The Engineer's Clean Air Handbook - 1st Edition - ISBN: 9780408033930, 9781483163093

The Engineer's Clean Air Handbook

1st Edition

Authors: P. D. Osborn
eBook ISBN: 9781483163093
Imprint: Butterworth-Heinemann
Published Date: 30th October 1989
Page Count: 216
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The Engineer's Clean Air Handbook is written for engineers but in a language which should be understandable to anyone who may be directly involved in or concerned about atmospheric contamination. It concentrates on achieving clean air and on the more general aspects of pollution.

The book begins with the description and make-up of the atmosphere, the size and nature of the atmospheric content, sources of contamination, and risk assessment from atmospheric contamination. Subsequent sections focus on air filters and filtration systems, instrumentation for monitoring and control of atmospheric contamination, ventilation and the quality of breathing air, and the relationship of atmospheric contamination and health.

Environmentalists, engineers, and ecologists will find the book useful.

Table of Contents


Section A The Atmosphere

A.1 Some Historical Concepts of the Atmosphere and its Make Up

A.2 Size and Nature of Atmospheric Content

A.2.1 Atomic and Molecular Structure

A.2.2 Aerosols

A.2.3 Particulates

A.2.4 Fibres

A.2.5 Gases and Vapours

A.2.6 Fume and Smoke

A.2.7 Living Organisms and their Debris

A.2.8 Asphyxiants

A.3 Sources of Atmospheric Contamination

A.3.1 Atmospheric Chemistry

A.3.2 Carbon Dioxide and the Greenhouse Effect

A.3.3 Coal Fired Power Stations

A.3.4 Chlorofluorocarbons

A.3.5 Internal Combustion Engines and Road Transport

A.3.6 The Combustion of Fossil Fuels Other than for Transport and Electricity Generation

A.3.7 Radioactivity

A.3.8 The Electromagnetic Radiation Spectrum

A.3.9 Asbestos

A.3.10 Weld Fume

A.3.11 Dust and Fume Producing Industrial Processes

A.3.12 The Chemical Industry

A.4 The Assessment of Risk from Atmospheric Contamination

Section B Air Filters and Filtration Systems

B.1 Filter Materials

B.1.1 Raw Materials for Filters

B.1.2 Organic Fibre Papers

B.1.3 Glass Fibre Papers

B.1.4 Filter Cloths, Fabrics and Felts

B.1.5 Wool Resin

B.1.6 Charcoal Cloths

B.2 The Mechanisms of Filtration

B.2.1 The Main Factors

B.2.2 Brownian Motion and Van Der Waals Forces

B.2.3 The Main Mechanisms: (Straining, Inertia, Interception, Diffusion)

B.3 Classification of Air Filters and Dust Collection Systems

B.3.1 Multi-Stage Filtration

B.3.2 Dry Cell Panel Filters

B.3.3 Fine Filters

B.3.4 Bag Filters

B.3.5 High Efficiency Paniculate Air Filters

B.3.6 Automatic Roll Filters

B.3.7 Louvres

B.3.8 Viscous Filters

B.3.9 Activated Carbon Filters

B.3.10 Electronic and Electrostatic Filtration Systems

B.3.11 Dust Collection

B.3.12 Dry Inertial Separators

B.3.13 Cyclones

B.3.14 Wet Dust Collectors

B.3.15 Industrial Dust Control

B.3.16 Gas Scrubbers

B.3.17 Spray Finishing

B.4 Breathing Air Filtration

B.4.1 Simple Masks

B.4.2 Respirators

B.4.3 Powered Respirators

B.4.4 Combination Respirator and Helmet

B.4.5 Respirator Filters

B.4.6 Air Supplies to Respirators

B.4.7 Specialized Breathing Apparatus

B.5 Filter Performance and Testing

B.5.1 General Considerations

B.5.2 Definitions of Terms

B.5.3 Test Dusts and Aerosols

B.5.4 International Standards for Testing

B.5.5 Test Procedures

B.5.6 HEPA Filters, Classifications, Standards and Test Procedures

Section C Instrumentation for Monitoring and Control of Atmospheric Contaminant

C.1 Measurement, Technology and Definitions

C.1.1 Gravimetric Measurement

C.1.2 Ambient Air Sampling

C.1.3 Particle Count by Scattering

C.1.4 Fibre Counting

C.1.5 Optical Systems

C.1.6 Colorimetry or Spectrophotometry

C.1.7 Luminescence

C.1.8 The Important Ultraviolet Wavelengths

C.1.9 Chemiluminescence

C.1.10 Spectrochemical Analysis

C.1.11 Mass Spectrometry (or Mass Spectroscopy)

