The Human Hypothalamus in Health and Disease

The Human Hypothalamus in Health and Disease

1st Edition - January 1, 1992
This is the Latest Edition
  • Editors: Dick Swaab, Michel A. Hofman, M. Mirmiran, R. Ravid, F.W. Van Leeuwen
  • eBook ISBN: 9780080862187

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Description

Table of Contents

  • Recent volumes in Progress in Brain Research

    List of Contributors

    Preface

    Acknowledgements

    Section I - Structure of the Human Hypothalamus

    Chapter 1: Anatomy of the human hypothalamus (chiasmatic and tuberal region)

    Introduction

    The hypothalamic gray

    The magnocellular neurosecretory complex

    The sexually dimorphic intermediate nucleus

    The suprachiasmatic nucleus

    The retrochiasmatic nucleus and the melanin-containing hypothalamic nerve cells

    The ventromedial, posteromedial and dorsomedial nuclei

    The periventricular and infundibular nuclei

    The lateral tuberal nucleus

    The tuberomamillary nucleus

    Summary and conclusions

    Acknowledgements

    Discussion

    Section II - Clinical Manifestations of Hypothalamic Diseases

    Chapter 2: Endocrine functions of the hypothalamus and alterations in neuroendocrine function – focus on thyrotropin and growth hormone

    Introduction

    Thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH)

    Growth hormone (GH)

    Perspectives

    Discussion

    Chapter 3: Neurologic manifestations of hypothalamic disease

    Introduction

    Case descriptions

    Discussion

    Summary and conclusions

    Discussion

    Section III - Technical Potentialities and Pitfalls in the Use of Human Material

    Chapter 4: In situ hybridization histochemistry in the human hypothalamus

    Introduction

    In situ hybridization histochemistry: methodological considerations

    Neuropeptide mRNA visualization in human basal ganglia

    Neuropeptide mRNA alterations in Parkinson’s disease and Huntington’s chorea basal ganglia

    Summary and conclusions

    Acknowledgements

    Chapter 5: Receptor localization in the human hypothalamus

    Introduction: neurotransmitter receptor structure and function

    Techniques for the visualization of receptors in human post-mortem materials. Radioligand binding autoradiography

    Receptors in human hypothalamus

    Other techniques for receptor visualization

    Summary and conclusions

    Discussion

    Chapter 6: Human hypothalamic and pituitary neuroendocrine function during in vitro perifusion

    Introduction

    Methods

    Hypothalamus

    Pituitary

    Strengths and weaknesses of the perifusion methodology

    Acknowledgements

    Discussion

    Chapter 7: Brain banking and the human hypothalamus – factors to match for, pitfalls and potentials

    Introduction

    Ante-mortem factors

    Post-mortem factors

    Summary and conclusions

    Acknowledgements

    Section IV - Biological Rhythms

    The fourth C.U. Ariëns Kappers lecture

    Chapter 8: The organization of the human circadian timing system

    Introduction

    Functional organization of the rodent CTS

    Organization of the primate CTS

    Summary and conclusions

    Acknowledgements

    Discussion

    Chapter 9: Pre-natal development of a hypothalamic biological clock

    Introduction

    Tick tock, it’s a fetal clock

    Mother communicates circadian information to the fetus

    Potential functions of an entrained fetal clock

    Development of a biological clock in humans

    Summary and conclusions

    Discussion

    Chapter 10: The human hypothalamus: comparative morphometry and photoperiodic influences

    Introduction

    Size and scaling of the hypothalamus

    The preoptic region of the hypothalamus

    Seasonal variations in the human SCN

    Photoperiodic influences on the SCN

    Summary and conclusions

    Acknowledgements

    Discussion

    Chapter 11: Circadian rhythms and the suprachiasmatic nucleus in perinatal development, aging and Alzheimer’s disease

    Introduction

    Circadian rhythms in early human development

    Human SCN changes during early development

    Circadian rhythms change in aging and in AD

    Human SCN changes during aging and in AD

    Summary and conclusions

    Discussion

    Section V - Development, Aging and Dementia

    Chapter 12: Ontogeny of peptides in human hypothalamus in relation to sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS)

    Introduction

    Methodological questions raised by studies of peptides and binding sites in the human hypothalamus

    Immunohistochemistry

    Quantitative autoradiography

    SRIF binding sites

    TRH binding sites

    Distribution of SRIF immunoreactive neurons

    Distribution of SRIF binding sites

    Comparison of the distribution of SRIF and its binding sites (Fig. 3)

