The Gunn-Hilsum Effect

The Gunn-Hilsum Effect

1st Edition - January 1, 1979

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  • Author: Melvin Shaw
  • eBook ISBN: 9780323141550

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Description

The Gunn-Hilsum Effect covers the physical principles controlling the operation of transferred electron devices. These devices have been proven quite useful in the generation, amplification, and processing of microwave signals well into tens of gigahertz range. Organized into seven chapters, the book focuses on the analytical and numerical approaches of the two vital aspects of device behavior for a given bulk semiconductor: boundary conditions or contacts and the local circuit environment. The opening chapter of this book discusses the negative differential mobility (NDM) characteristics for a range of electric fields in the velocity-field relation of specific semiconductors and the response of such a sample to a charge fluctuation, leading to the growth of stationary and/or traveling high electric field domains. The next two chapters describe how the boundary conditions and the circuit control the manifestation of current instabilities in such systems and how this control can be understood in a simple manner. Chapters 4 and 5 discuss the numerical and experimental investigations of comparatively long bulk samples, with an emphasis on the essential NDM semiconductor n-GaAs. These chapters also examine the production of different current-voltage relationships and instabilities by cathode contacts and the control of the oscillatory characteristics of an electrically unstable sample by different circuit conditions. Chapter 6 presents both time-independent and time-dependent computations, with the latter focusing on the small-signal impedance and stability aspects. The last chapter of this book addresses the construction and evaluation of typical short devices, describes how their oscillatory characteristics compare with the long samples studied in the first six chapters, and discusses the use of short devices as amplifiers. This book is an ideal source for device engineers and designers wishing to apply transferred electron devices in creative ways.

Table of Contents


  • Preface

    List of Symbols

    Chapter 1 Negative Differential Mobility in Semiconductors

    1-1 Introduction

    1-2 The Velocity-Electric Field Characteristic

    1-3 Response of an NDM Element to a Charge Fluctuation

    1-4 Summary

    References

    Chapter 2 The NDM Element's Environment: Circuits and Boundaries

    2-1 Introduction

    2-2 The Local Environment

    2-3 The Circuit

    2-4 The Boundaries

    References

    Chapter 3 The Behavior of an NDM Element in a Circuit

    3-1 Introduction

    3-2 Summary of Results

    3-3 Understanding the Threshold Condition

    Chapter 4 Numerical Studies of Negative Differential Mobility Elements

    4-1 Introduction

    4-2 Governing Equations

    4-3 Difference Equations

    4-4 Illustrative Resistive Circuit Calculations

    4-5 Illustrative Calculations with a Circuit Containing Reactive Elements

    4-6 Short Samples and Dynamic Cathode Boundary Fields

    References

    Chapter 5 Experimental Studies of Long Bulk NDM Samples at Low Frequencies

    5-1 Introduction

    5-2 Techniques of Sample Preparation for Bulk Samples

    5-3 A Typical Gunn-Hilsum Effect Experiment with Long Bulk Samples of n-GaAs

    5-4 Experimental Results and Discussion

    References

    Chapter 6 Analytical Studies of NDM Element Behavior: Small Signal Analysis

    6-1 Introduction

    6-2 Time-Independent Computations

    6-3 Small Signal Time-Dependent Computations

    6-4 Summary

    Appendix A Integration of the Field Perturbation Equation

    Appendix Β Impedance Calculation for Uniform ε(x) and Nonuniform δε (x, t)

    Appendix C Impedance Calculation for Nonuniform ε(x) and δε (x, t)

    Appendix D Relation between Ζc(ω) and δε(Δ,ω)

    Appendix Ε Equality of limω→αΖ(ω) and l'-1 dϕ/djo, Where ϕ is Defined by Eq. 6-11

    References

    Chapter 7 Negative Differential Mobility Devices

    7-1 Introduction

    7-2 Device Construction

    7-3 Oscillation Principles for Short Devices

    7-4 Amplification

    7-5 The Gunn Diode in a Microwave Circuit

    7-6 State-of-the-Art Considerations: Noise and Output Power

    7-7 Summary

    References

    Author Index

    Subject Index


Product details

  • No. of pages: 268
  • Language: English
  • Copyright: © Academic Press 1979
  • Published: January 1, 1979
  • Imprint: Academic Press
  • eBook ISBN: 9780323141550

About the Author

Melvin Shaw

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