The Ecology of Natural Disturbance and Patch Dynamics - 1st Edition - ISBN: 9780125545204, 9780323138932

The Ecology of Natural Disturbance and Patch Dynamics

1st Edition

Authors: Author Unknown
eBook ISBN: 9780323138932
Imprint: Academic Press
Published Date: 10th June 1985
Page Count: 472
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The Ecology of Natural Disturbance and Patch Dynamics brings together the findings and ideas of researchers studying such varied systems as marine invertebrate communities; grasslands; and boreal, temperate, and tropical forests. The primary goal is to present a synthesis of diverse individual contributions.
The book is divided into three main sections: (1) examples of patch dynamics in diverse systems; (2) adaptations of organisms and evolution of populations in patch dynamic environments; and (3) implications of patch dynamics for the organization of communities and the functioning of ecosystems. This approach demonstrates the commonality of disturbance-generated phenomena over a wide range of scales and levels of organization, and thus validates the broad applicability of the patch dynamic viewpoint. The book presents a framework that can stimulate the generation of explicit hypotheses and theory and forms an alternative to equilibrium concepts of the evolution of populations, composition of communities, and functioning of ecosystems.

Table of Contents



Part I Introduction

1 Natural Disturbance and Patch Dynamics: An Introduction

I. The Dynamics of Biological Systems

II. Definitions: Patch Dynamics, Perturbation, and Disturbance

III. Natural Disturbance: The Patch Dynamics Perspective

Part II Patch Dynamics in Nature

2 Disturbance Regimes in Temperate Forests

I. Introduction

II. Components of a Disturbance Regime for Forests

III. Natural Disturbance Regimes for Specific Temperate Forests

IV. Artificial Disturbance Regimes

V. Summary

Recommended Readings

3 Stand Dynamics in Chilean Nothofagus Forests

I. Introduction

II. The Chilean Lake District

III. Patch Dynamics

IV. Conclusions

Recommended Readings

4 Treefalls, Regrowth, and Community Structure in Tropical Forests

I. Introduction

II. Treefall Regimes

III. Regeneration Behavior

IV. Regrowth

V. Community Structure

VI. Conclusions

5 Gap Processes and Large-Scale Disturbances in Sand Prairies

I. Introduction

II. Perspectives on Grassland Disturbances

III. A Southwestern Wisconsin Case Study: The Spring Green Sand Prairie

IV. Discussion: Disturbance Scale, Return Times, and Predictability in Grasslands

Recommended Readings

6 Shrubland Fire Regimes and Their Evolutionary Consequences

I. Introduction

II. Fire Regimes and Their Control

III. Environmental Responses to Burning

IV. Plant Adaptations to Fire in Shrublands

V. Community Responses to Burning

7 Disturbance and Patch Dynamics on Rocky Intertidal Shores

I. Introduction

II. Kinds of Open Space Produced by Disturbance

III. Characteristics of the Disturbance Regime

IV. Modes of Patch Colonization

V. Responses of Mobile Consumers to Patch Characteristics

VI. Within-Patch Dynamics

VII. Regional Persistence of Fugitive Species

VIII. Concluding Remarks

Recommended Readings

8 Disturbance and Patch Dynamics of Subtidal Marine Animals on Hard Substrata

I. Introduction

II. Examples of the Patch Dynamics of Subtidal Communities

III. Discussion

9 Disturbance and Vertebrates: An Integrative Perspective

I. Introduction

II. The Complexity of Disturbances in Vertebrate Communities: An Example from the Everglades

III. Disturbance as Considered by Ecologists

IV. Disturbance and Vertebrate Adaptations

V. Study of Vertebrate Adaptations in the Context of Disturbance

VI. Synthesis

Recommended Readings

10 Vertebrate Responses to Environmental Patchiness in Arid and Semiarid Ecosystems

I. Introduction

II. Patchiness in Arid Environments

III. Environmental Patchiness and Individuals

IV. Patches and Populations

V. Patches and Community Structure

VI. Vertebrates as Patch Producers

VII. Habitat Fragmentation

VIII. Concluding Caution

Part III Adaptations of Plants and Animals in a Patch Dynamic Setting

11 The Response of Woody Plants to Disturbance: Patterns of Establishment and Growth

I. Introduction

II. Natural Disturbance and Resource Availability

III. Establishment of Woody Plants Following Disturbance

IV. Growth and Resource Use by Woody Plants Following Disturbance

V. Discussion

Recommended Readings

12 Responses of Forest Herbs to Canopy Gaps

I. Introduction

II. Gap Environment

III. Responses to the Environment

IV. Herb Responses to Gaps

V. Constraints on Herb Responses

VI. Conclusions

Recommended Readings

13 Adaptations of Insects to Disturbance

I. Introduction

II. Factors Influencing Insect Responses to Disturbance

III. Insect Propagation of Disturbance Effects

IV. Insects as Regulators of Ecosystem Productivity

V. Conclusions

Recommended Readings

14 Within-Patch Dynamics of Life Histories, Populations, and Interactions: Selection over Time in Small Spaces

I. Introduction

II. Within-Patch Dynamics, Life Histories, and Selection

III. Ecological Genetics of Within-Patch Structure and Dynamics

IV. Ecological Genetics and the Within-Patch Dynamics of Interactions

V. Conclusions

15 Animal Population Genetics and Disturbance: The Effects of Local Extinctions and Recolonizations on Heterozygosity and Fitness

I. Introduction

II. Natural Disturbance and Genetic Drift

III. Genetic Drift and Heterozygosity

IV. Heterozygosity and Fitness

V. Natural Disturbances and Poeciliopsis Populations

VI. Breeding Systems and Patch Dynamics

VII. Local Fitness and Competition

VIII. Long-Term Processes: The Shifting Balance

Recommended Readings

16 Plant Population Genetics and Evolution in Disturbed Environments

I. Introduction

II. Linking Population Ecology to Population Genetic Theory

III. Genetics of Colonizing Plant Species

IV. Models of Genetic Variation in Patchily Distributed Species

V. Genetic Variation: Observation in Plant Populations

VI. Variation, Selection, and Adaptation

VII. Summary

Recommended Readings

Part IV Implications of Patch Dynamics for the Organization of Communities and the Functioning of Ecosystems

17 Disturbance-Mediated Coexistence of Species

I. Introduction

II. Patches and Landscapes

III. Characteristics of Disturbances

IV. Ecosystem Resilience

V. The Role of Propagule Dispersal in Community Structure

VI. Conclusions

18 Community Turnover and Ecosystem Nutrient Dynamics

I. Introduction

II. Nutrient Cycling within a Patch

III. Patch Size and Nutrient Dynamics

IV. Effects on Watershed-Level Nutrient Dynamics

19 Natural Disturbance and Ecosystem Energetics

I. Introduction

II. Ecosystem Changes during Stand Development

III. Conclusion—Disturbance, Energetics, and Resource Management

IV. Summary

Recommended Readings

20 Modeling Forest Landscapes and the Role of Disturbance in Ecosystems and Communities

I. Introduction

II. Forest Dynamics Models

III. Gap Models

IV. A Model of Animal Response to Disturbance

V. Concluding Remarks

Part V Synthesis

21 Patch Dynamics: A Synthesis

I. Introduction

II. The Importance of Disturbance

III. Toward a Theory of Disturbance

IV. Conclusion




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© Academic Press 1985
Academic Press
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