C.1.12 Gas Chromâtography

C.1.13 Electrochemical Gas Diffusion

C.1.14 Infra-Red Spectroscopy and the Important Infra-Red Wavelengths

C.1.15 X-Ray Fluorescence

C.1.16 Photoionization

C.2 Practical Techniques

C.2.1 The Use of Sensors

C.2.2 Detection Based on Sorption

C.2.3 Nitrogen Generators and Rare Gas Purifiers

C.2.4 Detector Tubes

C.2.5 Ambient Air Sampling

C.2.6 Chemical Sampling from Gas Streams

C.2.7 Infra-Red Analysis Using Gas Filter Correlation

C.2.8 'Across Stack' Detection Systems

C.2.9 Examples of Industrial Monitoring Instruments

C.2.10 Fire and Smoke Detectors

C.2.11 Incineration

C.2.12 Landfill Chemistry

C.2.13 Laser Based and Infra-Red Beam Monitoring Systems

C.2.14 Continuous Emission Monitoring

Section D Ventilation and the Quality of Breathing Air

D.1 Historical Concepts

D.2 Ventilation from Random Infiltration to Total Control

D.3 Some Definitions Relevant to Ventilation

D.4 Procedures For Determining Ventilation Rates and Indoor Air Quality

D.5 Air Flow and Resistance to Air Flow

D.6 Extract Ventilation and Hood Design for Contaminant Removal

D.7 Fire Hazards and Smoke Extract Systems

D.7.1 Toxic Smoke

D.7.2 Heat Gain From Fires

D.7.3 Smoke Extraction

D.7.4 Powered Ventilators

D.7.5 Integrated Fire Control Systems

D.8 Notes on Fan Selection

Section E Atmospheric Contamination ans Health

E.1 The Mechanics of Breathing

E.2 The Main Elements of the Respiratory System

E.3 Diseases of the Respiratory System

E.3.1 Sites of the Onset of Respiratory Disease

E.3.2 Industrial Diseases of the Respiratory System

E.4 Ventilation, Air Conditioning and Health

E.4.1 Underlying Reasons for Problems of Human Well-Being in Buildings

E.4.2 Symptoms Attributed to 'sick' Buildings

E.4.3 Factors Which May Influence the Well-Being of Building Occupants

E.4.4 The Influence of Ions on Well-Being

E.4.5 The Way Ahead for Healthy, Energy Efficient Buildings

E.4.6 The Remedies

Section F Reference Material

F.1 Conversions Into Si Units

F.2 Variation with Temperature of the Specific Heat Capacity and Density of Dry Air

F.3 Electromagnetic Wave Lengths and Particle Sizes

F.4 Variation with Temperature of Some Physical Properties of Water

F.5 Properties of Gases Commonly Involved in Combustion

F.6 Volumetric Relationships of Common Combustion Reactions

F.7 Nuisance Dusts

F.8 Size Distribution of Particles in Typical Atmospheric Sample

F.9 Characteristics of Raw Materials Used for Filter Manufacture

F.10 The Control of Substances Hazardous to Health (COSHH) Regulations

F.11 UK Health and Safety Publications

F.12 British Standards

F.13 Exposure Limits for Toxic Substances and Non-Ionizing Radiation (Including Comprehensive Data on 260 Hazardous Gases and Vapours)

F.13.1 Toxic Substances

F.13.2 Table of Chemicals

F.13.3 Non-Ionizing Radiation

F.14 Glossary of Organizations (USA and UK)

F.15 Bibliography

F.16 Manufacturers who have Supplied Illustrations and Information



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About the Author

P. D. Osborn

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