The Guide to Investigation of Mouse Pregnancy - 1st Edition - ISBN: 9780123944450, 9780123947949

The Guide to Investigation of Mouse Pregnancy

1st Edition

Editors: B. Anne Croy Aureo Yamada Francesco DeMayo S. Lee Adamson
eBook ISBN: 9780123947949
Hardcover ISBN: 9780123944450
Imprint: Academic Press
Published Date: 30th January 2014
Page Count: 832
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Description

The Guide to Investigation of Mouse Pregnancy is the first publication to cover the mouse placenta or the angiogenic tree the mother develops to support the placenta. This much-needed resource covers monitoring of the cardiovascular system, gestational programming of chronic adult disease, epigenetic regulation, gene imprinting, and stem cells.

Offering detailed and integrated information on how drugs, biologics, stress, and manipulations impact pregnancy in the mouse model, this reference highlights techniques used to analyze mouse pregnancy. Joining the ranks of much referenced mouse resources, The Guide to Investigation of Mouse Pregnancy is the only manual providing needed content on pregnancy in animal models for translational medicine and research.

Key Features

  • Provides instruction on how to collect pre-clinical data on pregnancy in mouse models for eventual use in human applications
  • Describes the angiogenic tree the mother’s uterus develops to support pregnancy and the monitoring of pregnancy-induced cardiovascular changes
  • Educates readers on placental cell lineages, decidual development including immune cells, epigenetic regulation, gene imprinting, stem cells, birth and lactation
  • Discusses how stress, environmental toxicants and other manipulations impact upon placental function and pregnancy success

Readership

This book is intended for basic scientists and clinical investigators researching reproduction, immunology, developmental biology, cardiology, gynecology, animal care, and veterinary medicine; graduate students; postdocs; veterinary technologists; and laboratory technologists.

Table of Contents

Biographies

Preface

Conception of This Publication

Goals

The Many Thank Yous Over the Course of This Project

Contributors

Part I: Atlas

1. The Cycling and Pregnant Mouse: Gross Anatomy

Chapter Summary

Abbreviations

Introduction

Anatomic Changes in the Appearance of the Cycling and Pregnant Uterus

Death of a Conceptus Does not Mean Pregnancy Failure

Postpartum Uterine Involution

Illustrative Plates

References

2. Implant Site Dissections

Chapter Summary

Abbreviations

Introduction

Dissection of Gestation Day 6.5–9.5 Uteri and Implant Sites

Collection of the MLAp

Dissection of Uteri and Implant Sites between Gestation Day 10.5 and Term

Illustrative Plates

References

3. Microscopic Anatomy of the Pregnant Mouse Uterus Throughout Gestation

Chapter Summary

Abbreviations

Introduction

4. Anatomy of the Mouse Placenta Throughout Gestation

Chapter Summary

Abbreviations

5. Whole-Mount Immunohistochemistry of Early Implantation Sites

Chapter Summary

Abbreviations

Introduction

Benefits and Limitations

Whole-Mount Atlas Plates

References

6. Magnetic Resonance Imaging of the Mouse Placenta

Chapter Summary

Introduction

Methods

Future Perspectives

References

Part II: Basic Biology

Interval A. Estrus, Early Development, Implantation and Uterine Receptivity

7. Reproductive Tract Changes During the Mouse Estrous Cycle

Chapter Summary

Acknowledgments

Introduction

Female Mouse Reproductive Tract Anatomy

The Mouse Estrous Cycle

References

8. First Cell Fate Decisions in Early Development: Towards Establishment of the Trophoblast Lineage

Chapter Summary

Abbreviations

Introduction

Cell Fate Decisions in Early Development

Transcription Factors Regulating Early Cell Fate Decisions

Epigenetic Modifications Underpin the Establishment of Stably Committed Cell Lineages

