The Chemical Technology of Wood

The Chemical Technology of Wood

1st Edition - January 28, 1970

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  • Author: Harmann Wenzl
  • eBook ISBN: 9780323143127

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The Chemical Technology of Wood is an eight-chapter introductory text on the developments in understanding the chemistry of wood and its chemical-technological utilization. The opening chapters of this book cover the productive aspects of forests, followed by a description of the anatomy and physical properties of wood. The subsequent chapter presents a summative wood analysis concerning its cellulose, hemicelluloses, lignin, and other extraneous components. This topic is followed by a presentation of several destructive processing of wood, including acid hydrolysis, pyrolysis, oxidation, and hydrogenolysis. The remaining chapters describe the pulp production through sulfite cooking and using alkaline reagents. This book will prove useful to chemists, engineers, biologists, foresters, and economists.

Table of Contents

  • Foreword


    I. Forests as the Source of Raw Materials


    1. The World's Forests

    2. The Demand for Wood and Wood Products

    2.1. Distribution of the World's Consumption of Wood and Wood Products

    2.2. Roundwood and Fuelwood

    2.3. Sawnwood and Wood-Based Panels

    2.4. Pulp, Paper, and Paperboard

    2.5. Wood for Silvichemicals

    3. Anticipated Development of the Most Important Wood-Consuming Industries and Future Changes in the World's Wood Balance


