The Encyclopedia of Volcanoes

The Encyclopedia of Volcanoes

2nd Edition - March 6, 2015

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  • Editors: Haraldur Sigurdsson, Bruce Houghton, Steve McNutt, Hazel Rymer, John Stix
  • Hardcover ISBN: 9780123859389
  • eBook ISBN: 9780123859396

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Description

Volcanoes are unquestionably one of the most spectacular and awe-inspiring features of the physical world. Our paradoxical fascination with them stems from their majestic beauty and powerful, sometimes deadly, destructiveness. Notwithstanding the tremendous advances in volcanology since ancient times, some of the mystery surrounding volcanic eruptions remains today. The Encyclopedia of Volcanoes summarizes our present knowledge of volcanoes; it provides a comprehensive source of information on the causes of volcanic eruptions and both the destructive and beneficial effects. The early chapters focus on the science of volcanism (melting of source rocks, ascent of magma, eruption processes, extraterrestrial volcanism, etc.).  Later chapters discuss human interface with volcanoes, including the history of volcanology, geothermal energy resources, interaction with the oceans and atmosphere, health aspects of volcanism, mitigation of volcanic disasters, post-eruption ecology, and the impact of eruptions on organismal biodiversity.

Key Features

  • Provides the only comprehensive reference work to cover all aspects of volcanology
  • Written by nearly 100 world experts in volcanology
  • Explores an integrated transition from the physical process of eruptions through hazards and risk, to the social face of volcanism, with an emphasis on how volcanoes have influenced and shaped society
  • Presents hundreds of color photographs, maps, charts and illustrations making this an aesthetically appealing reference
  • Glossary of 3,000 key terms with definitions of all key vocabulary items in the field is included

Readership

Earth system educators, students and amateur scientists as well as professional volcanologists interested in comprehending specialties outside their own expertise