Stem Cells to Model the First Cell Lineages: Deconstructing the Early Embryo

Trophoblast Stem Cells as Critical Tool to Study Placental Development

References

9. Tetraploid Complementation Assay

Chapter Summary

Abbreviations

Review

References

10. Biology of the Ectoplacental Cone

Chapter Summary

Abbreviations

Chapter Contents

The Blastocyst at the Uterine Cavity: Preparing for Embryo Implantation

Embryo Implantation and the Mural Trophoblast

Growth Characteristics and Fate of the Ectoplacental Cone Cells

Summary

References

11. Decidualization and Endometrial Extracellular Matrix Remodeling

Chapter Summary

Abbreviations

Establishment of the Maternal–Fetal Interface

Endometrial Compartmentalization

Endometrial Modifications Preceding Decidualization

Decidualization of the Endometrium

Dynamics of Decidual Development

Control of Decidualization

Mesenchymal and Epithelial Aspects in Decidualization

Endometrial Extracellular Matrix Remodeling

Regulation of Endometrial ECM Remodeling

References

Interval B. The Maternal-Fetal Interface - Primitive Streak to Term

12. Postimplantation Development of the Chorioallantoic Placenta

Chapter Summary

Abbreviations

Morphology of the Chorioallantoic Placenta

Morphogenesis of the P-TGC Layer and Junctional Zone

Morphogenesis of the Labyrinth Zone

Studying Placental Phenotypes

References

13. Unique Features of Endometrial Dynamics During Pregnancy

Chapter Summary

Abbreviations

Overview

Pregnancy-Associated Uterine Tissue Remodeling

Luminal Epithelium: Receptivity, Regression and Restoration

Biology of the Endometrial Stroma

References

14. Pathology Analysis of the Placenta

Chapter Summary

Abbreviations

Considerations in the Structural Analysis of Mouse Placental Specimens

Major Lesion Patterns in Mouse Placenta and Their Causes

References

15. Changes in Structures and Relationships of Trophoblasts, Leukocytes, and Maternal Vessels in Implantation Sites to Midpregnancy

Chapter Summary

Abbreviations

Introduction

Orientation Landmarks: Features of the Uterine Wall Visualized by Whole Mount In Situ Immunohistochemistry

Whole-Mount Features of Gd 4.5–5.5 Implant Sites

Whole-Mount Features of Gd 6.5–9.5 Implant Sites

Roles of Decidual Lymphocytes Defined by Whole-Mount Studies

Whole-Mount Definition of Implant Site Relationships in Mice Lacking NK Cell Activation Receptors

Whole-Mount Identification of Changes in Implant Sites in Mice Genetically Ablated for PGF

Summary and Future Perspectives

References

16. The Uteroplacental, Fetoplacental, and Yolk Sac Circulations in the Mouse

Chapter Summary

Abbreviations

Introduction

The Yolk Sac Circulation

The Uteroplacental Circulation

The Umbilical Cord and Fetoplacental Circulation

Strain Differences in Placental Circulation

Summary and Future Perspectives

References

17. Physiological Exchange across Mouse Placenta

Chapter Summary

Abbreviations

Introduction

Flow and Membrane Limited Transfer

Transporter Mediated Transfer

Endocytosis/Exocytosis

Summary and Future Perspectives

References

Further Reading

18. Hypoxia-Associated Regulation within Implantation Sites

Chapter Summary

Abbreviations

Introduction

Oxygen and Pregnancy

Hypoxia-Inducible Factors

Gene Knockout Models

High-Altitude Pregnancies

Hypoxic Chambers

Pharmacological Models

Surgical Models

Summary and Future Perspectives

References

19. Leukocyte Population Dynamics and Functions at the Maternal–Fetal Interface

Chapter Summary

Abbreviations

Acknowledgments

Introduction

General Considerations

NK Cells

Macrophages

Dendritic Cells

Monocytes and Other Myeloid Precursors

T Cells

Summary and Future Perspectives

References

20. In Vivo Tracking of Mononuclear Cells in the Virgin Uterus and in Implantation Sites

Chapter Summary

Abbreviations

Acknowledgments

Introduction

Two-Photon Microscopy and Its Use in Immunology

Intravital Imaging of Uterus and Placentas

Advantages and Limits of New Uterus/Placenta Intravital Imaging Techniques

Image Processing

Concluding Remarks about Intravital Imaging of Uterus and Placenta

References

21. Microchimerism in Mouse Pregnancy

Chapter Summary

Abbreviations

Introduction to Microchimerism

Fetal Microchimerism

Conclusion and Perspectives

References

22. Systems Biology Analyses of the Placenta

Chapter Summary

What is Systems Biology?

