    I. Introduction

    II. Actions of Somatostatin on the Release of Pancreatic Hormones

    III. Radioimmunoassay for Somatostatin

    IV. Release of Pancreatic Somatostatin

    V. Physiological Role of Somatostatin in the Pancreas

    VI. Conclusions

    References

    12. Synthesis, Storage, Secretion, and Significance of Pancreatic Polypeptide in Vertebrates

    I. Introduction

    II. Cellular Origin

    III. Synthesis and Chemistry

    IV. Secretion: Prandial, Neural, and Hormonal Correlates

    V. Function of Pancreatic Polypeptide

    VI. Pathophysiological Correlates

    VII. Summary of Current Information

    Significant Reviews

    References

    III. Pathology of the Islets of Langerhans

    13. Islet Changes in Human Diabetes

    I. Historical Background

    II. Quantitative Islet Changes

    III. Qualitative Islet Changes

    IV. Changes in the Exocrine Pancreas

    V. Morphological Aspects of the Pathogenesis of Human Diabetes

    References

    14. Animal Models of Spontaneous Diabetes

    I. Introduction

    II. The Chinese Hamster (Cricetulusgriseus)

    III. The db Mouse (C57BL/KsJdb)

    IV. The KK Mouse

    V. The Spiny Mouse (Acomys cahirinus)

    VI. The BB/Wistar Rat

    VII. The Guinea Pig

    VIII. The Sand Rat (Psammomys obesus)

    IX. Clinical Diabetes

    X. Overview and Future Research Needs

    References

    15. Action of Toxic Drugs on Islet Cells

    I. Introduction

    II. Alloxan

    III. Streptozotocin

    References

    16. Role of Viruses in Diabetes

    I. Mechanisms of Virus-Induced Cell Disease

    II. Laboratory Techniques for Studying Virus-Pancreatic Beta-Cell Interactions

    III. Association of Viral Infections in Humans with Insulin-Dependent Diabetes Mellitus

    IV. Animal Models of Diabetes Mellitus with a Definite or Possible Viral Etiology

    V. Interrelationship of Viral Infection and Autoimmunity

    VI. Recent Epidemiological Studies

    VII. Summary

    References

    17. Autoimmunity and Diabetes

    I. Introduction

    II. Evidence for Autoimmunity in Diabetes

    III. The Genetics of IDDM

    IV. Environmental Triggers for Autoimmune IDDM

    V. Future Directions

    References

    18. Insulin, Glucagon, and Somatostatin Interaction in Diabetes

    I. Introduction

    II. Normal Alpha-Cell Function

    III. Disordered Alpha-Cell Function in Diabetes Mellitus

    IV. Islet Cell Hormone Interaction in Diabetes

    V. Therapeutic Implications

    References

    Index


Product details

  • No. of pages: 520
  • Language: English
  • Copyright: © Academic Press 1981
  • Published: January 28, 1981
  • Imprint: Academic Press
  • eBook ISBN: 9780323147330

About the Editor

S.J. Cooperstein

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