The Growing of Sugar Cane - 1st Edition - ISBN: 9781483232959, 9781483275185

The Growing of Sugar Cane

1st Edition

Authors: Roger P. Humbert
eBook ISBN: 9781483275185
Imprint: Elsevier
Published Date: 1st January 1963
Page Count: 722
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The Growing of Sugar Cane develops the fundamental principles of the growing of cane in the hope that cane culture throughout the world will benefit by it. The tremendous strides made in recent years in the knowledge of how to improve the growing of sugar cane, form the subject of this treatise. Cane growing is not a science. As the results of research replace tradition and guesswork, yields are expected to continue to rise. The book opens with a chapter on the factors that affect sugar cane growth. This is followed by separate chapters on seedbed preparation, sugar cane planting, the nutrition and irrigation of sugar cane, drainage, weed control, flowering control, ripening and maturity, harvesting and transportation, and pest and disease control.

Table of Contents



Chapter I. Factors Affecting the Growth of Sugar Cane

The Soil as a Factor in Sugar Cane Growth

Physical Properties of Soils

Chemical Properties of Soils

The Soil Microbiological Populations

Soil-Plant Relationships and Cane Growth

Factors Affecting the Growth of Roots

Root Systems of Ratoon Crops

Temperature Effects on Root Growth

Aeration in Relation to Root Growth

Soil Moisture in Relation to Root Growth

Soil Acidity in Relation to Root Growth

Fertilizers in Relation to Root Growth

Cultivation in Relation to Root Growth

Wind in Relation to Root Growth

Importance of Root Studies

The Stalk

The Leaves

Climatic Factors and Cane Growth

Effects of Temperature and Sunlight on Cane Growth

Moisture and Cane Growth

Frost Damage

Spanish Summary

Chapter II. Seedbed Preparation

Deep Tillage

Requirements of a Good Seedbed

Improving Physical Conditions of Heavy Clay and Sandy Soils with Organic Materials

Soil Compaction

Root Studies in Compacted Soils

Reconditioning of Compacted and Puddled Soils

Good Plowing a Must for Good Soil Tilth

Final Preparation of Seedbed for Cane

Disking, Rolling and Harrowing for Surface Soil Preparation

Effects of Post-Planting Traffic

Land Leveling for the Best Seedbed

Cultivation to Retain Good Tilth

Green Manure Crops

Chemicals for Conditioning

Spanish Summary

Chapter III. Planting of Sugar Cane

External Factors and Germination



Soil Tilth

Seed Treatment

Plant Disease-Free Seed

Pre-Fertilizing Seed-Cane

Planting in Furrows or on Beds

Depth of Planting

Internal Factors and Germination

Plant Population Studies

Quantity of Seed Used

Spaced Planting

Strip Planting for Erosion Control

Pre-Germination and Transplant of Seed-Cane


Precautions and Recommendations in Using PMA

Spanish Summary

Chapter IV. the Nutrition of Sugar Cane


Nutrient Uptake

Factors Influencing the Chemical Composition

Climate and Chemical Composition

Fertilization of Sugar Cane

Trace-Element Nutrition

Trace-Element Composition of Sugar Cane

Plant Analyses and Crop Logging

Analyses of Early Experiences in Crop Logging

Expansion of Crop Logging in Hawaii

Stalk Tissues More Sensitive for N and P Needs

Leaf Sheath and 8-10 Stalk Potassium Equal

Chemical Composition of Plant Tissue

Crop-Log Sampling Procedures

Analytical Procedures

Effects of Climate on Composition of Sugar Cane

Total Plant Food Applied in Hawaii

Methods of Application

Number of Applications

Completion Time for Fertilization

Total Pounds of Nitrogen Applied

Pounds of Nitrogen in First Application

Total Pounds of Phosphate Applied

Total Pounds of Potash Applied

Number of Applications with Potash

Pounds of Potash in First Application

Summary of Fertilization Practices in Hawaii

Plant Analyses vs. Soil Tests

Field Experimentation to Correlate Soil and Plant Analyses with Yields

Balanced Feeding

Fertilizer Placement

Fertilization by Aircraft

Fertilization in Irrigation Water

Ammonia Fertilizer for Sugar Cane

Application in Irrigation Water

Application by Injection Equipment

Solid vs. Liquid Fertilizers

Progress in 50 Years Since 1900

Spanish Summary

Chapter V. Irrigation of Sugar Cane

Water and Its Relation to Soils and Sugar Cane

History of Irrigation Investigations in Hawaii

The Intake and Storage of Water by Soil

Moisture-Holding Properties of Soils

Moisture within the Plant

Role of Water in Physiology of Plants

Moisture Removal by Sugar Cane

Measurement of Water Deficit in Plants

Drought Tolerance of Sugar Cane

Experiment 'MASI'