Genome Wide vs Targeted Techniques

Measuring Gene Expression

Sample Generation

Software

Statistics

Bioinformatics

Examples

Conclusion

References

23. Contribution of Placental Genomic Imprinting and Identification of Imprinted Genes

Chapter Summary

Genomic Imprinting: Lessons from Mice

Why Imprinting?

Imprinting in the Placenta: A Special Role?

Concluding Remarks

References

24. Epigenetics of Placental Development and Function

Chapter Summary

Abbreviations

Introduction

The Use of Epigenetics and Epigenomics to Describe Mammalian Cells and Tissues

DNA Methylation

Histone Modifications

Epigenetic Control of Placental Development and Functions

Epigenetic Abnormality in Developmental Defects and Chronic Diseases: The Influence of Drug and Environmental Chemicals and Nutrition on Epigenetic Systems

Evolutionary Aspects of Placenta Viewed through Epigenetics

Summary and Future Perspectives

References

25. Genome-Wide Analysis of the Mouse Deciduoma

Chapter Summary

Abbreviations

Introduction

Mouse Deciduoma Models: Historical and Current Perspectives

Importance of Choosing a Suitable Model and Sample Type

Transcriptome Analysis Using Microarrays

New Frontiers in Genome-Wide Analyses of Mouse Deciduoma

Perspectives on Future Genome-Wide Deciduoma Research

References

26. Conditional Gene Deletion in the Placenta Using the Cre-loxP System

Chapter Summary

Abbreviations

Overview

Validation of Cre-loxP Conditional Gene Deletion Mouse Models

Summary

References

27. Genetic Engineering of Mice to Investigate Uterine Function in Early Pregnancy

Chapter Summary

Abbreviations

Introduction

Transgenic Models to Assess Uterine Function

Use of Homologous Recombination and Targeting in ES Cells to Generate Efficient Models to Elucidate Uterine Function

Summary

References

28. Lentivirus-Mediated Transduction of Optical Reporter Genes in Blastocysts for Placental Studies

Chapter Summary

Abbreviations

Acknowledgment

Introduction

Modulation of Placental Functions by Generation of Chimeric Placentas

Placental Gene Manipulation Based on Trophoblast Lineage-Specific Promoters

Virus-Mediated Placenta-Specific Gene Delivery

Summary and Future Perspectives

References

29. Blood Pressure Regulation during Mouse Pregnancy

Chapter Summary

Abbreviations

Introduction

Cardiovascular Changes in Mammalian Pregnancy (Human vs Mouse)

Choices between Blood Pressure Recording Methodologies

Normal Mouse Pregnancy

Hypertensive Mouse Models

Other Experimental Models Involving Reproduction

Advantages and Limitations of Radiotelemetry

References

30. Intravital Imaging of Vasoactivity in the Uterine Arterial Tree during Pregnancy

Chapter Summary

Abbreviations

Introduction

Blood Flow Control

Intravital Microscopy Preparation

Imaging of the Endometrial Vasculature

Branch Order Classification of the Endometrial Vasculature

Vascular Reactivity of Intravital Preparation

Summary and Future Perspectives

References

31. Multimodal Imaging of the Mouse Placenta

Chapter Summary

Abbreviations

Acknowledgments

Introduction

Ultrasound Imaging of the Mouse Placenta

Intravital Fluorescence Microscopy of the Mouse Placenta

Photoacoustic Imaging of the Mouse Placenta

Utilizing Bioluminescence Reporter Genes for Placenta Imaging (Luciferin–Luciferase)

