The Circuit Designer’s Companion - 1st Edition - ISBN: 9780750611428, 9781483102504

The Circuit Designer’s Companion

1st Edition

Authors: Tim Williams
eBook ISBN: 9781483102504
Imprint: Butterworth-Heinemann
Published Date: 15th April 1991
Page Count: 310
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Description

The Circuit Designer’s Companion covers the theoretical aspects and practices in analogue and digital circuit design. Electronic circuit design involves designing a circuit that will fulfill its specified function and designing the same circuit so that every production model of it will fulfill its specified function, and no other undesired and unspecified function.

This book is composed of nine chapters and starts with a review of the concept of grounding, wiring, and printed circuits. The subsequent chapters deal with the passive and active components of circuitry design. These topics are followed by discussions of the principles of other design components, including linear integrated circuits, digital circuits, and power supplies. The remaining chapters consider the vital role of electromagnetic compatibility in circuit design. These chapters also look into safety, design of production, testability, reliability, and thermal management of the designed circuit.

This book is of great value to electrical and design engineers.

Table of Contents


Introduction

Chapter 1 Grounding and Wiring

Grounding

Grounding Within One Unit

Chassis Ground

The Conductivity of Aluminum

Ground Loops

Power Supply Returns

Input Signal Ground

Output Signal Ground

Inter-Board Interface Signals

Star-Point Grounding

Ground Connections Between Units

Shielding

The Safety Earth

Wiring and Cables

Wire Types

Cable Types

Power Cables

Data and Multicore Cables

RF Cables

Twisted Pair

Crosstalk

Transmission Lines

Characteristic Impedance

Time Domain

Frequency Domain

Chapter 2 Printed Circuits

Board Types

Materials

Type of Construction

Choice of Type

Choice of Size

Design Rules

Track Width and Spacing

Hole and Pad Diameter

Track Routing

Ground and Power Distribution

Package Placement

Component Identification

Solder Resist

Terminations and Connections

Surface Protection

Guarding

Conformal Coating

Surface Mount

Surface Mount Design Rules

Sourcing Boards and Artwork

Artwork

Boards

Chapter 3 Passive Components

Resistors

Resistor Types

Tolerancing

Temperature Coefficient

Power

Inductance

Pulse Handling

Resistor Networks

Potentiometers

Trimmer Types

Panel Types

Pot Applications

Capacitors

Metallized Film & Paper

Multi-Layer Ceramics

Single Layer Ceramics

Electrolytics

Solid Tantalum

Capacitor Applications

Series Capacitors and dc Leakage

Dielectric Absorption

Self Resonance

Inductors

Permeability

Self-Capacitance

Inductor Applications

The Danger of Inductive Transients

Crystals

Resonance

Oscillator Circuits

Temperature

Chapter 4 Active Components

Diodes

Forward Bias

Reverse Bias

Leakage

High-Frequency Performance

Switching Times

Schottky Diodes

Zener Diodes

The Zener as a Clamp

Thyristors and Triacs

Thyristor Versus Triac

Triggering Characteristics

False Triggering

Conduction

Switching

Snubbing

Bipolar Transistors

Leakage

Saturation

The Darlington

Safe Operating Area

Gain

Switching and High Frequency Performance

Grading

Junction Field Effect Transistors

Pinch-Off

Applications

High Impedance Circuits

MOSFETs

Low-Power MOSFETs

VMOS Power FETs

Gate Drive Impedance

Switching Speed

On-State Resistance

Chapter 5 Linear Integrated Circuits

The Ideal Op-Amp

The Practical Op-Amp

Offset Voltage

Bias and Offset Currents

Common Mode Effects

Input Voltage Range

Output Parameters

AC Parameters

Slew Rate and Large Signal Bandwidth

Small-Signal Bandwidth

Settling Time

Uncompensated Op-Amps

The Oscillating Amplifier

Open-Loop Gain

Noise

Supply Current

Temperature Ratings

Cost and Availability

Comparators

Output Parameters

AC Parameters

Op-Amps as Comparators (and Vice Versa)

Hysteresis and Oscillations

Input Voltage Limits

Comparator Sourcing

Voltage References

Zener References

Band-Gap References

Reference Specifications

Chapter 6 Digital Circuits

Logic ICs

Noise Immunity and Thresholds

Fan-Out and Loading

Induced Switching Noise

Decoupling

Unused Gate Inputs

Interfacing

Mixing Analogue and Digital

Generating Digital Levels from Analogue Inputs

Protection Against Externally-Applied Overvoltages

Isolation

Data Interface Standards

Microprocessor Watchdogs and Supervision

The Threat of Corruption

Watchdog Design

Supervisor Design

Software Techniques

Input Data Validation and Averaging

Data and Memory Protection

Re-Initialization

Chapter 7 Power Supplies

General

The Linear Supply

The Switch-Mode Supply

Specifications

Off the Shelf Versus Roll Your Own

Input and Output Parameters

Voltage

Current

Fuses

Switch-On Surge

Waveform Distortion

Frequency

Efficiency

Deriving the Input Voltage from the Output

Low-Load Condition

Rectifier and Capacitor Selection

Load and Line Regulation

Ripple and Noise

Transient Response

Abnormal Conditions

Output Overload

Input Transients

Transient Suppressors

Overvoltage Protection

Turn-On and Turn-Off

Mechanical Requirements

Case Size and Construction

Heatsinking

Safety Approvals

Batteries

Initial Considerations

Primary Cells

Secondary Cells

Charging

Chapter 8 Electromagnetic Compatibility

The Need for EMC

Immunity

Emissions

EMC Legislation and Standards

The EMC Directive

Existing Standards

Interference Coupling Mechanisms

Conducted

Radiated

Circuit Design and Layout

Choice of Logic

Analogue Circuits

Software

Shielding

Apertures

Seams

Filtering

The Low-Pass Filter

Mains Filter

I/O Filters

Feedthrough and 3-Terminal Capacitors

Cables and Connectors

EMC Design Checklist

Chapter 9 General Product Design

Safety

Safety Classes

Design Considerations for Safety Protection

Fire Hazard

Design for Production

Checklist

The Dangers of ESD

Testability

In-Circuit Testing

Functional Testing

Design Techniques

Reliability

Definitions

The Cost of Reliability

Design for Reliability

The Value of MTBF Figures

Design Faults

Thermal Management

Calculating Thermal Resistance

Heatsinks

Power Semiconductor Mounting

Placement and Layout

Appendix Standards

British Standards

IEC Standards

Bibliography

Index

Details

No. of pages:
310
Language:
English
Copyright:
© Butterworth-Heinemann 1991
Published:
Imprint:
Butterworth-Heinemann
eBook ISBN:
9781483102504

About the Author

Tim Williams

Tim Williams worked for a variety of companies as an electronic design engineer, before startinghis own consultancy specializing in EMC design and test advice and training. He has monitored the progress of the EMC Directive and its associated standards since it was first made public, over the last 25 years.

Affiliations and Expertise

Elmac Services, Wareham, UK