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The Encyclopedia of Volcanoes - 2nd Edition - ISBN: 9780123859389, 9780123859396

The Encyclopedia of Volcanoes

2nd Edition

Editors: Haraldur Sigurdsson Bruce Houghton Steve McNutt Hazel Rymer John Stix
Hardcover ISBN: 9780123859389
eBook ISBN: 9780123859396
Imprint: Academic Press
Published Date: 6th March 2015
Page Count: 1456
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Volcanoes are unquestionably one of the most spectacular and awe-inspiring features of the physical world. Our paradoxical fascination with them stems from their majestic beauty and powerful, sometimes deadly, destructiveness. Notwithstanding the tremendous advances in volcanology since ancient times, some of the mystery surrounding volcanic eruptions remains today. The Encyclopedia of Volcanoes summarizes our present knowledge of volcanoes; it provides a comprehensive source of information on the causes of volcanic eruptions and both the destructive and beneficial effects. The early chapters focus on the science of volcanism (melting of source rocks, ascent of magma, eruption processes, extraterrestrial volcanism, etc.). Later chapters discuss human interface with volcanoes, including the history of volcanology, geothermal energy resources, interaction with the oceans and atmosphere, health aspects of volcanism, mitigation of volcanic disasters, post-eruption ecology, and the impact of eruptions on organismal biodiversity.

Key Features

  • Provides the only comprehensive reference work to cover all aspects of volcanology
  • Written by nearly 100 world experts in volcanology
  • Explores an integrated transition from the physical process of eruptions through hazards and risk, to the social face of volcanism, with an emphasis on how volcanoes have influenced and shaped society
  • Presents hundreds of color photographs, maps, charts and illustrations making this an aesthetically appealing reference
  • Glossary of 3,000 key terms with definitions of all key vocabulary items in the field is included


Earth system educators, students and amateur scientists as well as professional volcanologists interested in comprehending specialties outside their own expertise

