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The Fundamentals and Applications of Light-Emitting Diodes - 1st Edition - ISBN: 9780128196052, 9780128231616

The Fundamentals and Applications of Light-Emitting Diodes

1st Edition

The Revolution in the Lighting Industry

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Authors: Sanjay J. Dhoble Govind Nair
Paperback ISBN: 9780128196052
eBook ISBN: 9780128231616
Imprint: Woodhead Publishing
Published Date: 9th July 2020
Page Count: 284
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Table of Contents

Part 1: Fundamentals
1. Introduction to Luminescence
1.1. Characteristics and quality of light
1.2. Conceptual Background of Luminescence
1.3. Luminescence Mechanisms
1.3.1. Photoluminescence
1.3.2. Electroluminescence
1.4. Luminescence from Rare-earth ions and Transition metal ions
1.5. Historical Background
1.5.1. The advent of Light
1.5.2. The First Generation of Lighting
1.5.3. The Second Generation of Lighting
1.5.4. The Third Generation of Lighting
1.5.5. The Fourth Generation of Lighting

2. Fundamentals of LEDs
2.1. Overview of LEDs
2.2. Merits and opportunities
2.3. Considerations while using LEDs
2.4. Semiconductor Physics of LEDs
2.4.1. General Construction
2.4.2. Working Principle
2.5. Device Fabrication
2.5.1. Substrate materials
2.5.2. Packaging materials
2.5.3. Phosphors or Quantum dots
2.5.4. Encapsulation materials
2.5.5. Luminaires
2.6. Characteristics of LED phosphors
2.6.1. Temperature quenching
2.6.2. Luminous Efficacy
2.6.3. Color Rendering Index (CRI)
2.6.4. CIE Chromaticity coordinates
2.6.5. Correlated color temperature (CCT)
2.6.6. Quantum efficiency
2.6.7. Life Span

Part 2 : Materials
3. Semiconductor LEDs
3.1. Introduction
3.2. Growth Techniques
3.2.1. Vapor Phase Epitaxy
3.2.2. Molecular beam epitaxy
3.2.3. Metal Organic Chemical Vapor Deposition (MOCVD)
3.3. Semiconductor materials for LEDs
3.3.1. Si and Ge based alloys
3.3.2. III-Arsenides
3.3.3. III-Phosphides
3.3.4. III-Nitrides

4. Phosphor converted-LEDs (pc-LEDs) 
4.1. Phosphor
4.2. Dopant and its types
4.2.1. Activator
4.2.2. Co-activator
4.2.3. Sensitizer
4.3. Synthesis of Inorganic phosphors
4.3.1. Solid State Diffusion
4.3.2. Sol-Gel/Pechini
4.3.3. Combustion synthesis
4.3.4. Precipitation Method
4.3.5. Solvothermal Method
4.3.6. Microwave-assisted method
4.3.7. Sonochemical Synthesis
4.3.8. Template assisted method
4.3.9. Laser Ablation
4.3.10. Spray Pyrolysis
4.3.11. Microemulsions
4.3.12. Vapour Deposition
4.3.13. Colloidal Route
4.4. Red/Orange emitting phosphors
4.5. Yellow Emitting phosphors
4.6. Green Emitting phosphors
4.7. Blue emitting phosphors
4.8. White emitting phosphors
4.9. Color-tunable phosphors

5. Advanced variants of LEDs
5.1. Introduction
5.2. Quantum dot-LEDs (QD- LEDs)
5.3. Organic-LEDS (OLEDs)
5.4. Perovskite-LEDs (PeLEDs)
5.5. BioLEDs

Part 3: Applications
6. General lighting
6.1. Introduction
6.2. LEDs for lighting applications
6.2.1. Household lighting
6.2.2. Street lighting
6.2.3. Automobile lighting
6.3. Advantages of LED Lighting
6.4. Innovations in LED lighting

7. Digital communications and Display devices
7.1. Introduction
7.2. Digital Communications
7.2.1. Evolution of Communication technology
7.2.2. Future Prospects
7.3. Display Technology
7.3.1. Advancement in Display devices
7.3.2. Future prospects in Display Technology