MRI Imaging of the Mouse Placenta

Future Perspectives

References

Interval C. Parturition, Lactation and Postnatal Outcomes

32. Regulation of Parturition

Chapter Summary

Uterine Activation during Labor

Myometrial Stimulation

Physiologic Uterine Inflammation and Labor Onset

The Problem of Preterm Birth

Mouse Models of PTB

Genetic Manipulation of Labor Pathway in the Mouse

Prevention of PTB

Conclusions

References

33. Cervical Changes Accompanying Birth

Chapter Summary

Abbreviations

Acknowledgments

Introduction to the Pregnant Cervix

Anatomy and Histology of the Mouse Cervix

ECM Components of the Pregnant Cervix

Phases of Cervical Remodeling

Premature Cervical Ripening in Preterm Birth

Summary and Future Perspectives

References

34. Peri-Partum Changes to Mouse Pubic Symphysis

Chapter Summary

Abbreviations

Acknowledgments

Introduction

Nongravid Pubic Symphysis

Phases of PS Remodeling

Relevance of Postpartum PS Recovery

Conclusions

References

35. Mammary Gland Morphogenesis and Function during Pregnancy

Chapter Summary

Abbreviations

Introduction

Mammary Gland Structure

Postnatal Mammary Gland Development

The Intersection of Progesterone and Prolactin Signals Specifies Mammary Epithelial Proliferation and Differentiation during Pregnancy Progression

Summary and Future Perspectives

References

36. Gestational Programming of the Cardiovascular System

Chapter Summary

Abbreviations

Introduction

Hemodynamic and Biochemical Origins of Cardiovascular Disease

Embryonic and Fetal Cardiac Assessments

3D Cardiac Imaging

Assessment of Cardiac Performance Using Ultrasound Biomicroscopy In Utero

Concluding Remarks

References

37. Maternal Stress-Mediated Gene Expression Changes in the Mouse Placenta: A Mosaic Hypothesis of Epigenesis

Chapter Summary

Abbreviations

Acknowledgment

Introduction

What is the Role of Epigenetics in Stress-Induced and Other Placental Gene Expression?

To What Extent is Murine Placental Gene Expression Altered during the Course of Gestation?

To What Extent is Placental Gene Expression Altered by Maternal Protein/Caloric Deprivation?

What are the Correlates of Dietary Deprivation in Placentas of Other Mammals?

To What Extent is Placental Gene Expression Altered by Maternal Caloric Excess?

To What Extent is Placental Gene Expression Altered by Maternal Hypoxia?

What are the Correlates in the Human Placenta?

What are the Overall Perspectives and Critical Questions to Explore?

Summary

References

38. Pregnancy Alterations from Environmental Pollutants

Chapter Summary

Abbreviations

Introduction

Reproductive and Developmental Toxicity Testing

Environmental Air Pollution

Reproductive Toxicity of Air Pollution

Conclusions

References

Part III: Protocols

39. Monitoring Mouse Estrous Cycles

Chapter Summary

Protocol: Collecting the Vaginal Epithelial Cells

Protocol: Staining Vaginal Smears with May-Grünwald Giemsa stain

References

40. Lentivirus Transduction of Gene Tags in Blastocysts

Chapter Summary

Abbreviations

Acknowledgment

Overview

Protocol

Major Technical Limitations

Troubleshooting

References

41. Tetraploid Complementation Assay

Chapter Summary

Abbreviations

Protocol

Materials

Reagents

Method

References

42. Pseudopregnant Bead-Induced Mouse Deciduoma Model

Chapter Summary

Abbreviations

Overview

Materials

Solutions

Protocol

Alternate Proven Ways to Do Bead Transfer

References

43. Ectoplacental Cone Isolation, Culture and Assessment

Chapter Summary

Abbreviations

Culturing Blastocysts to Study Trophoblast Cells

Isolation and Culture of Ectoplacental Cone

Coculture Systems

The Ectoplacental Cone as a Xenograft

Summary and Perspectives

References

44. Layer-Enriched Tissue Dissection of the Mouse Placenta in Late Gestation

Chapter Summary

Abbreviations

Overview

Protocol

References

45. Protocols for Placental Histology

Chapter Summary

Processing Sequence for Mouse Placental Specimens

Histotechnological Practices for Preparing Mouse Placenta

Final Thoughts

References

46. Best Practice for Quantifying the Microscopic Structure of Mouse Placenta: The Stereological Approach

Chapter Summary

Abbreviations

Overview

Protocol

Concluding Remarks

References

47. Electron Microscopy and Immunoelectromicroscopy Protocols

Chapter Summary

Abbreviations

Overview of Microscope Images

The Physics of Electrons and the Chemistry of Biological Molecules in Electron Microscopy