Irrigation Interval Control

Bouyoucos Blocks


Planning Field Layouts

Irrigation Systems

The Herringbone System

Level Ditch System

Continuous Long-Line System

Water Distribution Studies

Results of Radio Rubidium Tests

Volume of Water Discharge

Line Slope

Measuring Water Infiltration in Furrows

Furrow Shapes and Layouts

Flumes and Flume Outlets

Overhead Irrigation

Rate of Water Application

Semi-Permanent Systems under Test

Water Development

Economics of Water Development

Cane Pushback Machines in Operation in Hawaii

Plant Diseases and Irrigation Relationships

Management Practices Affecting Watersheds

Moisture Conservation in Unirrigated Districts

Delivery of Water to the Cane Fields

Water Losses from Seepage

Water Quality

Water Costs

Spanish Summary

Chapter VI. Drainage

Soil Aeration

Role of Soil Aeration in Nutrient Uptake

Soil Aeration and Chemical Reactions in Soil

Aeration and Soil Biology

Mechanics and Soil Aeration

Waterlogged Soils

Behavior of Sugar Cane under Waterlogged Conditions

Drainage and Root Systems

Soil Water and Root Development

Effect of Drainage on Soil Temperature

Effect of Drainage on Disease Resistance

Wet Soil and Its Agricultural Implications

Removing Excess Water from Soils

Drainage of Irrigated Lands

Topography and Drainage

The Soil Factor and Drainage

Water Table Studies

Depth of Water Table

Effects of Salinity upon Plant Growth

Salinity and Drainage

Salinity Problems in Sugar Cane Fields

Salinity Problems and Height of Water Table

Water Quality

Design of Drainage Systems

Soil Improvement and Drainage Designs

Trash Conservation as Surface Mulches

Mole Drains

Pumping as an Aid to Drainage

Diversion and Interceptor Ditches

Tidal Marsh Drainage

Maintenance of Drains

Effectiveness of Drainage Systems

Influence of Drainage on Sugar Yields

The Louisiana Banks System

Land Smoothing for Improved Drainage

Engineering Aspects of Land Drainage

Machinery for Soil Drainage

Spanish Summary

Chapter VII. Weed Control

Losses Caused by Weeds

Association of Weeds with Sugar Cane

Competition between Sugar Cane and Weeds

Methods of Preventing the Introduction and Spread of Weeds

Control vs. Eradication

Methods of Control

Comparison of Weed Control Methods

Chemical Weed Control in Hawaii

Application of Herbicides

Herbicides and Their Modes of Action

Effects of Herbicides on Sugar Cane

Tolerance to Herbicides

Spray Drift of Herbicides

Weed Control Schedules

Weed Control on Field Edges

Weeds of Irrigation Ditches and Drainage Canals

Formulations and Mixing Plants

Weed Control in Wet Areas and in Wet Seasons

Costs of Weed Control

Hazards and Precautions

Woody Plant Control

Weed Control in Other Sugar-Producing Countries

Weed Control in Mexico

Weed Control in Louisiana

Weed Control in Mauritius

Weed Control in Puerto Rico

Weed Control in Other Producing Areas

Machinery for Applying Herbicides

Herbicide Tests

Training and Supervision of Personnel

Spanish Summary

Chapter VIII. Control of Flowering


Photoperiodic Control of Flowering

Light Intensity and Duration

Flowering in Relation to Day Length

Selection of Varieties for Specific Photoperiods

Physiology of Flowering

Age in Relation to Flowering

The Inducement of Flowering

Control of Flowering with Light

Suppression of Flowering with Fertilizers

Control of Flowering by Irrigation Management

Control of Flowering with Chemicals

Effects of Flowering on Growth

Tasseling Effect on Yield

Spanish Summary

Chapter IX. Ripening and Maturity

Effects of Climatic Factors on Maturity

Nutritional Aspects of Ripening

Nitrogen and Juice Quality

Phosphate and Juice Quality

Potash and Juice Quality

Excess Salts and Juice Quality

Sugar Formation and Storage

Juice Quality-Moisture Stress Relationships

Translocation Affected by Moisture Stress

Loss of Moisture in Sugar Cane

Age in Relation to Maturity

Dead Cane at Harvest

Effect of Irrigation following Droughts

Cane Mortality in Areas of Poor Drainage

Varieties, Maturity and Mortality

Field Practices and Stalk Mortality

Preharvest Sampling for Scheduling Harvests

8-10 Stalk Sampling

Methods of Maturity Determination

Sucrose-Fiber Ratio

Cane Ripening in Hawaii

Cane Ripening in Mexico

Ripening Sugar Cane with Chemicals

Desiccating Cane Foliage for Better Burns

Spanish Summary

Chapter X. Harvesting and Transport of Sugar Cane

Mechanization of Cane Agriculture

Mechanical Harvesting

Land Preparation for Mechanical Harvesting

Dirty Cane Costly

Losses from Wet Weather Harvesting

Rock Removal

High Flotation Tires Look Promising

Mechanical Loading of Handcut Cane

Mechanization of Cane Transportation

Burning of Cane Prior to Harvest

Length of Grinding Season

To Mechanize or Not

Spanish Summary

Chapter XI. Control of Pests and Diseases

Bacterial Diseases

Gumming Disease

Leaf Scald

Virus Diseases

Mosaic Disease

Chlorotic Streak

Ratoon Stunting Disease

Diseases of the Leaves, Sheaths and Stalks

Ring Spot

Red Rot

Pokkah Boeng

Eye Spot

Brown Stripe

Pineapple Disease

Root Diseases

Pythium Root Rot

Other Diseases

Fiji Disease

Sclerospora Disease


Plant Nutrition in Relation to Cane Diseases

Insects and Rats

Know Who Your Insect Immigrants are

Rat Control

Migration of Rats

Cane Damage


Seasonal Fluctuations


Air Application of Rat Poisons

Rat Control for Variety Tests

Coloring of Baits


Sugar-Cane Leaf Hopper


Sugar-Cane Scale Insect

Cutworms and Armyworms

Sugar-Cane Aphis


Sugar-Cane Borer



The Beetles

Nematode Populations in Sugar-Cane Soils


Influence of Soil Population

Fumigant and Fungicide Residues

Fumigation Effects on Nutrient Availability

Shipments of Beneficial Insects

Problems Associated with Overproduction

Spanish Summary


HSPA-Modified TRUOG Method for Determination of Available Phosphorus in Soils


Author Index

Subject Index


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About the Author

Roger P. Humbert

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