The Growing of Sugar Cane

The Growing of Sugar Cane

1st Edition - January 1, 1963

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  • Author: Roger P. Humbert
  • eBook ISBN: 9781483275185

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Description

The Growing of Sugar Cane develops the fundamental principles of the growing of cane in the hope that cane culture throughout the world will benefit by it. The tremendous strides made in recent years in the knowledge of how to improve the growing of sugar cane, form the subject of this treatise. Cane growing is not a science. As the results of research replace tradition and guesswork, yields are expected to continue to rise. The book opens with a chapter on the factors that affect sugar cane growth. This is followed by separate chapters on seedbed preparation, sugar cane planting, the nutrition and irrigation of sugar cane, drainage, weed control, flowering control, ripening and maturity, harvesting and transportation, and pest and disease control.

Table of Contents


  • Introduction

    Introduction

    Chapter I. Factors Affecting the Growth of Sugar Cane

    The Soil as a Factor in Sugar Cane Growth

    Physical Properties of Soils

    Chemical Properties of Soils

    The Soil Microbiological Populations

    Soil-Plant Relationships and Cane Growth

    Factors Affecting the Growth of Roots

    Root Systems of Ratoon Crops

    Temperature Effects on Root Growth

    Aeration in Relation to Root Growth

    Soil Moisture in Relation to Root Growth

    Soil Acidity in Relation to Root Growth

    Fertilizers in Relation to Root Growth

    Cultivation in Relation to Root Growth

    Wind in Relation to Root Growth

    Importance of Root Studies

    The Stalk

    The Leaves

    Climatic Factors and Cane Growth

    Effects of Temperature and Sunlight on Cane Growth

    Moisture and Cane Growth

    Frost Damage

    Spanish Summary

    Chapter II. Seedbed Preparation

    Deep Tillage

    Requirements of a Good Seedbed

    Improving Physical Conditions of Heavy Clay and Sandy Soils with Organic Materials