Handling of Mouse Reproductive Organs for Ultrastructural Analyses

Protocols for Sample Processing for TEM Ultrastructural and Immunocytochemical Analyses

Further Reading

48. Laser Capture Microdissection

Chapter Summary

Abbreviations

Introduction

Advantages of LCM

Disadvantages of LCM

LCM Procedure

Sample Preparation for LCM

Slide Preparation

Staining

Microdissection Procedure

RNA Extraction

Antisense RNA Amplification (Optional)

cDNA Synthesis

Tips for Good Sample Processing

Important Precautions while Dealing with RNA

Common Problems Encountered in LCM

References

49. Immunofluorescence and Immunohistochemistry

Chapter Summary

Abbreviations

Overview

Protocol

Troubleshooting

Double Staining

Reference

50. Nonradioactive In Situ Hybridization: Optimization for Tissue Sections from Pregnant Uteri and Placenta during the First Half of Pregnancy

Chapter Summary

Abbreviations

Overview

Probe Preparation

Tissue and Slide Preparation

Hybridization

Posthybridization Wash

Color Development

Fluorescent In Situ Hybridization

Potential Optimization Steps

Kits, Reagents, and Recipes

References

51. Whole Mount In Situ Immunohistochemistry

Chapter Summary

Abbreviations

Overview

Protocol

Orientation of Stained Specimens

Technical Limitations

References

52. Guidelines for Evaluation of Reproductive and Developmental Endpoints

Chapter Summary

Abbreviations

Overview

Initial Considerations

Study Protocol

Reporting

References

53. Flow Cytometric Analysis of Myometrial and Decidual Cell Suspensions

Chapter Summary

Abbreviations

Overview

Protocol

Subset Analysis

Technical Limitations

References

54. Uterine Leukocyte Isolation and Culture

Chapter Summary

Abbreviations

Overview

Uterine Leukocyte Isolation

Uterine Leukocyte Culture

Protocols

References

55. Scanning Electron Microscopy and Micro-Computed Tomography Imaging of the Utero- and Fetoplacental Circulations

Chapter Summary

Abbreviations

Acknowledgments

Overview

Perfusion and Casting of the Uteroplacental Vascular Tree

Perfusion and Casting of the Fetoplacental Vascular Tree

Scanning Electron Microscope Imaging

Micro-Computed Tomography Imaging

References

56. Radiotelemetry in Mouse Pregnacy

Chapter Summary

Abbreviations

Overview

Required/Suggested Equipment

Surgical Protocol

Postoperative Care

Data Acquisition and Analysis

Summary

References

57. Ex vivo Perfusion of the Mouse Placenta for Maternal–Fetal Interaction Studies during Pregnancy

Chapter Summary

Abbreviations

Acknowledgments

Overview

Equipment and Reagents

Protocol

Critical Steps

Anticipated Results

References

58. Evaluation of Placental Transport Function

Chapter Summary

Abbreviations

Isolated Mouse Placental Plasma Membrane Vesicles

Mouse Placental Fragments

Measurement of Unidirectional Maternofetal Solute Clearance across the Intact Mouse Placenta