Table of Contents


The History of Volcanology

Part I. Origin and Transport of Magma

1. Melting the Earth’s Upper Mantle

Timothy L. Grove and Christy B. Till

2. Migration of Melt

Martha J. Daines and Matej Pec

3. Plate Tectonics and Volcanism

Peter C. LaFemina

4. The Composition and Origin of Magmas

Nick Rogers

5. Thermodynamic and Transport Properties of Silicate Melts and Magma

Charles E. Lesher and Frank J. Spera

6. Chemical Thermodynamics and the Study of Magmas

Mark S. Ghiorso and Guilherme A.R. Gualda

7. Volatiles in Magmas

Paul J. Wallace, Terry Plank, Marie Edmonds and Erik H. Hauri

8. Magma Chambers

Bruce D. Marsh

9. Rates of Magma Ascent and Storage

Brandon Browne and Lindsay Szramek

10. Magma Transport in Dikes

Helge Gonnermann and Benoit Taisne

11. Magma Ascent and Degassing at Shallow Levels

Alain Burgisser and Wim Degruyter

Part II. Eruptions

12. Earth’s Volcanoes and Their Eruptions: An Overview

Lee Siebert, Elizabeth Cottrell, Edward Venzke and Benjamin Andrews

13. Sizes of Volcanic Eruptions

David M. Pyle

14. Global Rates of Volcanism and Volcanic Episodes

Natalia Irma Deligne and Haraldur Sigurdsson

15. Primary Volcanic Landforms

Shan de Silva and Jan M. Lindsay

16. Calderas

Michael Branney and Valerio Acocella

Part III. Effusive Volcanism

17. Lava Flows and Rheology

Andrew J.L. Harris and Scott K. Rowland

18. Lava Dome Eruptions

Eliza S. Calder, Yan Lavallée, Jackie E. Kendrick and Marc Bernstein

19. Submarine Lavas and Hyaloclastite

James D.L. White, Jocelyn McPhie, and S. Adam Soule

20. Glaciovolcanism

Benjamin R. Edwards, Magnu´s T. Gudmundsson and James K. Russell

21. Mid-Ocean Ridge Volcanism

S. Adam Soule

22. Seamounts and Island Building

Hubert Staudigel and Anthony A.P. Koppers

23. Basaltic Volcanic Fields

Greg A. Valentine and Charles B. Connor

24. Large Igneous Provinces and Flood Basalt Volcanism

Stephen Self, Millard F. Coffin, Michael R. Rampino and John A. Wolff

Part IV

Explosive Volcanism

25. Magmatic Fragmentation

Katharine V. Cashman and Bettina Scheu

26. Magma—Water Interaction and Phreatomagmatic Fragmentation

Bernd Zimanowski, Ralf Büttner, Pierfrancesco Dellino, James D.L. White and Kenneth H. Wohletz

27. Hawaiian and Strombolian Eruptions

Jacopo Taddeucci, Marie Edmonds, Bruce Houghton, Michael R. James and Sylvie Vergniolle