    II. Anatomy and Physical Properties of Wood

    The Evolution of Forests

    1. The Formation of Wood Cells

    2. The Microstructure of Wood Fibers

    2.1. The Coniferous Woods

    2.2. Deciduous Woods

    3. The Fine Structure of the Cell Wall

    3.1. The Formation of the Cell Wall and the Terminology of the Cell-Wall Layers

    3.2. The Middle Lamella and Primary Wall

    3.3. The Secondary Wall

    3.4. The Tertiary Lamella (Tertiary Wall)

    3.5. The Pits

    4. Tissues with Special Functions; Reaction Wood

    5. The Physical Properties of Wood

    5.1. The Specific Weight, Density, and the Weight of the Wood

    5.2. Moisture Content, Hygroscopicity, Sorption

    5.3. Specific Heat

    6. The Anatomy of Wood and the Production of Fibrous Material


    III. The Chemistry of Wood


    1. Summative Wood Analysis

    2. Cellulose

    2.1. Chemical Structure

    2.2. The Submicroscopic Structure

    2.3. The Biosynthesis of Cellulose

    3. Hemicelluloses

    3.1. Introduction

    3.2. The Xylan Group

    3.3. The Mannan Group

    3.4. The Arabinogalactan Group

    3.5. The Biogenesis of Hemicelluloses

    4. Lignin

    4.1. Lignin Preparation

    4.2. The Structure of Lignin

    4.3. Some Important Technical Lignin Reactions

    4.4. The Biogenesis of Lignin

    5. Extraneous Components of Wood

    5.1. Resins, Terpenes, Fats

    5.2. Phenols and Tannins



    IV. The Acid Hydrolysis of Wood

    Introduction: Wood Composition and Hydrolysis

    1. The Chemistry of the Wood Hydrolysis

    1.1. The Hydrolysis of the Cellulose

    1.2. Hydrolysis of the Hemicelluloses

    1.3. Lignin and Hydrolysis

    2. Degradation of the Hydrolysis Products

    3. Summary

    4. Technical Processes for the Hydrolysis of Wood

    4.1. Introduction

    4.2. Technical Processes with Hydrochloric Acid

    4.3. Hydrolysis with Sulfuric Acid

    5. The Processing of the Hydrolysis Products

    5.1. Introduction

    5.2. The Production of Ethyl Alcohol

    5.3. Fermentation to Butanol and Butylene Glycol

    5.4. The Production of Glycerol

    5.5. Fodder and Nutrient Yeast from Wood Sugar Solutions

    5.6. Furfural

    5.7. Organic Acids Formed by Fermentation

    5.8. Crystalline Glucose

    6. Wood Sugar Lignins

    7. Review and Outlook for the Future


    V. Further Destructive Processing of Wood


    1. The Pyrolysis of Wood

    1.1. Effect of Time and Temperature

    1.2. Effect of the Surrounding Atmosphere

    2. Wood Components and Their Behavior in Pyrolysis

    2.1. Cellulose

    2.2. Hemicelluloses

    2.3. Lignin

    3. Products from the Pyrolysis of Wood

    3.1. Charcoal

    3.2. Wood Tar

    3.3. Pyroligneous Acid and Methanol

    3.4. Furfural from a Prepyrolysis

    4. Technical Processes for the Pyrolysis of Wood

    4.1. Charcoal Piles and Carbonization Furnaces without External Heating

    4.2. Retort Furnaces

    4.3. Economic Aspects of Wood Pyrolysis

    5. Hydrolysis and Oxidation in the Presence of Alkali

    6. Hydrogenolysis of Wood and Lignin


    VI. The Preparation of Wood for the Production of Pulp

    1. Storage and Piling

    2. The Bark as a Characteristic Component of the Wood

    2.1. Growth Factors

    2.2. Chemical Composition

    2.3. The Bark Portion of the Trunk

    3. Barking

    3.1. Measurement Units and Measurement

    3.2. Mechanical Barking

    3.3. Hydraulic Barking

    3.4. Preparation of the Wood for Barking

    3.5. Chemical Barking

    4. Processing and Utilization of the Bark

    5. Cutting and Chipping of the Wood

    5.1. Equipment for Chipping

    5.2. Effect of Chipping on the Properties of the Chips and Pulp

    5.3. Control of Operations

    5.4. Chip Shredding and Transportation


    VII. The Sulfite Pulp Cooking Process

    Review and Outlook

    1. The Preparation of the Sulfite Cooking Liquor

    1.1. Raw Materials for the Preparation of the Cooking Liquor

    1.2. Combustion of Sulfur

    1.3. Pyrite Roasters

    1.4. The Cooling of the Sulfur Dioxide Gas

    2. Absorption of the Sulfur Dioxide for the Preparation of the Cooking Liquor

    2.1. The Absorption Mechanism

    2.2. The Absorption Installations

    2.3. The Recovery of Sulfur Dioxide from the Relief Gases

    3. Effect of the Cooking Acid on the Wood Components

    3.1. Lignin

    3.2. Cellulose

    3.3. Hemicelluloses

    3.4. Reactions with Various Other Wood Components

    3.5. Topochemical Aspects

    3.6. Wood Quality and Effects of Growth

    4. The Permeability of the Wood

    4.1. The Movement of Gases and Condensable Vapors in Wood

    4.2. The Movement of Liquids in Wood

    4.3. Impregnation and Deaeration

    4.4. Forced Circulation

    5. Acidity, Pressure, Temperature, and Cooking Time, and Their Effect on the Sulfite Pulp Cooking Process

    5.1. Measurement of pH and Degree of Dissociation

    5.2. Pressure, Temperature, and Time

    6. Effect of Other Degradation Reactions on the Course of the Sulfite Pulp Cook

    6.1. Reaction Mechanism of the Formation of Thiosulfate

    6.2. Other Sulfur Compounds and Degradation Products: Ion-Exchange Effects

    7. Effect of Various Bases on the Sulfite Pulp Cooking Process

    7.1. Comparison of Pulps from Cooks with Different Bases

    7.2. Sodium-Base Sulfite Cooks

    7.3. Ammonium-Base Cooking

    7.4. Magnesium-Base Cooking

    8. Technological Steps for the Operation of the Sulfite Cooking Process

    8.1. The Digester

    8.2. Impregnation and Forced Circulation

    8.3. Multistage and Two-Base Cooking Processes

    8.4. The Continuous Cook

    8.5. High-Yield Sulfite Pulp

    9. The Spent Sulfite Liquor

    9.1. Properties and Composition

    9.2. Evaporation

    9.3. Combustion of Spent Liquor

    9.4. Recovery of the Chemicals from the Spent Liquors

    9.5. The Chemical Utilization of the Organic Components Present in Sulfite Spent Liquor

    References .

    VIII. The Production of Pulp by Alkaline Reagents


    1. The Action of the Chemicals Used in the Kraft Pulping Process

    1.1. The Alkali

    1.2. The Sulfur Components

    1.3. Polysulfide

    1.4. Stabilizing Additives

    2. The Effect of the Cooking Liquor on the Wood Components

    2.1. Lignin

    2.2. Hemicelluloses

    2.3. Cellulose

    2.4. Wood Structure and Growth Factors

    2.5. The Movement of the Liquor in the Wood

    3. The Reaction Parameters of the Kraft Cooking Process

    3.1. The Dimensions of the Wood Chips

    3.2. Temperature and Time

    3.3. Concentration of the Chemicals, and the Liquor-to-Wood Ratio

    3.4. The Addition of Black Liquor to the Cooking Liquor

    3.5. Graphic Representation of the Course of the Cook

    4. Cooking Processes and Equipment

    4.1. The Discontinuous Cook

    4.2. The Continuous Cooking Process

    4.3. The Multistage Kraft Cook

    4.4. The Acid-Alkaline Cook

    4.5. The Prehydrolysis

    4.6. The Chemical Processing of Kraft Pulps (Chemical Refining)

    5. The Recovery of Chemicals from Kraft Spent Liquors

    5.1. Brown Stock Washing

    5.2. Evaporation of the Black Liquor

    5.3. Combustion of the Evaporated Black Liquor and Addition of the Chemicals

    5.4. Oxidation of the Black Liquor

    5.5. The Recovery of Chemicals from the Flue Gases

    5.6. Clarification and Caustification of the Green Liquor

    5.7. Corrosion Problems

    6. Control of Air and Water Pollution

    6.1. Analytical Control and Methods of Investigation

    6.2. The Odor Problem

    6.3. The Waste Water Problem

    7. By-products of the Kraft Pulp Industry

    7.1. Tall Oil

    7.2. Turpentine

    7.3. Lignin Precipitates

    7.4. Sulfur Compounds from Thiolignin

    7.5. Organic Acids and Furfural

    8. Heat Economy—the Heat Balance of the Kraft Pulping Process


    Author Index

    Subject Index

Product details

  • No. of pages: 710
  • Language: English
  • Copyright: © Academic Press 1970
  • Published: January 28, 1970
  • Imprint: Academic Press
  • eBook ISBN: 9780323143127

About the Author

Harmann Wenzl

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