Table of Contents

  • Introduction

    The History of Volcanology

    Part I. Origin and Transport of Magma

    1. Melting the Earth’s Upper Mantle

    Timothy L. Grove and Christy B. Till

    2. Migration of Melt

    Martha J. Daines and Matej Pec

    3. Plate Tectonics and Volcanism

    Peter C. LaFemina

    4. The Composition and Origin of Magmas

    Nick Rogers

    5. Thermodynamic and Transport Properties of Silicate Melts and Magma

    Charles E. Lesher and Frank J. Spera

    6. Chemical Thermodynamics and the Study of Magmas

    Mark S. Ghiorso and Guilherme A.R. Gualda

    7. Volatiles in Magmas

    Paul J. Wallace, Terry Plank, Marie Edmonds and Erik H. Hauri

    8. Magma Chambers

    Bruce D. Marsh

    9. Rates of Magma Ascent and Storage

    Brandon Browne and Lindsay Szramek

    10. Magma Transport in Dikes

    Helge Gonnermann and Benoit Taisne

    11. Magma Ascent and Degassing at Shallow Levels

    Alain Burgisser and Wim Degruyter

    Part II. Eruptions

    12. Earth’s Volcanoes and Their Eruptions: An Overview

    Lee Siebert, Elizabeth Cottrell, Edward Venzke and Benjamin Andrews

    13. Sizes of Volcanic Eruptions

    David M. Pyle

    14. Global Rates of Volcanism and Volcanic Episodes

    Natalia Irma Deligne and Haraldur Sigurdsson

    15. Primary Volcanic Landforms

    Shan de Silva and Jan M. Lindsay

    16. Calderas

    Michael Branney and Valerio Acocella

    Part III. Effusive Volcanism

    17. Lava Flows and Rheology

    Andrew J.L. Harris and Scott K. Rowland

    18. Lava Dome Eruptions

    Eliza S. Calder, Yan Lavallée, Jackie E. Kendrick and Marc Bernstein

    19. Submarine Lavas and Hyaloclastite

    James D.L. White, Jocelyn McPhie, and S. Adam Soule

    20. Glaciovolcanism

    Benjamin R. Edwards, Magnu´s T. Gudmundsson and James K. Russell

    21. Mid-Ocean Ridge Volcanism

    S. Adam Soule

    22. Seamounts and Island Building

    Hubert Staudigel and Anthony A.P. Koppers

    23. Basaltic Volcanic Fields

    Greg A. Valentine and Charles B. Connor

    24. Large Igneous Provinces and Flood Basalt Volcanism

    Stephen Self, Millard F. Coffin, Michael R. Rampino and John A. Wolff

    Part IV

    Explosive Volcanism

    25. Magmatic Fragmentation

    Katharine V. Cashman and Bettina Scheu

    26. Magma—Water Interaction and Phreatomagmatic Fragmentation

    Bernd Zimanowski, Ralf Büttner, Pierfrancesco Dellino, James D.L. White and Kenneth H. Wohletz

    27. Hawaiian and Strombolian Eruptions

    Jacopo Taddeucci, Marie Edmonds, Bruce Houghton, Michael R. James and Sylvie Vergniolle

