The Chemistry of Hydrocarbon Fuels - 1st Edition - ISBN: 9780408038256, 9781483140933

The Chemistry of Hydrocarbon Fuels

1st Edition

Authors: Harold H. Schobert
eBook ISBN: 9781483140933
Imprint: Butterworth-Heinemann
Published Date: 23rd March 1990
Page Count: 356
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Description

The Chemistry of Hydrocarbon Fuels is concerned with the chemical aspects of hydrofuels such as coal, petroleum, and natural gas. Topics covered include diagenesis and catagenesis, processing of natural gas and petroleum fractions, coal combustion, and chemicals that can be obtained from fuels. This book is comprised of 14 chapters and begins with a comprehensive treatment of the formation of fuels from accumulated organic matter, along with the organic geochemistry of coal, oil, and gas. The following chapters focus on the composition of hydrocarbon fuels and some of their important physical properties. Production and use of synthesis gas, alternate fuels from coal, and oxygenated fuels are considered. The remaining chapters deal with some of the chemistry of separation, refining, and use of hydrocarbon fuels. This monograph is written primarily for practicing scientists and engineers, fuel scientists, petroleum chemists, and those who are new to the field of fuel science and seek an introduction to fuel chemistry.

Table of Contents


Preface

Acknowledgments

Note to the Reader

Chapter 1. The Origin of Fuels in Nature

Introduction

The Origins of Fuels

Structures of Fuel Precursors

Proteins

Carbohydrates

Glycosides and Tannins

Lipids

Resins

Lignin

Summary

Further Reading

Chapter 2. Diagenesis

The End of Accumulation of Organic Matter

Rotting

Moldering

Proteins

Carbohydrates and Glycosides

Formation of Humic Acids

Putrefaction

Proteins

Carbohydrates

Lipids

Lignin

The Formation of Kerogen

The Van Krevelen Diagram

Further Reading

Chapter 3. Catagenesis

Hydrogen Redistribution

Catagenesis of Humic Kerogen

Reactions During Early Catagenesis

Coalification - The Later Stages of Catagenesis

The Concept of Coal Rank

Time-temperature Relationships in Coalification

Catagenesis of Algal and Liptinitic Kerogen

Introduction to Free Radical Reactions

The effects of temperature

Other Sapropelic Fuels

Oil Shales

Sapropelic Coals

Summary

Further Reading

Chapter 4. Natural Gas

Wet and Dry Gas

Sour Gas

Other Components of Natural Gas

Introduction to Volatility Relationships

Natural Gas as a Premium Fuel

Further Reading

Chapter 5. Petroleum

The components of petroleum 85

Paraffins

Naphthenes

Aromatics

NSO's

Some Additional Properties of Petroleum

API Gravity

Viscosity

Classification of Crude Oils

Age-depth Relationships

Composition Relationships

Asphalts and Tar Sands

Further Reading

Chapter 6. Coal

Coal Compared with Gas and Oil

The Heterogeneity of Coal

The Classification of Coal by Rank

The Variation of Coal Composition with Rank

The Variation of Calorific Value with Rank

The Macromolecular Structures of Coal

Low-rank Coals

Bituminous Coals

Anthracites

Implications of Structural Variation in Coals

Solvent Swelling

Porosity and Surface Area

Density

Summary

The Caking Behavior of Bituminous Coals

The Inorganic Components of Coal

The Origin of Inorganic Components in Coal

The Minerals in Coal

The Special Case of Low-rank Coals

Variations of Ash Content and Composition with Rank

Further Reading

Chapter 7. Processing and Use of Natural Gas

Natural Gas Processing

Combustion of Natural Gas

Carbon Blacks

Other Non-fuel Uses of Natural Gas

Synthesis Gas and Methanol

Acetylene

Further Reading

Chapter 8. Petroleum Products

Desalting

Distillation

Principles of Distillation

Single Stage Distillation

Two-stage Distillation

Two-stage Distillation with Vacuum Tower

Petroleum Products

Gasoline

Leaded Gasoline

Naphtha

Kerosene

Diesel Fuel

Fuel Oils

Lubricating Oils

Waxes

Asphalt

Petroleum Cokes

Further Reading

Chapter 9. Processing of Petroleum Fractions

Thermal Cracking

Mixed-phase Cracking

Visbreaking

Alkene Formation in Thermal Cracking

Delayed Coking

Polymerization and Alkylation

Polymerization

Alkylation

Catalytic Cracking 221

Carbocation Rearrangements

Cracking Catalysts

Catalytic Cracking Mechanisms

Practical Aspects of Catalytic Cracking

Summary

Catalytic Reforming

Reforming Catalysts

The Mechanism of Catalytic Reforming

Catalytic Reforming in Practice

Applications of Hydrogen in Refining

Hydrodesulfurization

Hydrodenitrogenation

Hydrofining

Further Reading

Chapter 10. Coal Combustion

Coal preparation

Hardness and Grindability

Coal Cleaning

Combustion Processes

Chemical Aspects of Combustion

Practical Aspects of Coal Combustion

Further Reading 270

Chapter 11. Production and Use of Synthesis Gas

The Production of Synthesis Gas

Steam Reforming of Natural Gas

Coal Gasification

The Water-gas Shift Reaction

The Uses of Synthesis Gas

Methanation

Methanol Synthesis

The Fischer-Tropsch Synthesis

The Oxo Process

Further Reading

Chapter 12. Alternate Fuels FromCcoal

Coal Carbonization

Coke Production

Chemistry of Coke Formation

Industrial Production of Coke

Coal Gasification

Coal Liquefaction

Indirect Liquefaction

Direct Liquefaction

Further Reading

Chapter 13. Oxygenated Fuels

t-Butyl Alcohol and Ether

Ethanol

Methanol

Methanol to Gasoline

Further Reading

Chapter 14. Chemicals from Fuels

Coal Tar Chemicals

Petrochemicals

Methanol

Ethylene

Propylene

Benzene, Toluene, and Xylenes

Chemicals from Coal and Biomass

Further Reading

Index

Details

No. of pages:
356
Language:
English
Copyright:
© Butterworth-Heinemann 1990
Published:
Imprint:
Butterworth-Heinemann
eBook ISBN:
9781483140933

About the Author

Harold H. Schobert