The Endocrinology of Growth, Development, and Metabolism in Vertebrates  - 1st Edition - ISBN: 9780126290554, 9780323144407

The Endocrinology of Growth, Development, and Metabolism in Vertebrates

1st Edition

Editors: Martin Schreibman Colin Scanes Peter K.T. Pang
eBook ISBN: 9780323144407
Imprint: Academic Press
Published Date: 14th October 1992
Page Count: 620
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Description

The Endocrinology of Growth, Development, and Metabolism in Vertebrates provides an overview of vertebrate endocrinology. This book aims to strengthen the bridge between medical and comparative endocrinologists by addressing the benefits that they can derive from this association. Organized into five parts encompassing 24 chapters, this volume starts with a discussion on the structure and biological function of growth hormone (GH) and prolactin (PRL) family. This book then explains the extrinsic, genetic, and humoral factors that influence animal growth, particularly in poikilotherms. This text also elaborates the environmental conditions that affect the growth of poikilotherms, including food availability, temperature, and photoperiod. Other chapters discuss how somatotropin affects the growth development in homeotherms, such as livestock species. The reader is also introduced to the metabolic actions of GH, which can be described in terms of short-lived insulin-like effects. Endocrinologists, molecular endocrinologists, biologists, molecular biologists, biochemists, researchers, and physicians will find this book extremely useful.

