The Endocrinology of Growth, Development, and Metabolism in Vertebrates

The Endocrinology of Growth, Development, and Metabolism in Vertebrates

1st Edition - October 14, 1992

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  • Editors: Martin Schreibman, Colin Scanes, Peter K.T. Pang
  • eBook ISBN: 9780323144407

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Description

The Endocrinology of Growth, Development, and Metabolism in Vertebrates provides an overview of vertebrate endocrinology. This book aims to strengthen the bridge between medical and comparative endocrinologists by addressing the benefits that they can derive from this association. Organized into five parts encompassing 24 chapters, this volume starts with a discussion on the structure and biological function of growth hormone (GH) and prolactin (PRL) family. This book then explains the extrinsic, genetic, and humoral factors that influence animal growth, particularly in poikilotherms. This text also elaborates the environmental conditions that affect the growth of poikilotherms, including food availability, temperature, and photoperiod. Other chapters discuss how somatotropin affects the growth development in homeotherms, such as livestock species. The reader is also introduced to the metabolic actions of GH, which can be described in terms of short-lived insulin-like effects. Endocrinologists, molecular endocrinologists, biologists, molecular biologists, biochemists, researchers, and physicians will find this book extremely useful.

Table of Contents


  • Preface

    1 Introduction

    I. Landmark Contributions from Vertebrate Endocrinology to Biomedical Sciences

    II. Vertebrate Model Systems in Studies of Growth and Development

    III. Old Models and Techniques Taking New Directions

    References

    Part One Growth Hormone and Prolactin

    2 Evolution of the Structure of the Growth Hormone and Prolactin Family

    I. Introduction

    II. Molecular Evolution of the Family

    III. Structure-Function Studies

    References

    3 The Role of Growth Hormone in the Growth of Poikilotherms

    I. Introduction

    II. Growth Manipulation in Poikilotherms with Exogenous GHs

    III. Appearance-Clearance Profiles for Exogenous GH

    IV. Alternative Methods of Growth Manipulation

    References

    4 Role of Growth Hormone in Growth of Homeotherms

    I. Introduction

    II. Theory of Nutrient Partitioning

    III. Early Studies on the Effects of GH

    IV. Amino Acid Sequence Differences

    V. Effects of GH on Metabolism

    VI. Growth Effects with Exogenous GH Treatment

    VII. Effects of GH Administration on Reproduction and Lactation

    VIII. Effect of Route and Periodicity of GH Treatment

    IX. GH and Aging

    X. Poultry

    XI. Summary

    References

    5 Growth Hormone and Metabolism

    I. Acute Effects

    II. Chronic Effects

    III. Effects of Hypophysectomy

    IV. Metabolic Effects of GH on Individual Tissues

    V. GH and the Response to Metabolic Demand in Different Physiological Situations

    VI. Concluding Comments

    References

    6 The Growth Hormone Receptor and Growth Hormone-Binding Protein: Structure, Functions, and Regulation

    I. Introduction

    II. Biochemical Studies

    III. Molecular Cloning Studies

    IV. Hematopoietin Receptor Superfamily

    V. Growth Hormone Receptor Gene Regulation

    VI. Mechanism of Action

    VII. Growth Hormone-Binding Protein Functions

    VIII. Comparative Contributions

    References

    7 Growth Hormone Secretion in Poikilotherms and Homeotherms

    I. Introduction

    II. GH Regulation in Mammals

    III. GH Regulation in Birds

    IV. GH Regulation in Reptiles

    V. GH Regulation in Amphibia

    VI. GH Regulation in Fish

    VII. GH Regulation in Cyclostomes

    VIII. Summary

    References

    8 Role of Prolactin and Placental Lactogens in Vertebrate Growth and Development

    I. Introduction

    II. GH-like Actions of Prolactin

    III. Fetal and Neonatal Growth

    IV. Growth-Promoting Properties of the Internal Milieu of Pregnancy and Lactation

    V. Growth of Specific Organs and Cells

    VI. Modulation of Immune Functions

    VII. Role of Synergists or Potential Mediators

    VIII. Comparative Contributions and Biomedical Implications

    References

    Part Two Insulin, Insulin-Like Growth Factors, and Growth Factors

    9 Insulin-like Growth Factors: Role in Growth and Development

    I. Introduction

    II. History of the Insulin-like Growth Factors

    III. Structure/Function of IGF-I and IGF-II

    IV. IGF-Binding Proteins

    V. Comparative Contributions and Biomedical Implications

    References

    10 Non-IGF Growth Factors that Mediate Cell Proliferation and Differentiation

    I. Epidermal Growth Factor

    II. Transforming Growth Factor α

    III. Transforming Growth Factor β

    IV. Fibroblast Growth Factor

    V. Keratinocyte Growth Factor

    VI. Platelet-Derived Growth Factor

    VII. Comparative Contributions and Biomedical Implications

    References

    11 Insulin and Growth

    I. Introduction

    II. Anatomy and Structure of the Pancreas

    III. Insulin Receptors

    IV. Embryogenesis and Prenatal Growth

    V. Insulin and Energy Metabolism

    VI. Insulin and Protein Metabolism

    VII. Insulin and Fat Metabolism

    VIII. Insulin and Liver Growth Regulation

