The Ecology of Natural Disturbance and Patch Dynamics

The Ecology of Natural Disturbance and Patch Dynamics

1st Edition - June 10, 1985

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  • Author: Author Unknown
  • eBook ISBN: 9780323138932

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Description

The Ecology of Natural Disturbance and Patch Dynamics brings together the findings and ideas of researchers studying such varied systems as marine invertebrate communities; grasslands; and boreal, temperate, and tropical forests. The primary goal is to present a synthesis of diverse individual contributions. The book is divided into three main sections: (1) examples of patch dynamics in diverse systems; (2) adaptations of organisms and evolution of populations in patch dynamic environments; and (3) implications of patch dynamics for the organization of communities and the functioning of ecosystems. This approach demonstrates the commonality of disturbance-generated phenomena over a wide range of scales and levels of organization, and thus validates the broad applicability of the patch dynamic viewpoint. The book presents a framework that can stimulate the generation of explicit hypotheses and theory and forms an alternative to equilibrium concepts of the evolution of populations, composition of communities, and functioning of ecosystems.

Table of Contents


  • Contributors

    Preface

    Part I Introduction

    1 Natural Disturbance and Patch Dynamics: An Introduction

    I. The Dynamics of Biological Systems

    II. Definitions: Patch Dynamics, Perturbation, and Disturbance

    III. Natural Disturbance: The Patch Dynamics Perspective

    Part II Patch Dynamics in Nature

    2 Disturbance Regimes in Temperate Forests

    I. Introduction

    II. Components of a Disturbance Regime for Forests

    III. Natural Disturbance Regimes for Specific Temperate Forests

    IV. Artificial Disturbance Regimes

    V. Summary

    Recommended Readings

    3 Stand Dynamics in Chilean Nothofagus Forests

    I. Introduction

    II. The Chilean Lake District

    III. Patch Dynamics

    IV. Conclusions

    Recommended Readings

    4 Treefalls, Regrowth, and Community Structure in Tropical Forests

    I. Introduction

    II. Treefall Regimes

    III. Regeneration Behavior

    IV. Regrowth

    V. Community Structure

    VI. Conclusions

    5 Gap Processes and Large-Scale Disturbances in Sand Prairies

    I. Introduction

    II. Perspectives on Grassland Disturbances

    III. A Southwestern Wisconsin Case Study: The Spring Green Sand Prairie

    IV. Discussion: Disturbance Scale, Return Times, and Predictability in Grasslands

    Recommended Readings

    6 Shrubland Fire Regimes and Their Evolutionary Consequences

    I. Introduction

    II. Fire Regimes and Their Control

    III. Environmental Responses to Burning

    IV. Plant Adaptations to Fire in Shrublands

    V. Community Responses to Burning

    7 Disturbance and Patch Dynamics on Rocky Intertidal Shores

    I. Introduction

    II. Kinds of Open Space Produced by Disturbance

    III. Characteristics of the Disturbance Regime

    IV. Modes of Patch Colonization

    V. Responses of Mobile Consumers to Patch Characteristics

    VI. Within-Patch Dynamics

    VII. Regional Persistence of Fugitive Species

    VIII. Concluding Remarks

    Recommended Readings

    8 Disturbance and Patch Dynamics of Subtidal Marine Animals on Hard Substrata

    I. Introduction

    II. Examples of the Patch Dynamics of Subtidal Communities

    III. Discussion

    9 Disturbance and Vertebrates: An Integrative Perspective

    I. Introduction

    II. The Complexity of Disturbances in Vertebrate Communities: An Example from the Everglades

    III. Disturbance as Considered by Ecologists

    IV. Disturbance and Vertebrate Adaptations

    V. Study of Vertebrate Adaptations in the Context of Disturbance

    VI. Synthesis

    Recommended Readings

    10 Vertebrate Responses to Environmental Patchiness in Arid and Semiarid Ecosystems