Table of Contents


Preface

1 Introduction

I. Landmark Contributions from Vertebrate Endocrinology to Biomedical Sciences

II. Vertebrate Model Systems in Studies of Growth and Development

III. Old Models and Techniques Taking New Directions

References

Part One Growth Hormone and Prolactin

2 Evolution of the Structure of the Growth Hormone and Prolactin Family

I. Introduction

II. Molecular Evolution of the Family

III. Structure-Function Studies

References

3 The Role of Growth Hormone in the Growth of Poikilotherms

I. Introduction

II. Growth Manipulation in Poikilotherms with Exogenous GHs

III. Appearance-Clearance Profiles for Exogenous GH

IV. Alternative Methods of Growth Manipulation

References

4 Role of Growth Hormone in Growth of Homeotherms

I. Introduction

II. Theory of Nutrient Partitioning

III. Early Studies on the Effects of GH

IV. Amino Acid Sequence Differences

V. Effects of GH on Metabolism

VI. Growth Effects with Exogenous GH Treatment

VII. Effects of GH Administration on Reproduction and Lactation

VIII. Effect of Route and Periodicity of GH Treatment

IX. GH and Aging

X. Poultry

XI. Summary

References

5 Growth Hormone and Metabolism

I. Acute Effects

II. Chronic Effects

III. Effects of Hypophysectomy

IV. Metabolic Effects of GH on Individual Tissues

V. GH and the Response to Metabolic Demand in Different Physiological Situations

VI. Concluding Comments

References

6 The Growth Hormone Receptor and Growth Hormone-Binding Protein: Structure, Functions, and Regulation

I. Introduction

II. Biochemical Studies

III. Molecular Cloning Studies

IV. Hematopoietin Receptor Superfamily

V. Growth Hormone Receptor Gene Regulation

VI. Mechanism of Action

VII. Growth Hormone-Binding Protein Functions

VIII. Comparative Contributions

References

7 Growth Hormone Secretion in Poikilotherms and Homeotherms

I. Introduction

II. GH Regulation in Mammals

III. GH Regulation in Birds

IV. GH Regulation in Reptiles

V. GH Regulation in Amphibia

VI. GH Regulation in Fish

VII. GH Regulation in Cyclostomes

VIII. Summary

References

8 Role of Prolactin and Placental Lactogens in Vertebrate Growth and Development

I. Introduction

II. GH-like Actions of Prolactin

III. Fetal and Neonatal Growth

IV. Growth-Promoting Properties of the Internal Milieu of Pregnancy and Lactation

V. Growth of Specific Organs and Cells

VI. Modulation of Immune Functions

VII. Role of Synergists or Potential Mediators

VIII. Comparative Contributions and Biomedical Implications

References

Part Two Insulin, Insulin-Like Growth Factors, and Growth Factors

9 Insulin-like Growth Factors: Role in Growth and Development

I. Introduction

II. History of the Insulin-like Growth Factors

III. Structure/Function of IGF-I and IGF-II

IV. IGF-Binding Proteins

V. Comparative Contributions and Biomedical Implications

References

10 Non-IGF Growth Factors that Mediate Cell Proliferation and Differentiation

I. Epidermal Growth Factor

II. Transforming Growth Factor α

III. Transforming Growth Factor β

IV. Fibroblast Growth Factor

V. Keratinocyte Growth Factor

VI. Platelet-Derived Growth Factor

VII. Comparative Contributions and Biomedical Implications

References

11 Insulin and Growth

I. Introduction

II. Anatomy and Structure of the Pancreas

III. Insulin Receptors

IV. Embryogenesis and Prenatal Growth

V. Insulin and Energy Metabolism

VI. Insulin and Protein Metabolism

VII. Insulin and Fat Metabolism

VIII. Insulin and Liver Growth Regulation

IX. Insulin and Bone Growth

X. Insulin and Feed Intake

XI. Comparative Contributions and Biomedical Implications

References

12 Pancreatic Hormones and Metabolism in Ectotherm Vertebrates: Current Views

I. Endocrine Pancreas of Ectotherm Vertebrates

II. Pancreatic Hormones as Regulators of Metabolism

III. Comparative and Biomedical Implications

References

13 Pancreatic Hormones and Metabolism

I. Introduction

II. The Hormones in Passing Review

III. Significant Other Components of Pancreatic Islets

IV. Hormonal Regulation of Metabolic Integration: Insulin as a Key Modulator

V. Disturbances in Regulation of Metabolic Processes: Diabetes and Obesity

VI. The Comparative Approach to Understanding Pancreatic Modulation of Metabolism

References

Part Three Adrenal and Thyroid Hormones

14 Adrenomedullary Catecholamines

I. Physiological Functions of Catecholamines

II. Control of CA Release

References

15 β-Adrenergic Agonists and Growth

I. Introduction

II. Structure, Classification, and Function of Adrenergic Agonists

III. Growth and Metabolism of Animals Treated with β-Adrenergic Agonists

IV. Effects of β-Adrenergic Agonists on Skeletal Muscle Growth and Protein Metabolism

V. Effects of β-Adrenergic Agonists on Lipid Metabolism

VI. Other Considerations Regarding Mechanism of Action of β-Adrenergic Agonists in Growth Regulation

References

16 Glucocorticoids: Metabolism, Growth, and Development

I. Introduction

II. Metabolism

III. Growth

IV. Development

V. Conclusion

References

17 Thyroid Hormone Effects on Growth, Development, and Metabolism

I. Introduction

II. The Timing of Thyroid Hormone Effects on Development

III. The Nature and Mechanisms of Thyroid Hormone Effects on Development

IV. Conclusions and Biomedical Implications

References

Part Four Hormones and Growth/Development of Systems

18 Hormones and Skeletal Growth

I. Introduction

II. Quantitative Aspects of Bone Growth

III. Morphology of Bone Growth and Remodeling

IV. Cell Populations and Organic Matrix of Bone

V. Regulation of Bone Growth

References

19 Hormones Involved in Regulation of Muscle Differentiation and Growth

I. Introduction

II. Cellular Mechanism Associated with Muscle Differentiation

III. Cellular Events Associated with Postnatal Muscle Growth

IV. Methods of Studying the Interactions of Hormones with Muscle Cells at Different Development Stages

V. Thyroid Hormone and Muscle Phenotype Determination

VI. Insulin and Insulin-like Growth Factors (Somatomedins)

VII. Growth Hormone (Somatotropin)

VIII. Anabolic and Catabolic Steroids on Muscle Hypertrophy

IX. β-Adrenergic Agonists and Muscle Growth

X. Prospects for Hormone Gene Manipulation in Relation to Muscle Tissue

XI. Gene Therapy and Other Biomedical Implications

References

20 Hormones and Adipose Growth

I. Distribution and Components of Adipose Tissue

II. Roles of Adipose Tissue

III. Development and Hormonal Control of Adipose Tissue Mass in Vivo

IV. Development and Hormonal Control of Adipose Tissue in Vivo

V. Brown Adipose Tissue

References

21 Endocrine Regulation of the Growth/Development of Warm-Blooded Vertebrate Embryos/Fetuses

I. Introduction

II. Role of the Adenohypophysis and Hypothalamic-Adenohypophyseal Unit in the Regulation of Total Body Growth in Avian and Mammalian Embryos and Fetuses

References

22 Hormones, Metamorphosis, and Smolting

I. Introduction

II. Amphibian Metamorphosis

III. Teleostean Fish

IV. Lamprey

V. Salmonid Smolting

References

Part Five General Considerations

23 Manipulation of Animal Growth

I. Introduction

II. Rationale for and Limitations of Growth Manipulation

III. Methods and Results of Growth Manipulation

IV. Societal Issues Associated with Commercial Application of Growth Promoters

V. Biomedical Implications

References

24 Evolution of Growth-Related Hormones and Factors: The Insulin and Insulin-like Growth Factor Family

I. Introduction

II. Molecular Evolution of Polypeptide/Protein Hormones

III. Evolution of the Insulin/IGF/Relaxin Family of Hormones

IV. Summary

References

Index

Details

No. of pages:
620
Language:
English
Copyright:
© Academic Press 1993
Published:
Imprint:
Academic Press
eBook ISBN:
9780323144407

About the Editor

Martin Schreibman

Colin Scanes

Colin G. Scanes was formerly editor of the journal Poultry Science and has held senior faculty and/or administrative positions at the University of Leeds, Rutgers – the State University of New Jersey, Iowa State University, Mississippi State University and University of Wisconsin, Milwaukee. Dr. Scanes was also the editor for the latest (sixth) edition of Sturkie’s Avian Physiology for Elsevier/Academic Press. He has extensive experience in teaching undergraduates and research with more than 600 publications.

Affiliations and Expertise

University of Wisconsin, Biosciences / Ecology, Evolution and Behavior, Milwaukee, USA

Peter K.T. Pang