The Chronic Crisis in Psychological Measurement and Assessment

The Chronic Crisis in Psychological Measurement and Assessment

A Historical Survey

1st Edition - September 27, 1994

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  • Author: Scott T. Meier
  • eBook ISBN: 9781483271590

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Description

The Chronic Crisis in Psychological Measurement and Assessment: A Historical Survey provides a historical survey of relevant concepts in psychological measurement and assessment. It does not delve into intimate details and complexities, but traces measurement and assessment controversies over time and across psychological domains. The main goal has been to approach the problems of measurement and assessment from the perspective of psychological theory. The book begins with an overview, a broad picture of how psychological measurement and assessment have evolved. Separate chapters present descriptions and interpretations of measurement issues that have been important over the lifespan of psychological science. Traditional approaches along with newer concepts and procedures are are discussed, along with an attempt to integrate the major themes that emerge from the historical survey with the ultimate purpose of reviewing and proposing new directions. This book is offered as a complement to existing texts in psychological measurement and assessment.

Table of Contents


  • 1 History

    The Seeds of Conflict

    The Desire to Be Scientific

    The Desire to Be Relevant

    Consequences of the Success of Psychological Measurement

    Prediction over Explanation

    Handling Error

    Loss of Experimental Methods

    The Gain of Traits and Loss of Situations

    Loss of Precision

    Consequences of the Problems of Psychological Measurement

    Scientific Crises

    The Neglect of Measurement

    The Wisdom and Tyranny of Tradition

    Measurement and Theoretical Advances

    Summary and Implications

    2 Consistency of Measurement Across and within Individuals

    Consistency of Measurement across Individuals

    Large Samples and Individual Differences Equals Nomothetic Measurement

    Consistency of Measurement within Individuals

    A Brief History of Traits

    Systematic Measurement Errors: Sources of Inconsistency

    Human Judgment Ratings

    Response Strategies

    Factors Related to Strategy Selection

    Cognitive Influences

    Motivational and Affective Influences

    Behavioral Influences

    Examples of Generative Response Strategies

    Error Simulations

    Consistency within Human Response Modes: Desynchrony of Behavior, Affect, and Cognition

    History

    Evidence for Mode Inconsistency

    Causes

    Psychological Interventions

    Summary and Implications

    3 Consistency across Raters and Rating Procedures

    Inconsistencies across Raters

    Employment Interviews

    Clinical Interviews

    Rater Errors

    Halo Errors

    Leniency and Criticalness Errors

    Range Restriction Errors

    Improving Interviews and Raters

    Whose Rating is Most Valid?

    Inconsistency across Rating Procedures

    Statistical versus Clinical Prediction

    Clinical Observation of Test Behavior

    Scientist as Observer

    Summary and Implications

    4 Consistency within and across Situations: Trait versus Environment

    History

    The Controversy of Mischel and Peterson

    Reinforcing the Trait Argument

    The Rejection of Traits: Behavioral Assessment

    Person-Environment Interactions

    Aptitude-by-Treatment Interactions (ATIs)

    Environmental Assessment

    Moderators of Cross-Situational Consistency

    States and Traits

    Process Research

    Summary and Implications

    5 Consistency across Constructs: Lack of Discriminant Validity

    History

    Types of Validity

    Constructs, Theories, and Valid Measurement

    Multitrait-Multimethod Matrices

    Campbell and Fiske

    Criteria for Construct Validity

    Ubiquitous Method Variance

    Inconsistency across Constructs

    A Multitrait-Multimethod Example

    Problems with Construct Validation

    Summary and Implications

    6 Promising Approaches

    Traditional Approaches

    Measurement of Personality and Temperament

    Act-Frequency Analysis

    The Big Five

    Predicting Occupational Criteria

    Clinical Measures

    Cognitive Abilities and g

    Neuropsychological Testing

    Aggregation

    Summary

    Statistically Oriented Approaches

    Item Response Theory (IRT)

    Generalizability Theory (GT)

    Does Measurement Equal Statistics?

    Do the Measurement Properties of Objects Affect the Type of Statistical Procedure Employed?

    Summary

    Cognitive Approaches

    Task Decomposition

    Protocol Analysis

    Item Characteristics

    Constructivist Assessments

    Summary

    Behavioral Approaches

    Assessment in Mental Health Institutions

    Behavioral Physics

    Simulations, Structured Assessments, and Work Assessment Centers

    Summary

    Computer-Based Approaches

    Response Latency

    Human Speech

    Simulations

    Summary

    Summary and Implications

    7 Integration

    The Implications of Measurement History

    Constructing Tests

    Measurement for Selection

    Measurement for Explanatory Theory Building

    Measurement for Intervention

    Administering Tests

    Selection

    Theory Building

    Intervention

    Scoring Tests

    Selection

    Theory Building

    Intervention

    Interpreting Tests

    Selection

    Theory Building

    Intervention

    Summary and Implications

    8 Conclusions and Speculations

    Appendix

    References

    Author Index

    Subject Index

Product details

  • No. of pages: 306
  • Language: English
  • Copyright: © Academic Press 1994
  • Published: September 27, 1994
  • Imprint: Academic Press
  • eBook ISBN: 9781483271590

About the Author

Scott T. Meier

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