    Distribution of TRH binding sites

    Immunohistochemical distribution of LHRH neurons

    Summary and conclusions

    Acknowledgements

    Discussion

    Chapter 13: LHRH neurons: functions and development

    Introduction

    Normal controls on adult LHRH neurons, in perspective

    LHRH neuronal migration during development

    LHRH-expressing cells in Kallmann’s syndrome, a human hypogonadal disease

    Summary and conclusions

    Discussion

    Chapter 14: The human hypothalamus in relation to gender and sexual orientation

    History

    Sexual differentiation of the human hypothalamus

    The human hypothalamus, sexual orientation and gender identity

    Conclusions and summary

    Acknowledgements

    Discussion

    Chapter 15: Hormonal influences on morphology and neuropeptide gene expression in the infundibular nucleus of postmenopausal women

    Introduction

    Neuronal hypertrophy occurs in a subpopulation of neurons in the infundibular nucleus of postmenopausal women

    Hypertrophied neurons in the infundibular nucleus of post-menopausal women express estrogen receptor gene transcripts

    Hypertrophied neurons in the infundibular nucleus of post-menopausal women contain substance P and neurokinin B messenger RNAs

    Menopause is associated with marked increases in tachykinin gene expression

    General discussion

    Summary and conclusions

    Acknowledgements

    Discussion

    Chapter 16: The human hypothalamo-neurohypophyseal system in relation to development, aging and Alzheimer’s disease

    Introduction

    Changes in HNS function during aging: early studies

    Evidence of increased HNS activity during aging

    Alzheimer’s disease

    Suprachiasmatic nucleus

    Fetal development

    Summary and conclusions

    Acknowledgements

    Discussion

    Chapter 17: The hypothalamic lateral tuberal nucleus: normal anatomy and changes in neurological diseases

    Introduction

    Normal anatomy

    NTL changes in normal aging and neurological diseases

    Discussion

    Summary and conclusions

    Acknowledgements

    Chapter 18: Galanin tuberomammillary neurons in the hypothalamus in Alzheimer’s and Parkinson’s diseases

    Introduction

    The Zurich study

    Computer-assisted quantitative morphological analyses

    Galanin neurons

    Conclusions and summary

    Section VI - Osmoregulation

    Chapter 19: Animal models for osmoregulatory disturbances

    Introduction

    Primary polydipsic diabetes insipidus

    Nephrogenic diabetes insipidus

    Familial neurogenic diabetes insipidus

    Summary and conclusions

    Discussion

    Chapter 20: Autoimmune hypothalamic diabetes insipidus (“autoimmune hypothalamitis”)

    Introduction

    Detection of cytoplasmic vasopressin cell antibodies

    Reactivity of the specific vasopressin cell autoantigen

    Vasopressin cell antibodies in different forms of diabetes insipidus

    Polyendocrine autoimmunity and hypothalamic diabetes insipidus

    Conclusions and outlook

    Discussion

    Chapter 21: The molecular biology of human hereditary central diabetes insipidus

    Introduction

    Biochemical, histological and genetic investigations

    Molecular biology of the AVP gene

    Molecular biology of hereditary central DI in the rat

    Molecular biology of human AVP gene in central DI

    Linkage strategy

    Sequence analysis of AVP gene

    Summary and conclusions

    Discussion

    Chapter 22: The use of linkage analysis and the Centre d’Etude Polymorphisme Humain (CEPH) panel of DNA in the study of the arginine vasopressin, oxytocin and prodynorphin gene loci

    Introduction

    Basics of linkage analysis

    Southern blots and restriction enzyme analysis

    Discussion

    Section VII - Hypothalamus and Reproduction

    Chapter 23: Animal models for brain and pituitary gonadal disturbances

    Introduction

    The hypogonadal mouse

    Neural transplantation

    Sex differences in neurotransmitters

    Future perspectives

    Discussion

    Chapter 24: Genetic, hypothalamic and endocrine features of clinical and experimental obesity

    Introduction

    Hypothalamic obesity

    Endocrine obesity

    Genetic obesity

    Summary and conclusions

    Acknowledgements

    Discussion

    Chapter 25: Hypothalamic involvement in sexuality and hostility: comparative psychological aspects

    Introduction

    Behavior as hypothalamic output

    Psychoneuroendocrinology and psychological functions: behavior as hypothalamic input

    Hypothalamus, the polycystic ovarian syndrome and psychological concomitants

    Summary and conclusions

    Section VIII - Hypothalamus and Stress

    Chapter 26: Re-examination of the glucocorticoid hypothesis of stress and aging

    Introduction

    Two lines of evidence for the glucocorticoid cascade hypothesis

    Age-related deficits in HPA function

    Changes in hippocampal adrenal steroid receptors with aging

    Neuronal degenerative changes during aging and the possible role of glucocorticoids

    Does the glucocorticoid cascade hypothesis apply to the human hippocampus?