8. Biomedical applications
8.1. Introduction
8.2. Skin Rejuvenation
8.3. Photodynamic Therapy
8.4. Cure for Mental Disorders
8.5. Cure for Other Disorders
8.6. Food Safety
8.7. Other Health and Environmental Benefits

9. Horticultural applications
9.1. Introduction
9.2. Plant’s Response To Light
9.3. LED versus Other Types of Grow-Lights
9.3.1. Incandescent Lamps
9.3.2. Fluorescent Lamps
9.3.3. High Intensity Discharge (HID)
9.3.4. Metal Halide (MH)
9.3.5. High Pressure Sodium (HPS)
9.3.6. Plasma
9.3.7. Induction Light
9.4. LEDs in Horticulture
9.5. Significance of LED Grow-Lights
9.6. Current Market Scenario

10. Current trends and Innovations
10.1. Introduction
10.2. Overview on the past and present trends in LEDs
10.3. Innovations in the structure and designing of LEDs
10.4. Innovations in the applications of LEDs
10.5. Innovations in fashion
10.6. Current Scenario of LED Market
10.7. Limitations and Challenges
10.8. Future Prospects and scope


Traditional light sources are fast being replaced by light-emitting diodes (LEDs). The fourth generation of lighting is completely dominated by LED luminaires. Apart from lighting, LEDs have extended its hold on other fields such as digital communications, horticulture, medical fields, space research, art and culture, display devices, entertainment, etc. The technological promises offered by LEDs have elevated it as a front-runner in the lighting industry. This book will explore the journey of LEDs for readers belonging to scientific community.

This book reviews the general understanding of the luminescence process and the background of solid state lighting. It includes special emphasis on the phosphor-converted LEDs that are based on inorganic phosphors. It also explores the different types of LEDs that are based on inorganic, organic, quantum dots, perovskite-structured materials and biomaterials. A detailed description has been included about the diverse applications of LEDs in fields such as lighting, displays, horticulture, biomedical and digital communication. Considerable importance has been given to discussion of the challenges that must be solved before using LEDs in commercial applications.

Key Features

  • Presents concise overview of different types of light-emitting diodes (LEDs) based on inorganic phosphors, organic materials, quantum dots, perovskite-structured materials, and biomaterials
  • Includes a discussion of current and emerging applications in lighting, communications, horticulture and medical fields
  • Addresses fundamentals, luminescence mechanisms and key optical materials (including synthesis methods)


Materials Scientists and Engineers in academia and R&D


No. of pages:
© Woodhead Publishing 2020
9th July 2020
Woodhead Publishing
Paperback ISBN:
eBook ISBN:

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About the Authors

Sanjay J. Dhoble

Prof. Sanjay J. Dhoble is presently working as a professor in the Department of Physics at R.T.M. Nagpur University, Nagpur, India. During his research career, he has worked on the synthesis and characterization of solid-state lighting materials, as well as the development of radiation dosimetry phosphors using thermoluminescence techniques and utilization of fly ash. Dr. Dhoble has filed 16 patents and more than 552 research papers. He also authored numerous books such as “Principles and applications of organic light emitting diode”, “Nanomaterials for Green Energy”, “Spectroscopy of Lanthanide Doped Oxide Materials “Phosphate phosphors for solid state lighting”; “Phosphors for energy saving and conversion technology”; and“Phosphors: Synthesis and Applications”. Dr. Dhoble is an Editor of the journal Luminescence.

Affiliations and Expertise

Professor, Department of Physics, R.T.M. Nagpur University, Nagpur, India

Govind Nair

Dr. Govind B. Nair obtained his Masters degree in Physics from the R.T.M. Nagpur University, Nagpur, India. He received two gold medals for securing first rank in his Masters degree. He pursued his PhD from R.T.M. Nagpur University under the guidance of Prof. S. J. Dhoble. He is currently a Post-Doctoral researcher at the University of Free State, Bloemfontein, South Africa. He was awarded with an INSPIRE Fellowship, which is a prestigious fellowship programme conducted by the Department of Science and Technology (DST), India. His area of research includes the synthesis and characterization of optical materials, theoretical analysis of luminescence processes, structural analysis of materials, etc.

Affiliations and Expertise

University of Free State, Bloemfontein, South Africa