    Soil Compaction

    Root Studies in Compacted Soils

    Reconditioning of Compacted and Puddled Soils

    Good Plowing a Must for Good Soil Tilth

    Final Preparation of Seedbed for Cane

    Disking, Rolling and Harrowing for Surface Soil Preparation

    Effects of Post-Planting Traffic

    Land Leveling for the Best Seedbed

    Cultivation to Retain Good Tilth

    Green Manure Crops

    Chemicals for Conditioning

    Spanish Summary

    Chapter III. Planting of Sugar Cane

    External Factors and Germination

    Temperature

    Moisture

    Soil Tilth

    Seed Treatment

    Plant Disease-Free Seed

    Pre-Fertilizing Seed-Cane

    Planting in Furrows or on Beds

    Depth of Planting

    Internal Factors and Germination

    Plant Population Studies

    Quantity of Seed Used

    Spaced Planting

    Strip Planting for Erosion Control

    Pre-Germination and Transplant of Seed-Cane

    Replanting

    Precautions and Recommendations in Using PMA

    Spanish Summary

    Chapter IV. the Nutrition of Sugar Cane

    General

    Nutrient Uptake

    Factors Influencing the Chemical Composition

    Climate and Chemical Composition

    Fertilization of Sugar Cane

    Trace-Element Nutrition

    Trace-Element Composition of Sugar Cane

    Plant Analyses and Crop Logging

    Analyses of Early Experiences in Crop Logging

    Expansion of Crop Logging in Hawaii

    Stalk Tissues More Sensitive for N and P Needs

    Leaf Sheath and 8-10 Stalk Potassium Equal

    Chemical Composition of Plant Tissue

    Crop-Log Sampling Procedures

    Analytical Procedures

    Effects of Climate on Composition of Sugar Cane

    Total Plant Food Applied in Hawaii

    Methods of Application

    Number of Applications

    Completion Time for Fertilization

    Total Pounds of Nitrogen Applied

    Pounds of Nitrogen in First Application

    Total Pounds of Phosphate Applied

    Total Pounds of Potash Applied

    Number of Applications with Potash

    Pounds of Potash in First Application

    Summary of Fertilization Practices in Hawaii

    Plant Analyses vs. Soil Tests

    Field Experimentation to Correlate Soil and Plant Analyses with Yields

    Balanced Feeding

    Fertilizer Placement

    Fertilization by Aircraft

    Fertilization in Irrigation Water

    Ammonia Fertilizer for Sugar Cane

    Application in Irrigation Water

    Application by Injection Equipment

    Solid vs. Liquid Fertilizers

    Progress in 50 Years Since 1900

    Spanish Summary

    Chapter V. Irrigation of Sugar Cane

    Water and Its Relation to Soils and Sugar Cane

    History of Irrigation Investigations in Hawaii

    The Intake and Storage of Water by Soil

    Moisture-Holding Properties of Soils

    Moisture within the Plant

    Role of Water in Physiology of Plants

    Moisture Removal by Sugar Cane

    Measurement of Water Deficit in Plants

    Drought Tolerance of Sugar Cane

    Experiment 'MASI'