    Possible mechanisms of degenerative effects of glucocorticoids on the hippocampus

    Can age-related neuronal degeneration be retarded?

    Conclusions

    Acknowledgements

    Discussion

    Chapter 27: The role of corticotropin-releasing hormone in the pathogenesis of Cushing’s disease, anorexia nervosa, alcoholism, affective disorders and dementia

    Introduction

    Functional neuroanatomy and regulation of the CRH neuron

    Regulation of the human CRH (hCRH) gene promoter by cAMP and glucocorticoids

    Preclinical studies

    Clinical studies

    Aging, dementia and Alzheimer’s disease

    Conclusions

    Chapter 28: Endogenous pyrogens in the CNS: role in the febrile response

    Introduction

    Role of prostaglandins as mediators in the febrile reaction

    Cyclooxygenase in the central nervous system

    Cytokines as neuromodulators

    A new model for endogenous pyrogens in the brain

    Summary and conclusions

    Acknowledgements

    Discussion

    Section IX - Psychiatric Diseases

    Chapter 29: Endorphins and schizophrenia

    Introduction

    Formation and biological activities of endorphins

    The endorphin excess hypothesis of schizophrenia

    The endorphin deficiency hypothesis of schizophrenia

    γ-Type endorphins and schizophrenia

    Conclusions

    Acknowledgements

    Discussion

    Chapter 30: Neurohypophyseal peptides and psychopathology

    Introduction

    Influence of exogenous AVP and OT on human behavior

    Neurohypophyseal function in psychiatric disorders

    Conclusions and perspectives

    Discussion

    Subject Index

Product details

  • No. of pages: 478
  • Language: English
  • Copyright: © Elsevier Science 1992
  • Published: January 1, 1992
  • Imprint: Elsevier Science
  • eBook ISBN: 9780080862187

About the Serial Editors

Dick Swaab

Dick Swaab (1944) earned his medical and doctoral degrees at the University of Amsterdam, where he became involved in brain research during his third year of medical school. He was Director of the Netherlands Institute for Brain Research from 1978 to 2005. Since 1979 he is Professor of Neurobiology at the Medical Faculty, University of Amsterdam.

In 1985, Dr. Swaab founded the Netherlands Brain Bank (NBB) to serve as a source of clinically and neuropathologically well-documented research tissue. Since its founding, the Brain Bank has provided samples from more than 4,000 autopsies to 500 research groups in 25 countries. He was director of the NBB until 2005.

He is Leader Research team Neuropsychiatric Disorders, Neth. Inst for Neuroscience, an institute of the Royal Netherlands Academy of Arts and Sciences (KNAW). Swaab is also appointed for 2011-2017 Chao Kuang Piu Chair of Zhejiang University, Hangzhou, P.R. China.

His major research interests focus on, sexual differentiation of the human brain in relation to gender identity and sexual orientation, aging of the brain, Alzheimer’s disease, the neurobiological basis of depression, suicide and eating disorders. He has published over 540 papers in SCI journals, authored more than 200 chapters in books, and edited more than 60 books. Swaab mentored 84 PhD students from which 16 are now full professor. He is “Companion in the Order of the Dutch Lion”, bestowed by her Royal Majesty Queen Beatrix of the Netherlands. In 2008 Swaab obtained the Academy medal for his role in national and international neuroscience.

Dick Swaab is author of the 2 volume monograph The Human Hypothalamus that appeared in the Handbook of Clinical Neurology series, Elsevier, Amsterdam (1000 pp) and the Dutch best seller We are our Brains (450.000 copies sold), that is translated in 14 languages. A children's version of the book (You are your brains) has also appeared in Dutch in 2013 and Russian (2014). Swaab's H-factor is 76.

Affiliations and Expertise

Netherlands Institute for Brain Research, University of Amsterdam, Amsterdam, The Netherlands

Michel A. Hofman

Michel A. Hofman is at Netherlands Institute for Neuroscience, Netherlands

Affiliations and Expertise

Netherlands Institute for Neuroscience, Amsterdam, The Netherlands

M. Mirmiran

Affiliations and Expertise

Netherlands Institute for Brain Research

R. Ravid

Affiliations and Expertise

Netherlands Institute of Brain Research

F.W. Van Leeuwen

Affiliations and Expertise

Netherlands Institute for Brain Research, Meibergdreef 33, 1105 AZ Amsterdam, The Netherlands