28. Vulcanian Eruptions

Amanda Bachtell Clarke, Tomaso Esposti Ongaro and Alexander Belousov

29. Plinian and Subplinian Eruptions

Raffaello Cioni, Marco Pistolesi and Mauro Rosi

30. Phreatomagmatic and Related Eruption Styles

Bruce Houghton, James D.L. White and Alexa R. Van Eaton

31. Submarine Explosive Eruptions

James D.L. White, C. Ian Schipper and Kazuhiko Kano

32. Volcanic Plumes

Steven Carey and Marcus Bursik

33. Tephra Dispersal and Sedimentation

Costanza Bonadonna, Antonio Costa, Arnau Folch and Takehiro Koyaguchi

34. Pyroclastic Fall Deposits

Bruce F. Houghton and Rebecca J. Carey

35. Pyroclastic Density Currents: Processes and Models

Josef Dufek, Tomaso Esposti Ongaro and Olivier Roche

36. Deposits of Pyroclastic Density Currents

Richard J. Brown and Graham D.M. Andrews

37. Lahars and Their Deposits

James W. Vallance and Richard M. Iverson

38. Landslides, Debris Avalanches and Volcanic Gravitational Deformation

Benjamin van Wyk de Vries and Tim Davies

Part V

Extraterrestrial Volcanism

39. Volcanism on the Moon

Paul D. Spudis

40. Volcanism on Mercury

James W. Head, III and Lionel Wilson

41. Volcanism on Mars

James R. Zimbelman, William Brent Garry,

Jacob Elvin Bleacher and David A. Crown

42. Volcanism on Venus

Mikhail A. Ivanov, Larry S. Crumpler, Jayne C. Aubele and James W. Head, III

43. Volcanism on Io

Rosaly M.C. Lopes and David A. Williams

44. Cryovolcanism in the Outer Solar System

Paul Geissler

Part VI

Volcanic Interactions

45. Volcanic, Magmatic and Hydrothermal Gases

Tobias P. Fischer and Giovanni Chiodini

46. Intrusion-Related Geothermal Systems

James Stimac, Fraser Goff and Cathy J. Goff

47. Seafloor Hydrothermal Venting at Volcanic Arcs and Backarcs

Cornel E.J. de Ronde and Valerie K. Stucker

48. Volcano-Related Lakes

Pierre Delmelle, Richard W. Henley and Alain Bernard

49. Volcanic Successions Associated with Ore Deposits: Facies Characteristics and Ore—Host


Jocelyn McPhie and Ray Cas

50. Volcanic Influences on the Carbon, Sulfur, and Halogen Biogeochemical Cycles

Pierre Delmelle, Elena Maters and Clive Oppenheimer

Part VII. Volcanic Hazards

51. Probabilistic Volcanic Hazard Assessment

Chuck Connor, Mark Bebbington and Warner Marzocchi

52. Volcanic Ash Hazards to Aviation

Fred Prata and Bill Rose

53. Climatic Impacts of Volcanic Eruptions

Alan Robock

54. Hazards from Pyroclastic Density Currents

Paul D. Cole, Augusto Neri and Peter J. Baxter

55. Lava Flow Hazards and Modeling

Christopher R.J. Kilburn

56. Hazards from Lahars and Jökulhlaups

Magnús T. Gudmundsson

57. Hazards of Volcanic Gases

Glyn Williams-Jones and Hazel Rymer

58. Volcanic Tsunamis

Simon J. Day

59. Volcanic Seismicity

Stephen R. McNutt and Diana C. Roman

60. Impacts of Eruptions on Human Health

Peter J. Baxter and Claire J. Horwell

61. Large Igneous Provinces and Biotic Extinctions

Michael R. Rampino and Stephen Self

62. Volcanic Lightning

Stephen R. McNutt and Ronald J. Thomas

Part VIII. Eruption Response and Mitigation

63. Seismic and Infrasonic Monitoring

Stephen R. McNutt, Glenn Thompson, Jeffrey Johnson, Silvio De Angelis and David Fee

64. Ground Deformation, Gravity, and Magnetics

Jeffrey T. Freymueller, John B. Murray, Hazel Rymer and Corinne A. Locke

65. Gas, Plume, and Thermal Monitoring

Simon A. Carn

66. Synthesis of Volcano Monitoring

John Pallister and Stephen R. McNutt

67. Volcano Warning Systems

Chris E. Gregg, Bruce Houghton and John W. Ewert

68. Volcanic Crisis Management

Gill Jolly and Servando de la Cruz

69. Social Processes and Volcanic Risk Reduction

Jenni Barclay, Katharine Haynes, Bruce Houghton and David Johnston

70. Volcanic Risk Assessment

Willy Aspinall and Russell Blong

Part IX. Economic Benefits and Cultural Aspects of Volcanism

71. Utilization of Geothermal Resources

Stefán Arnórsson, Sverrir Thórhallsson and Andri Stefánsson

72. Volcanic Soils

Pierre Delmelle, Sophie Opfergelt, Jean-Thomas Cornelis and Chien-Lu Ping

73. Volcano Ecology: Disturbance Characteristics and Assembly of Biological Communities

Charles M. Crisafulli, Frederick J. Swanson, Jonathan J. Halvorson and Bruce D. Clarkson

74. Volcanic Materials in Commerce and Industry 1285

Jonathan Dehn and Stephen R. McNutt

75. Volcanoes and Tourism

Patricia Erfurt-Cooper, Haraldur Sigurdsson and Rosaly M.C. Lopes

76. Volcanoes, Ancient People, and Their Societies

Payson Sheets

77. Volcanoes in Art

Haraldur Sigurdsson

78. Volcanoes in Literature and Film

Haraldur Sigurdsson and Rosaly M.C. Lopes

Appendix 1: Common Units and Conversion Factors

Appendix 2: Catalog of Earth’s Documented Holocene Eruptions


No. of pages:
© Academic Press 2015
6th March 2015
Academic Press
Hardcover ISBN:
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About the Editors

Haraldur Sigurdsson

Haraldur Sigurdsson

Haraldur Sigurdsson is emeritus professor at the Graduate School of Oceanography, University of Rhode Island in the United States of America. He has worked on volcanic processes and the geochemistry of volcanic rocks for over fifty years. His studies have in part been focused on the impact of volcanic activity on human populations, especially his work on Vesuvius in Italy, Tambora in Indonesia, El Chichon in Mexico and studies of deadly gas bursts from Cameroon crater lakes. He has also studied the global environmental effects of meteorite impacts, such as the one that marks the Cretaceous/Tertiary boundary. His books include Melting the Earth, accounting for the evolution of ideas about formation of magmas and the origin of volcanic eruptions. Haraldur is currently director of the Volcano Museum in Stykkisholmur, Iceland.