    28. Vulcanian Eruptions

    Amanda Bachtell Clarke, Tomaso Esposti Ongaro and Alexander Belousov

    29. Plinian and Subplinian Eruptions

    Raffaello Cioni, Marco Pistolesi and Mauro Rosi

    30. Phreatomagmatic and Related Eruption Styles

    Bruce Houghton, James D.L. White and Alexa R. Van Eaton

    31. Submarine Explosive Eruptions

    James D.L. White, C. Ian Schipper and Kazuhiko Kano

    32. Volcanic Plumes

    Steven Carey and Marcus Bursik

    33. Tephra Dispersal and Sedimentation

    Costanza Bonadonna, Antonio Costa, Arnau Folch and Takehiro Koyaguchi

    34. Pyroclastic Fall Deposits

    Bruce F. Houghton and Rebecca J. Carey

    35. Pyroclastic Density Currents: Processes and Models

    Josef Dufek, Tomaso Esposti Ongaro and Olivier Roche

    36. Deposits of Pyroclastic Density Currents

    Richard J. Brown and Graham D.M. Andrews

    37. Lahars and Their Deposits

    James W. Vallance and Richard M. Iverson

    38. Landslides, Debris Avalanches and Volcanic Gravitational Deformation

    Benjamin van Wyk de Vries and Tim Davies

    Part V

    Extraterrestrial Volcanism

    39. Volcanism on the Moon

    Paul D. Spudis

    40. Volcanism on Mercury

    James W. Head, III and Lionel Wilson

    41. Volcanism on Mars

    James R. Zimbelman, William Brent Garry,

    Jacob Elvin Bleacher and David A. Crown

    42. Volcanism on Venus

    Mikhail A. Ivanov, Larry S. Crumpler, Jayne C. Aubele and James W. Head, III

    43. Volcanism on Io

    Rosaly M.C. Lopes and David A. Williams

    44. Cryovolcanism in the Outer Solar System

    Paul Geissler

    Part VI

    Volcanic Interactions

    45. Volcanic, Magmatic and Hydrothermal Gases

    Tobias P. Fischer and Giovanni Chiodini

    46. Intrusion-Related Geothermal Systems

    James Stimac, Fraser Goff and Cathy J. Goff

    47. Seafloor Hydrothermal Venting at Volcanic Arcs and Backarcs

    Cornel E.J. de Ronde and Valerie K. Stucker

    48. Volcano-Related Lakes

    Pierre Delmelle, Richard W. Henley and Alain Bernard

    49. Volcanic Successions Associated with Ore Deposits: Facies Characteristics and Ore—Host

    Relationships

    Jocelyn McPhie and Ray Cas

    50. Volcanic Influences on the Carbon, Sulfur, and Halogen Biogeochemical Cycles

    Pierre Delmelle, Elena Maters and Clive Oppenheimer

    Part VII. Volcanic Hazards

    51. Probabilistic Volcanic Hazard Assessment

    Chuck Connor, Mark Bebbington and Warner Marzocchi

    52. Volcanic Ash Hazards to Aviation

    Fred Prata and Bill Rose

    53. Climatic Impacts of Volcanic Eruptions

    Alan Robock

    54. Hazards from Pyroclastic Density Currents

    Paul D. Cole, Augusto Neri and Peter J. Baxter

    55. Lava Flow Hazards and Modeling

    Christopher R.J. Kilburn

    56. Hazards from Lahars and Jökulhlaups

    Magnús T. Gudmundsson

    57. Hazards of Volcanic Gases

    Glyn Williams-Jones and Hazel Rymer

    58. Volcanic Tsunamis

    Simon J. Day

    59. Volcanic Seismicity

    Stephen R. McNutt and Diana C. Roman

    60. Impacts of Eruptions on Human Health

    Peter J. Baxter and Claire J. Horwell

    61. Large Igneous Provinces and Biotic Extinctions

    Michael R. Rampino and Stephen Self

    62. Volcanic Lightning

    Stephen R. McNutt and Ronald J. Thomas

    Part VIII. Eruption Response and Mitigation

    63. Seismic and Infrasonic Monitoring

    Stephen R. McNutt, Glenn Thompson, Jeffrey Johnson, Silvio De Angelis and David Fee

    64. Ground Deformation, Gravity, and Magnetics

    Jeffrey T. Freymueller, John B. Murray, Hazel Rymer and Corinne A. Locke

    65. Gas, Plume, and Thermal Monitoring

    Simon A. Carn

    66. Synthesis of Volcano Monitoring

    John Pallister and Stephen R. McNutt

    67. Volcano Warning Systems

    Chris E. Gregg, Bruce Houghton and John W. Ewert

    68. Volcanic Crisis Management

    Gill Jolly and Servando de la Cruz

    69. Social Processes and Volcanic Risk Reduction

    Jenni Barclay, Katharine Haynes, Bruce Houghton and David Johnston

    70. Volcanic Risk Assessment

    Willy Aspinall and Russell Blong

    Part IX. Economic Benefits and Cultural Aspects of Volcanism

    71. Utilization of Geothermal Resources

    Stefán Arnórsson, Sverrir Thórhallsson and Andri Stefánsson

    72. Volcanic Soils

    Pierre Delmelle, Sophie Opfergelt, Jean-Thomas Cornelis and Chien-Lu Ping

    73. Volcano Ecology: Disturbance Characteristics and Assembly of Biological Communities

    Charles M. Crisafulli, Frederick J. Swanson, Jonathan J. Halvorson and Bruce D. Clarkson

    74. Volcanic Materials in Commerce and Industry 1285

    Jonathan Dehn and Stephen R. McNutt

    75. Volcanoes and Tourism

    Patricia Erfurt-Cooper, Haraldur Sigurdsson and Rosaly M.C. Lopes

    76. Volcanoes, Ancient People, and Their Societies

    Payson Sheets

    77. Volcanoes in Art

    Haraldur Sigurdsson

    78. Volcanoes in Literature and Film

    Haraldur Sigurdsson and Rosaly M.C. Lopes

    Appendix 1: Common Units and Conversion Factors

    Appendix 2: Catalog of Earth’s Documented Holocene Eruptions

Product details

  • No. of pages: 1456
  • Language: English
  • Copyright: © Academic Press 2015
  • Published: March 6, 2015
  • Imprint: Academic Press
  • Hardcover ISBN: 9780123859389
  • eBook ISBN: 9780123859396

About the Editors

Haraldur Sigurdsson

Haraldur Sigurdsson
Haraldur Sigurdsson is emeritus professor at the Graduate School of Oceanography, University of Rhode Island in the United States of America. He has worked on volcanic processes and the geochemistry of volcanic rocks for over fifty years. His studies have in part been focused on the impact of volcanic activity on human populations, especially his work on Vesuvius in Italy, Tambora in Indonesia, El Chichon in Mexico and studies of deadly gas bursts from Cameroon crater lakes. He has also studied the global environmental effects of meteorite impacts, such as the one that marks the Cretaceous/Tertiary boundary. His books include Melting the Earth, accounting for the evolution of ideas about formation of magmas and the origin of volcanic eruptions. Haraldur is currently director of the Volcano Museum in Stykkisholmur, Iceland.

