The Islets of Langerhans - 1st Edition - ISBN: 9780121878207, 9780323147330

The Islets of Langerhans

1st Edition

Biochemistry, Physiology, and Pathology

Editors: S.J. Cooperstein
eBook ISBN: 9780323147330
Imprint: Academic Press
Published Date: 28th January 1981
Page Count: 520
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Description

The Islets of Langerhans: Biochemistry, Physiology, and Pathology reviews the state of knowledge in the complex phenomena involved in the functioning of the multiendocrine organ, the islet of Langerhans, and the various influences that can lead to its abnormal functioning. The volume highlights major gaps in knowledge and indicates the directions for research on the major functioning of this organ and the defects leading to its major pathology, diabetes mellitus. The book is organized into three parts. Part I provides the necessary background information on the nature and development of the islet of Langerhans. It includes studies on the evolution of knowledge of the ever-increasing number of cell types found in islet tissue; and fetal development of the functional capacities of the islet cells. Part II is devoted to the synthesis and secretion of islet hormones, beginning with a chapter on the membrane transport systems of islet tissue as a prelude to subsequent examination of their role in the regulation of these processes. Part III examines the effects of deleterious conditions and agents on the morphology and function of islet cells. This book is intended for researchers in endocrinology, particularly those interested in pancreatic hormones, graduate students in endocrinology, and medical endocrinologists interested in diabetes. It will also be useful to physiologists and biochemists studying peptide synthesis and secretion.

Table of Contents


List of Contributors

Foreword

Preface

I. Morphology and Development of Islet Tissue

1. Morphological Characterization of Islet Cell Diversity

I. Introduction

II. Β Cells (β Cells)

III. A Cells (α Cells and α2 Cells)

IV. C Cells

V. D Cells (α1 Cells)

VI. Ε Cells

VII. F Cells (PP Cells)

VIII. Other Islet Cells

IX. Innervation

X. Vasculature

References

2. Functional Development of the Pancreatic Islets

I. Introduction

II. Stages of Metabolic Ontogeny

III. Development of the Pancreas

IV. Development of Related Endocrine Function

V. Development of Target Systems

VI. Role of Nutrition

References

II. Synthesis and Secretion of Islet Hormones

3. Transport Systems of Islet Cells

I. Introduction

II. Sugars

III. Amino Acids

IV. Inorganic Ions

V. Biogenic Amines

VI. Sulfonylureas

VII. Methylxanthines

VIII. Thiol Reagents

IX. β-Cytotoxic Agents

X. Markers for Transmembrane pH or Electrical Potential Gradients

References

4. Biosynthesis of Insulin

I. Insulin Biosynthesis

II. Regulation of Insulin Biosynthesis

References

5. Interactions of Cell Organelles in Insulin Secretion

I. Plasma Membrane

II. Insulin Secretory Granules

III. Microtubules and Microfilaments

IV. Emiocytosis

V. Concluding Comments

References

6. Metabolic Controls of Insulin Secretion

I. Introduction

II. General Considerations

III. Insulin Secretory Responses to Potential β-Cell Metabolic Substrates

IV. Experimental Manipulations

V. Metabolites and Cofactors of Possible Importance in Stimulus-Secretion Coupling

VI. Conclusions

References

7. Inorganic Ions in Insulin Secretion

I. Introduction

II. Participation of Ions in the Recognition of Insulinotropic Agents

III. Participation of Ions in the Coupling of Stimulation to Release

IV. Participation of Ions in the Mechanical Events Leading to Insulin Release

V. Conclusion

References

8. Interrelationships between Prostaglandins and Biogenic Amines during Modulation of Beta-Cell Function

I. Introduction

II. Actions of Prostaglandins and Biogenic Amines on Insulin Secretion

III. Biogenic Amines and Beta-Cell Function

IV. Interrelationships between Prostaglandins and Biogenic Amines

V. Implications for the Pathogenesis and Treatment of Diabetes Mellitus

References

9. Biosynthesis of Glucagon and Somatostatin

I. Introduction

II. Glucagon Biosynthesis

III. Somatostatin Biosynthesis

IV. Discovery of Preproglucagons and Preprosomatostatins

V. Conversion of Islet Prohormones at the Subcellular Level

VI. Current Directions in Research on Islet Hormone Biosynthesis

References

10. Secretion of Glucagon

I. Introduction

II. Determinants of Glucagon Secretion

III. Future Research Directions

References

11. Somatostatin and Its Role in Insulin and Glucagon Secretion

I. Introduction

II. Actions of Somatostatin on the Release of Pancreatic Hormones

III. Radioimmunoassay for Somatostatin

IV. Release of Pancreatic Somatostatin

V. Physiological Role of Somatostatin in the Pancreas

VI. Conclusions

References

12. Synthesis, Storage, Secretion, and Significance of Pancreatic Polypeptide in Vertebrates

I. Introduction

II. Cellular Origin

III. Synthesis and Chemistry

IV. Secretion: Prandial, Neural, and Hormonal Correlates

V. Function of Pancreatic Polypeptide

VI. Pathophysiological Correlates

VII. Summary of Current Information

Significant Reviews

References

III. Pathology of the Islets of Langerhans

13. Islet Changes in Human Diabetes

I. Historical Background

II. Quantitative Islet Changes

III. Qualitative Islet Changes

IV. Changes in the Exocrine Pancreas

V. Morphological Aspects of the Pathogenesis of Human Diabetes

References

14. Animal Models of Spontaneous Diabetes

I. Introduction

II. The Chinese Hamster (Cricetulusgriseus)

III. The db Mouse (C57BL/KsJdb)

IV. The KK Mouse

V. The Spiny Mouse (Acomys cahirinus)

VI. The BB/Wistar Rat

VII. The Guinea Pig

VIII. The Sand Rat (Psammomys obesus)

IX. Clinical Diabetes

X. Overview and Future Research Needs

References

15. Action of Toxic Drugs on Islet Cells

I. Introduction

II. Alloxan

III. Streptozotocin

References

16. Role of Viruses in Diabetes

I. Mechanisms of Virus-Induced Cell Disease

II. Laboratory Techniques for Studying Virus-Pancreatic Beta-Cell Interactions

III. Association of Viral Infections in Humans with Insulin-Dependent Diabetes Mellitus

IV. Animal Models of Diabetes Mellitus with a Definite or Possible Viral Etiology

V. Interrelationship of Viral Infection and Autoimmunity

VI. Recent Epidemiological Studies

VII. Summary

References

17. Autoimmunity and Diabetes

I. Introduction

II. Evidence for Autoimmunity in Diabetes

III. The Genetics of IDDM

IV. Environmental Triggers for Autoimmune IDDM

V. Future Directions

References

18. Insulin, Glucagon, and Somatostatin Interaction in Diabetes

I. Introduction

II. Normal Alpha-Cell Function

III. Disordered Alpha-Cell Function in Diabetes Mellitus

IV. Islet Cell Hormone Interaction in Diabetes

V. Therapeutic Implications

References

Index


Details

No. of pages:
520
Language:
English
Copyright:
© Academic Press 1981
Published:
Imprint:
Academic Press
eBook ISBN:
9780323147330

About the Editor

S.J. Cooperstein