    I. Introduction

    II. Patchiness in Arid Environments

    III. Environmental Patchiness and Individuals

    IV. Patches and Populations

    V. Patches and Community Structure

    VI. Vertebrates as Patch Producers

    VII. Habitat Fragmentation

    VIII. Concluding Caution

    Part III Adaptations of Plants and Animals in a Patch Dynamic Setting

    11 The Response of Woody Plants to Disturbance: Patterns of Establishment and Growth

    I. Introduction

    II. Natural Disturbance and Resource Availability

    III. Establishment of Woody Plants Following Disturbance

    IV. Growth and Resource Use by Woody Plants Following Disturbance

    V. Discussion

    Recommended Readings

    12 Responses of Forest Herbs to Canopy Gaps

    I. Introduction

    II. Gap Environment

    III. Responses to the Environment

    IV. Herb Responses to Gaps

    V. Constraints on Herb Responses

    VI. Conclusions

    Recommended Readings

    13 Adaptations of Insects to Disturbance

    I. Introduction

    II. Factors Influencing Insect Responses to Disturbance

    III. Insect Propagation of Disturbance Effects

    IV. Insects as Regulators of Ecosystem Productivity

    V. Conclusions

    Recommended Readings

    14 Within-Patch Dynamics of Life Histories, Populations, and Interactions: Selection over Time in Small Spaces

    I. Introduction

    II. Within-Patch Dynamics, Life Histories, and Selection

    III. Ecological Genetics of Within-Patch Structure and Dynamics

    IV. Ecological Genetics and the Within-Patch Dynamics of Interactions

    V. Conclusions

    15 Animal Population Genetics and Disturbance: The Effects of Local Extinctions and Recolonizations on Heterozygosity and Fitness

    I. Introduction

    II. Natural Disturbance and Genetic Drift

    III. Genetic Drift and Heterozygosity

    IV. Heterozygosity and Fitness

    V. Natural Disturbances and Poeciliopsis Populations

    VI. Breeding Systems and Patch Dynamics

    VII. Local Fitness and Competition

    VIII. Long-Term Processes: The Shifting Balance

    Recommended Readings

    16 Plant Population Genetics and Evolution in Disturbed Environments

    I. Introduction

    II. Linking Population Ecology to Population Genetic Theory

    III. Genetics of Colonizing Plant Species

    IV. Models of Genetic Variation in Patchily Distributed Species

    V. Genetic Variation: Observation in Plant Populations

    VI. Variation, Selection, and Adaptation

    VII. Summary

    Recommended Readings

    Part IV Implications of Patch Dynamics for the Organization of Communities and the Functioning of Ecosystems

    17 Disturbance-Mediated Coexistence of Species

    I. Introduction

    II. Patches and Landscapes

    III. Characteristics of Disturbances

    IV. Ecosystem Resilience

    V. The Role of Propagule Dispersal in Community Structure

    VI. Conclusions

    18 Community Turnover and Ecosystem Nutrient Dynamics

    I. Introduction

    II. Nutrient Cycling within a Patch

    III. Patch Size and Nutrient Dynamics

    IV. Effects on Watershed-Level Nutrient Dynamics

    19 Natural Disturbance and Ecosystem Energetics

    I. Introduction

    II. Ecosystem Changes during Stand Development

    III. Conclusion—Disturbance, Energetics, and Resource Management

    IV. Summary

    Recommended Readings

    20 Modeling Forest Landscapes and the Role of Disturbance in Ecosystems and Communities

    I. Introduction

    II. Forest Dynamics Models

    III. Gap Models

    IV. A Model of Animal Response to Disturbance

    V. Concluding Remarks

    Part V Synthesis

    21 Patch Dynamics: A Synthesis

    I. Introduction

    II. The Importance of Disturbance

    III. Toward a Theory of Disturbance

    IV. Conclusion

    Bibliography

    Index






Product details

  • No. of pages: 472
  • Language: English
  • Copyright: © Academic Press 1985
  • Published: June 10, 1985
  • Imprint: Academic Press
  • eBook ISBN: 9780323138932

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