Affiliations and Expertise

University of Iceland, Reykjavik, Iceland

Bruce Houghton

Bruce Houghton is the Gordon MacDonald Professor in Volcanology at University of Hawaii at Manoa and Hawaiian State Volcanologist and a Fellow of the Royal Society of New Zealand. He is also Science Director at the National Disaster Preparedness Training Center at University of Hawaii. Previously he had a career of twenty five years as a volcanologist in New Zealand, culminating in leading the scientific response to the 1995-96 eruption of Ruapehu volcano. Bruce has published over 220 research papers in international journals and has worked in Alaska, Chile, El Salvador, Greece, Hawaii, Iceland, Italy, Germany, Nicaragua, Thailand and New Zealand.

Affiliations and Expertise

National Disaster Preparedness Training Center, University of Hawaii, Manoa, HI, USA

Steve McNutt

Steve McNutt
Steve McNutt is a Professor in the School of Geosciences at the University of South Florida (USF). He has worked on volcanic processes using seismology, infrasound, and lightning instruments for over 35 years. He worked half time for the Alaska Volcano Observatory from 1991-2012 and was closely involved in monitoring efforts for eruptions at Spurr, Pavlof, Shishaldin, Augustine, Okmok, Kasatochi, and Redoubt volcanoes. He coordinates seismology research at USF, and presently supervises 3 graduate students and a Post-Doc. His research interests include: 1) studies of source and propagation effects for volcanic tremor, low-frequency events, and explosion earthquakes; 2) volcanic hazards assessments in Alaska, California, and Central America; 3) the mechanical behavior of volcanoes, including periodicity of eruptions, and the effects of earth tides, sea level variations, and tectonic stresses on triggering eruptive activity; 4) volcano infrasound; and 5) volcanic lightning. From July 1999 to July 2007 he served as Secretary-General for the International Association of Volcanology and Chemistry of the Earth's Interior.

Affiliations and Expertise

University of South Florida, Tampa, FL, USA

Hazel Rymer

Hazel Rymer
Hazel Rymer is presently the Dean and Director of Studies in the Faculty of Science and Profesor of Environmental Volcanology.

Hazel has developed and championed the use of microgravity as a tool for monitoring active volcanoes. She has used this method to identify sub-surface processes at calderas in a state of unrest and at persistently active volcanoes and this has given geoscientists considerable insight into the range of mechanisms responsible for initiating and sustaining volcanic activity. The technique Hazel pioneered is now the standard method for gravity monitoring on volcanoes; it remains the only way to quantify the sub-surface mass changes that occur before, during and after eruptions.

Affiliations and Expertise

Open University, Milton Keynes, UK

John Stix

John Stix
John Stix has studied active volcanoes for 26 years, specializing in volcanic gases, eruption mechanisms, and the impact of volcanic activity. He teaches undergraduate and graduate courses in volcanology, natural hazards, and environmental geology. He also is involved in field courses, where he exposes students to hands-on observations of natural processes such as volcanic eruptions and floods. He has been involved in many training courses and workshops in Canada, the US, and Latin America to teach volcanology. He has collaborated extensively with colleagues in Colombia, Costa Rica, Nicaragua, and Ecuador in volcano studies and volcanic hazards. From 2003 to 2010 he was the Editor-in-Chief of the Bulletin of Volcanology, the leading international journal related to the study of volcanoes and volcanism. He is currently part of an international team to drill into an active silicic magma body beneath Krafla volcano in Iceland.

Affiliations and Expertise

McGill University, Montreal, Canada

Ratings and Reviews

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  • Jan R. Mon Jan 28 2019

    Great reference book on volcanism

    Excellent comprehensive overview of volcanoes, volcanic rocks and volcanic processes. The book is very inviting to read, also for the non-specialist, thanks to accessible writing and many illustrations.