The Farinograph Handbook

The Farinograph Handbook

Advances in Technology, Science, and Applications

4th Edition - May 7, 2022

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  • Editors: Jayne E. Bock, Clyde Don
  • Paperback ISBN: 9780128195468
  • eBook ISBN: 9780128195710

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The Farinograph Handbook: Advances in Technology, Science and Applications, Fourth Edition, highlights the instrument’s changes over the last three decades. This book outlines how different farinograph models work, how to properly run a standard test and interpret the results, and the standard and unconventional applications for the instrument. This fourth edition will familiarize readers with the farinograph instrument’s principles of operation and factors that affect its operation. This edition also contains new research on dough rheology, the use of results for process control in traditional bakery applications, and information on instrument maintenance and calibration. This handbook is ideal for dough rheologists, cereal scientists, food (specifically, bread) scientists, millers, grain developers, academics, researchers and students.

Key Features

  • Acts as an authoritative source for information regarding the farinograph and its use
  • Provides full coverage of the principles governing the instrument, its operation and application of results
  • Contains a troubleshooting section which addresses common issues encountered with the instrument
  • Covers information on potential sources of error and how to avoid or control them
  • Equips the reader to determine when an instrument requires maintenance and/or repair


Farinograph users, dough rheologists, cereal scientists, food (specifically, bread) scientists, millers, grain developers, academics, researchers, and students

Table of Contents

  • Cover image
  • Title page
  • Table of Contents
  • Copyright
  • Dedication
  • Reference
  • Contributors
  • About the editors
  • Preface
  • Section A: Instrument
  • Chapter 1: The Farinograph: Its origins
  • Abstract
  • 1.1: Introduction
  • 1.2: Dough properties and baking quality
  • 1.3: The wheat breeder's needs
  • 1.4: Hooke, Newton, Hogarth and Dough
  • 1.5: Hankóczy's Farinograph
  • 1.6: The Valorigraph—Still in production and use
  • 1.7: The Hankóczy-Brabender relationship
  • 1.8: Ongoing development and expansion for Brabender
  • 1.9: Ongoing development and adoption of the Farinograph
  • 1.10: The transition from chart paper to computer screen
  • 1.11: The Breeder's and Researcher's needs—Very small-scale analysis
  • 1.12: Dough in the “real life” of the bakery
  • 1.13: Beyond the recording of torque
  • 1.14: Conclusion
  • References
  • Chapter 2: Principles of Farinograph operation and factors affecting performance
  • Abstract
  • 2.1: What influences Farinograph results?
  • 2.2: Communicating meaningful Farinograph results between millers and bakers
  • 2.3: Putting it all together
  • Chapter 3: The Farinograph: Understanding Farinograph curves
  • Abstract
  • 3.1: Flour composition basics and beyond
  • 3.2: Assessing flour quality
  • 3.3: What does the Farinograph measure?
  • 3.4: How do we read the Farinograph torque curve?
  • 3.5: Using Farinograph parameters to classify flours
  • 3.6: The double-peak conundrum
  • 3.7: Comparing different Farinograph methods
  • 3.8: The bottom line
  • Chapter 4: Dough rheology and the Farinograph: The mechanism underlying dough development
  • Abstract
  • Acknowledgments
  • 4.1: Dough rheological insights in the third edition
  • 4.2: Dough development—The disaggregation of gel-protein
  • 4.3: Developing dough—The interaction of glutenin aggregates
  • 4.4: Dough physical properties—Glutenin polymer size or glutenin aggregates?
  • 4.5: Conclusions
  • References
  • Section B: Applications
  • Chapter 5: The Farinograph as a tool for wheat-milling operations: Current and potential uses
  • Abstract
  • 5.1: Introduction
  • 5.2: Limitations of Farinograph testing in wheat milling operations
  • 5.3: Summary
  • Chapter 6: Using the Farinograph in daily bakery operations
  • Abstract
  • 6.1: Key elements of bread production
  • 6.2: Dough consistency in bakery practice
  • 6.3: Water absorption and recipe water level
  • 6.4: Water absorption, recipe water level, and dough processing
  • 6.5: Dough development and commercial dough mixing
  • 6.6: Dough temperature
  • 6.7: Alternate commercial uses for the Farinograph
  • 6.8: Conclusion
  • References
  • Chapter 7: Using the Farinograph for soft wheat products
  • Abstract
  • 7.1: Soft wheat and its uses
  • 7.2: Cracker processing
  • 7.3: Flour-quality requirements for crackers
  • 7.4: Making the Farinograph method relevant to cracker applications
  • References
  • Chapter 8: Farinograph applications for whole wheat flour: Exploring the influence of circulating water temperature and mixing speed on dough mixing properties in the Farinograph
  • Abstract
  • References
  • Chapter 9: Use of the Farinograph for gluten-free grains
  • Abstract
  • Acknowledgment
  • 9.1: Introduction
  • 9.2: Use of the Farinograph for GF cereals
  • 9.3: Pseudocereals
  • 9.4: Pulses
  • 9.5: Conclusions
  • References
  • Chapter 10: Using the Farinograph and other Brabender torque rheometers to measure the rheological properties of complex biological materials
  • Abstract
  • 10.1: Introduction
  • 10.2: Equipment
  • 10.3: Procedure
  • 10.4: Representative results from high solids biomass research
  • 10.5: Conclusions
  • Appendices
  • References
  • Chapter 11: Advanced research applications
  • Abstract
  • 11.1: Gluten and gluten subfraction contributions in dough development during mixing
  • 11.2: Visualization of gluten proteins during dough mixing/development
  • 11.3: Visualization of gliadin during dough mixing using fluorescent nanoparticles
  • 11.4: Current research in visualization of gluten subfractions during dough mixing
  • 11.5: Distribution of extension rate and shear rate and prediction of maximum stable bubble size inside the C.W. Brabender Farinograph
  • References
  • Appendix A: Bowl cleaning and maintenance
  • Cleaning
  • Maintenance
  • Appendix B: Troubleshooting
  • Appendix C: Legacy information
  • I: Prefaces to Prior Editions
  • II: The farinograph
  • III: Theoretical aspects of the farinograph
  • IV: AACC Physical Testing Methods Committee farinograph collaborative study
  • V: Farinograph procedures of the AACC, ICC, and RACI
  • Literature Cited
  • VI Selected references concerning the farinograph that have appeared in cereal chemistry and cereal foods world
  • Index