Affiliations and Expertise

University of Iceland, Reykjavik, Iceland

Bruce Houghton

Bruce Houghton is the Gordon MacDonald Professor in Volcanology at University of Hawaii at Manoa and Hawaiian State Volcanologist and a Fellow of the Royal Society of New Zealand. He is also Science Director at the National Disaster Preparedness Training Center at University of Hawaii. Previously he had a career of twenty five years as a volcanologist in New Zealand, culminating in leading the scientific response to the 1995-96 eruption of Ruapehu volcano. Bruce has published over 220 research papers in international journals and has worked in Alaska, Chile, El Salvador, Greece, Hawaii, Iceland, Italy, Germany, Nicaragua, Thailand and New Zealand.

Affiliations and Expertise

National Disaster Preparedness Training Center, University of Hawaii, Manoa, HI, USA

Steve McNutt

Steve McNutt

Steve McNutt is a Professor in the School of Geosciences at the University of South Florida (USF). He has worked on volcanic processes using seismology, infrasound, and lightning instruments for over 35 years. He worked half time for the Alaska Volcano Observatory from 1991-2012 and was closely involved in monitoring efforts for eruptions at Spurr, Pavlof, Shishaldin, Augustine, Okmok, Kasatochi, and Redoubt volcanoes. He coordinates seismology research at USF, and presently supervises 3 graduate students and a Post-Doc. His research interests include: 1) studies of source and propagation effects for volcanic tremor, low-frequency events, and explosion earthquakes; 2) volcanic hazards assessments in Alaska, California, and Central America; 3) the mechanical behavior of volcanoes, including periodicity of eruptions, and the effects of earth tides, sea level variations, and tectonic stresses on triggering eruptive activity; 4) volcano infrasound; and 5) volcanic lightning. From July 1999 to July 2007 he served as Secretary-General for the International Association of Volcanology and Chemistry of the Earth's Interior.

Affiliations and Expertise

University of South Florida, Tampa, FL, USA

Hazel Rymer

Hazel Rymer

Hazel Rymer is presently the Dean and Director of Studies in the Faculty of Science and Profesor of Environmental Volcanology.

Hazel has developed and championed the use of microgravity as a tool for monitoring active volcanoes. She has used this method to identify sub-surface processes at calderas in a state of unrest and at persistently active volcanoes and this has given geoscientists considerable insight into the range of mechanisms responsible for initiating and sustaining volcanic activity. The technique Hazel pioneered is now the standard method for gravity monitoring on volcanoes; it remains the only way to quantify the sub-surface mass changes that occur before, during and after eruptions.

Affiliations and Expertise

Open University, Milton Keynes, UK

John Stix

John Stix

John Stix has studied active volcanoes for 26 years, specializing in volcanic gases, eruption mechanisms, and the impact of volcanic activity. He teaches undergraduate and graduate courses in volcanology, natural hazards, and environmental geology. He also is involved in field courses, where he exposes students to hands-on observations of natural processes such as volcanic eruptions and floods. He has been involved in many training courses and workshops in Canada, the US, and Latin America to teach volcanology. He has collaborated extensively with colleagues in Colombia, Costa Rica, Nicaragua, and Ecuador in volcano studies and volcanic hazards. From 2003 to 2010 he was the Editor-in-Chief of the Bulletin of Volcanology, the leading international journal related to the study of volcanoes and volcanism. He is currently part of an international team to drill into an active silicic magma body beneath Krafla volcano in Iceland.

Affiliations and Expertise

McGill University, Montreal, Canada


2016 PROSE Awards - Honorable Mention, Earth Science: Association of American Publishers, Encyclopedia of Volcanoes

Winner of Association for Earth Science Editors (AESE) 2016 award for Outstanding Publication


"There are many figures, tables, photographs, and charts, many of them in color in this well-produced second edition...I would recommend this volume to anyone interested in volcanoes and their activity." --The Leading Edge

"...provides an in-depth and scientific overview of volcanoes including how they are formed and monitored, but it also examines such unique topics as volcanoes in art and volcano tourism...the most comprehensive referenced book on volcanism that I've ever come across." --Tundraco

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