    IX. Insulin and Bone Growth

    X. Insulin and Feed Intake

    XI. Comparative Contributions and Biomedical Implications

    References

    12 Pancreatic Hormones and Metabolism in Ectotherm Vertebrates: Current Views

    I. Endocrine Pancreas of Ectotherm Vertebrates

    II. Pancreatic Hormones as Regulators of Metabolism

    III. Comparative and Biomedical Implications

    References

    13 Pancreatic Hormones and Metabolism

    I. Introduction

    II. The Hormones in Passing Review

    III. Significant Other Components of Pancreatic Islets

    IV. Hormonal Regulation of Metabolic Integration: Insulin as a Key Modulator

    V. Disturbances in Regulation of Metabolic Processes: Diabetes and Obesity

    VI. The Comparative Approach to Understanding Pancreatic Modulation of Metabolism

    References

    Part Three Adrenal and Thyroid Hormones

    14 Adrenomedullary Catecholamines

    I. Physiological Functions of Catecholamines

    II. Control of CA Release

    References

    15 β-Adrenergic Agonists and Growth

    I. Introduction

    II. Structure, Classification, and Function of Adrenergic Agonists

    III. Growth and Metabolism of Animals Treated with β-Adrenergic Agonists

    IV. Effects of β-Adrenergic Agonists on Skeletal Muscle Growth and Protein Metabolism

    V. Effects of β-Adrenergic Agonists on Lipid Metabolism

    VI. Other Considerations Regarding Mechanism of Action of β-Adrenergic Agonists in Growth Regulation

    References

    16 Glucocorticoids: Metabolism, Growth, and Development

    I. Introduction

    II. Metabolism

    III. Growth

    IV. Development

    V. Conclusion

    References

    17 Thyroid Hormone Effects on Growth, Development, and Metabolism

    I. Introduction

    II. The Timing of Thyroid Hormone Effects on Development

    III. The Nature and Mechanisms of Thyroid Hormone Effects on Development

    IV. Conclusions and Biomedical Implications

    References

    Part Four Hormones and Growth/Development of Systems

    18 Hormones and Skeletal Growth

    I. Introduction

    II. Quantitative Aspects of Bone Growth

    III. Morphology of Bone Growth and Remodeling

    IV. Cell Populations and Organic Matrix of Bone

    V. Regulation of Bone Growth

    References

    19 Hormones Involved in Regulation of Muscle Differentiation and Growth

    I. Introduction

    II. Cellular Mechanism Associated with Muscle Differentiation

    III. Cellular Events Associated with Postnatal Muscle Growth

    IV. Methods of Studying the Interactions of Hormones with Muscle Cells at Different Development Stages

    V. Thyroid Hormone and Muscle Phenotype Determination

    VI. Insulin and Insulin-like Growth Factors (Somatomedins)

    VII. Growth Hormone (Somatotropin)

    VIII. Anabolic and Catabolic Steroids on Muscle Hypertrophy

    IX. β-Adrenergic Agonists and Muscle Growth

    X. Prospects for Hormone Gene Manipulation in Relation to Muscle Tissue

    XI. Gene Therapy and Other Biomedical Implications

    References

    20 Hormones and Adipose Growth

    I. Distribution and Components of Adipose Tissue

    II. Roles of Adipose Tissue

    III. Development and Hormonal Control of Adipose Tissue Mass in Vivo

    IV. Development and Hormonal Control of Adipose Tissue in Vivo

    V. Brown Adipose Tissue

    References

    21 Endocrine Regulation of the Growth/Development of Warm-Blooded Vertebrate Embryos/Fetuses

    I. Introduction

    II. Role of the Adenohypophysis and Hypothalamic-Adenohypophyseal Unit in the Regulation of Total Body Growth in Avian and Mammalian Embryos and Fetuses

    References

    22 Hormones, Metamorphosis, and Smolting

    I. Introduction

    II. Amphibian Metamorphosis

    III. Teleostean Fish

    IV. Lamprey

    V. Salmonid Smolting

    References

    Part Five General Considerations

    23 Manipulation of Animal Growth

    I. Introduction

    II. Rationale for and Limitations of Growth Manipulation

    III. Methods and Results of Growth Manipulation

    IV. Societal Issues Associated with Commercial Application of Growth Promoters

    V. Biomedical Implications

    References

    24 Evolution of Growth-Related Hormones and Factors: The Insulin and Insulin-like Growth Factor Family

    I. Introduction

    II. Molecular Evolution of Polypeptide/Protein Hormones

    III. Evolution of the Insulin/IGF/Relaxin Family of Hormones

    IV. Summary

    References

    Index

Product details

  • No. of pages: 620
  • Language: English
  • Copyright: © Academic Press 1992
  • Published: October 14, 1992
  • Imprint: Academic Press
  • eBook ISBN: 9780323144407

About the Editors

Martin Schreibman

Colin Scanes

Colin G. Scanes was formerly editor of the journal Poultry Science and has held senior faculty and/or administrative positions at the University of Leeds, Rutgers—the State University of New Jersey, Iowa State University, Mississippi State University, and University of Wisconsin, Milwaukee. Dr. Scanes was also the editor for the latest (sixth) edition of Sturkie’s Avian Physiology for Elsevier/Academic Press. He has extensive experience in teaching undergraduates and research with more than 600 publications.

Affiliations and Expertise

Professor Emeritus, University of Wisconsin, Biosciences/Ecology, Evolution and Behavior, Milwaukee, USA

Peter K.T. Pang

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