Product details

  • No. of pages: 270
  • Language: English
  • Copyright: © Woodhead Publ. & Cereals & Grains Assoc. Bookstore 2022
  • Published: May 7, 2022
  • Imprint: Woodhead Publ. & Cereals & Grains Assoc. Bookstore
  • Paperback ISBN: 9780128195468
  • eBook ISBN: 9780128195710

About the Editors

Jayne E. Bock

Jayne Bock is the Technical Director at the Wheat Marketing Center and an adjunct professor at Oregon State University. She previously served as the Global Technical Leader of the Food Division for C.W. Brabender Instruments, Inc., and an adjunct professor at the University of Guelph. Her expertise is in grain and flour quality, baking science, gluten structure-function, and the influence of bran on product structure and quality in whole grain products. She works extensively with wheat breeders, agronomists, growers, millers, and food processors at the interface of academia and industry to find solutions for emerging quality issues in the global milling and baking industries. Jayne earned her B.Sc. and M.Sc. degrees from Kansas State University and her Ph.D. from the University of Wisconsin-Madison.

Affiliations and Expertise

Technical Director at the Wheat Marketing Center, Portland, OR, USA

Clyde Don

Clyde Don studied chemical engineering in The Hague/Delft (BSc degree) and chemistry at the University of Amsterdam (MSc degree). He obtained his PhD degree in food chemistry from Wageningen University. He has worked in applied research and technology (e.g., TNO) and analytical service labs in various leadership functions. As an active member of AACCI he has chaired scientific initiatives and divisions, co-chaired courses, conducted workshops, and led technical committees and working groups. For IFT he is the co-founder and leadership team member of the IFT Protein Division (2015). Clyde is also currently a member of the AOAC Expert Review Panel on gluten methods. Since 2009 he has been the managing director of Clyde Don Consultancy FoodPhysica and, since 2016, director of the FoodPhysica R&D Laboratory, providing consulting and contract R&D services in sustainable food science and technology, bio-based products, processing and interactions, food machinery and NPD, protein functionality and applications, analytical chemistry, and food safety and quality.

Affiliations and Expertise

Managing Director of the FoodPhysica R&D Laboratory, The Netherlands

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