Advantages, Limitations, and Technical Challenges of These Procedures

References

59. Hypoxia-Associated Regulation within Implantation Sites

Chapter Summary

Abbreviations

Overview

Fiber-Optic Oxygen Microsensor

Conclusions

References

60. Method to Locate the Uterine Artery in Mice for Micro-Ultrasound Doppler Blood Velocity Examination

Chapter Summary

Abbreviations

Overview

Protocol

References

61. Two-Photon Intravital Microscopy of the Virgin and Pregnant Mouse Uterus

Chapter Summary

Abbreviations

Overview

Protocols

Final Considerations about These Techniques

References

62. Intravital Imaging of Vasoactivity in the Uterine Arterial Vasculature Tree during Pregnancy

Chapter Summary

Abbreviations

Overview

Protocol

Tissue Orientation

Technical Limitations

References

63. MRI, Intra-vital, and Ex-vivo Fluorescence Microscopy of the Mouse Uterine Vasculature and Placenta

Chapter Summary

Abbreviations

Acknowledgment

Overview

Magnetic Resonance Imaging

Optical Imaging

References

64. Assessment of Changes in the Peripartum Cervix

Chapter Summary

Abbreviations

Acknowledgments

Assessment of Cervical Collagen Structure by Second-Harmonic Generation

Analysis of Cervical Glycosaminoglycans

Identification and Quantification of Immune Cell Populations by Flow Cytometry

Preterm Birth Mouse Models

References

65. Pubic Symphysis Evaluation

Chapter Summary

Abbreviations

Acknowledgments

Introduction

Animals and Interpubic Tissue Collection

Classical Histological Fixation and Embedding

Classical Histological Staining

Morphometric Determination of the Length Profiles of Elastic Fibers

Hyaluronic Acid Histochemical Analysis with Hyaluronic Acid Probes

TUNEL Analysis for Evaluation of Cell Death in Interpubic Tissue

Immunohistochemical/Immunofluorescence Protocols for Interpubic Tissues

Transmission Electron Microscopy

Scanning Electron Microscopy

Explant Culture of Interpubic Tissues

Biochemical and Molecular Processing

Conclusion

References

66. Labor and Preterm Labor

Chapter Summary

Abbreviations

Monitoring of Labor and Delivery

Detection of Term and Preterm Parturition

67. Epithelial Transplantation into the Cleared Mammary Fat Pad

Chapter Summary

Abbreviations

Overview

Protocol

Technical Problems and Limitations

References

68. Dietary and Hypoxic Protocols That Alter Placental Gene Expression in Response to Maternal Stress

Animals, Breeding, and Tissue Collection

Antenatal Maternal Protein Restriction

Antenatal Maternal Caloric Excess

Antenatal Maternal Hypoxia

Biological Significance

References

69. Parental-Specific Gene Expression and Epigenetic Analyses of Imprinted Genes in Mouse Placenta

Chapter Summary

Abbreviations

Overview

Protocol

Technical Limitations

References

70. A Method for Obtaining Epigenomic Data

Chapter Summary

Bisulfite Reaction

Chromatin Immunoprecipitation

Bioinformatics Tools for Genome-wide Studies

References

71. Methods for Genetic Engineering in Mice

Chapter Summary

Abbreviations

Overview

Germline Gene Ablation Targeting Vector

Conditional Gene Ablation Targeting Vector

Conditional Overexpression Targeting Vector

ES Cell Targeting

Picking ES Cell Colonies and Injection Preparation

Generation of Chimeric Mice

Identification of Genetically Engineered Mice

Equipment

Reagents

Summary and Future Perspectives

References

Appendix. Reproductive Parameters of Common, Commercially Available Mouse Strains

Index

Details

No. of pages:
832
Language:
English
Copyright:
© Academic Press 2014
Published:
Imprint:
Academic Press
eBook ISBN:
9780123947949
Hardcover ISBN:
9780123944450

About the Editor

B. Anne Croy

Affiliations and Expertise

Dept. of Biomedical and Molecular Sciences, School of Medicine, Queen's University, ON, Canada

Aureo Yamada

Affiliations and Expertise

Instituto de Biologia, Universidade Estadual de Campinas, Campinas, Brazil

Francesco DeMayo

Affiliations and Expertise

Developmental Biology, Baylor College of Medicine,TX, U.S.A.

S. Lee Adamson

Affiliations and Expertise

Samuel Lunenfeld Research Institute of Mount Sinai Hospital,ON,Canada

Reviews

"The editors must be congratulated with this book, which will be extremely useful to all investigators who are focussing on this most popular animal model."--Placenta, November 28, 2014

"The text is clear and concise and contains something for beginning and expert investigators alike...This book will be a valued addition to the library of any pregnancy researcher who uses mice as their model organism."--Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association, 15-Sep-14