    Irrigation Interval Control

    Bouyoucos Blocks

    Tensiometers

    Planning Field Layouts

    Irrigation Systems

    The Herringbone System

    Level Ditch System

    Continuous Long-Line System

    Water Distribution Studies

    Results of Radio Rubidium Tests

    Volume of Water Discharge

    Line Slope

    Measuring Water Infiltration in Furrows

    Furrow Shapes and Layouts

    Flumes and Flume Outlets

    Overhead Irrigation

    Rate of Water Application

    Semi-Permanent Systems under Test

    Water Development

    Economics of Water Development

    Cane Pushback Machines in Operation in Hawaii

    Plant Diseases and Irrigation Relationships

    Management Practices Affecting Watersheds

    Moisture Conservation in Unirrigated Districts

    Delivery of Water to the Cane Fields

    Water Losses from Seepage

    Water Quality

    Water Costs

    Spanish Summary

    Chapter VI. Drainage

    Soil Aeration

    Role of Soil Aeration in Nutrient Uptake

    Soil Aeration and Chemical Reactions in Soil

    Aeration and Soil Biology

    Mechanics and Soil Aeration

    Waterlogged Soils

    Behavior of Sugar Cane under Waterlogged Conditions

    Drainage and Root Systems

    Soil Water and Root Development

    Effect of Drainage on Soil Temperature

    Effect of Drainage on Disease Resistance

    Wet Soil and Its Agricultural Implications

    Removing Excess Water from Soils

    Drainage of Irrigated Lands

    Topography and Drainage

    The Soil Factor and Drainage

    Water Table Studies

    Depth of Water Table

    Effects of Salinity upon Plant Growth

    Salinity and Drainage

    Salinity Problems in Sugar Cane Fields

    Salinity Problems and Height of Water Table

    Water Quality

    Design of Drainage Systems

    Soil Improvement and Drainage Designs

    Trash Conservation as Surface Mulches

    Mole Drains

    Pumping as an Aid to Drainage

    Diversion and Interceptor Ditches

    Tidal Marsh Drainage

    Maintenance of Drains

    Effectiveness of Drainage Systems

    Influence of Drainage on Sugar Yields

    The Louisiana Banks System

    Land Smoothing for Improved Drainage

    Engineering Aspects of Land Drainage

    Machinery for Soil Drainage

    Spanish Summary

    Chapter VII. Weed Control

    Losses Caused by Weeds

    Association of Weeds with Sugar Cane

    Competition between Sugar Cane and Weeds

    Methods of Preventing the Introduction and Spread of Weeds

    Control vs. Eradication

    Methods of Control

    Comparison of Weed Control Methods

    Chemical Weed Control in Hawaii

    Application of Herbicides

    Herbicides and Their Modes of Action

    Effects of Herbicides on Sugar Cane

    Tolerance to Herbicides

    Spray Drift of Herbicides

    Weed Control Schedules

    Weed Control on Field Edges

    Weeds of Irrigation Ditches and Drainage Canals

    Formulations and Mixing Plants

    Weed Control in Wet Areas and in Wet Seasons

    Costs of Weed Control

    Hazards and Precautions

    Woody Plant Control

    Weed Control in Other Sugar-Producing Countries

    Weed Control in Mexico

    Weed Control in Louisiana

    Weed Control in Mauritius

    Weed Control in Puerto Rico

    Weed Control in Other Producing Areas

    Machinery for Applying Herbicides

    Herbicide Tests

    Training and Supervision of Personnel

    Spanish Summary

    Chapter VIII. Control of Flowering

    Photoperiodism

    Photoperiodic Control of Flowering

    Light Intensity and Duration

    Flowering in Relation to Day Length

    Selection of Varieties for Specific Photoperiods

    Physiology of Flowering

    Age in Relation to Flowering

    The Inducement of Flowering

    Control of Flowering with Light

    Suppression of Flowering with Fertilizers

    Control of Flowering by Irrigation Management

    Control of Flowering with Chemicals

    Effects of Flowering on Growth

    Tasseling Effect on Yield

    Spanish Summary

    Chapter IX. Ripening and Maturity

    Effects of Climatic Factors on Maturity

    Nutritional Aspects of Ripening

    Nitrogen and Juice Quality

    Phosphate and Juice Quality

    Potash and Juice Quality

    Excess Salts and Juice Quality

    Sugar Formation and Storage

    Juice Quality-Moisture Stress Relationships

    Translocation Affected by Moisture Stress

    Loss of Moisture in Sugar Cane

    Age in Relation to Maturity

    Dead Cane at Harvest

    Effect of Irrigation following Droughts

    Cane Mortality in Areas of Poor Drainage

    Varieties, Maturity and Mortality

    Field Practices and Stalk Mortality

    Preharvest Sampling for Scheduling Harvests

    8-10 Stalk Sampling

    Methods of Maturity Determination

    Sucrose-Fiber Ratio

    Cane Ripening in Hawaii

    Cane Ripening in Mexico

    Ripening Sugar Cane with Chemicals

    Desiccating Cane Foliage for Better Burns

    Spanish Summary

    Chapter X. Harvesting and Transport of Sugar Cane

    Mechanization of Cane Agriculture

    Mechanical Harvesting

    Land Preparation for Mechanical Harvesting

    Dirty Cane Costly

    Losses from Wet Weather Harvesting

    Rock Removal

    High Flotation Tires Look Promising

    Mechanical Loading of Handcut Cane

    Mechanization of Cane Transportation

    Burning of Cane Prior to Harvest

    Length of Grinding Season

    To Mechanize or Not

    Spanish Summary

    Chapter XI. Control of Pests and Diseases

    Bacterial Diseases

    Gumming Disease

    Leaf Scald

    Virus Diseases

    Mosaic Disease

    Chlorotic Streak

    Ratoon Stunting Disease

    Diseases of the Leaves, Sheaths and Stalks

    Ring Spot

    Red Rot

    Pokkah Boeng

    Eye Spot

    Brown Stripe

    Pineapple Disease

    Root Diseases

    Pythium Root Rot

    Other Diseases

    Fiji Disease

    Sclerospora Disease

    Quarantine

    Plant Nutrition in Relation to Cane Diseases

    Insects and Rats

    Know Who Your Insect Immigrants are

    Rat Control

    Migration of Rats

    Cane Damage

    Poisons

    Seasonal Fluctuations

    Formulas

    Air Application of Rat Poisons

    Rat Control for Variety Tests

    Coloring of Baits

    Insects

    Sugar-Cane Leaf Hopper

    Leafroller

    Sugar-Cane Scale Insect

    Cutworms and Armyworms

    Sugar-Cane Aphis

    Mealybugs

    Sugar-Cane Borer

    Termites

    Froghoppers

    The Beetles

    Nematode Populations in Sugar-Cane Soils

    Fumigation

    Influence of Soil Population

    Fumigant and Fungicide Residues

    Fumigation Effects on Nutrient Availability

    Shipments of Beneficial Insects

    Problems Associated with Overproduction

    Spanish Summary

    Appendix

    HSPA-Modified TRUOG Method for Determination of Available Phosphorus in Soils

    References

    Author Index

    Subject Index

Product details

  • No. of pages: 722
  • Language: English
  • Copyright: © Elsevier 1963
  • Published: January 1, 1963
  • Imprint: Elsevier
  • eBook ISBN: 9781483275185

About the Author

Roger P. Humbert

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