The Catecholamines in Psychiatric and Neurologic Disorders

The Catecholamines in Psychiatric and Neurologic Disorders

1st Edition - March 15, 1985

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  • Editors: C. Raymond Lake, Michael G. Ziegler
  • eBook ISBN: 9781483163123

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The Catecholamines in Psychiatric and Neurologic Disorders focuses on the contributions of catecholamines (CA) in the modulation of blood pressure, stress and exercise, body movements, memory, learning, emotions, thought processing, appetite, and mediation of psychotropic drug action. The selection first elaborates on the techniques for the assessment and interpretation of catecholamine measurements in neuropsychiatric patients and catecholaminergic response to stress and exercise. Discussions focus on noradrenergic response to isometric exercise, isotonic exercise, effect of acceleration on sympathetic activity, techniques for sympathetic nervous system evaluation, and measurements of CA and their metabolites in cerebrospinal fluid. The text then takes a look at urinary CA in behavioral research on stress; CA in anxiety disorders and mitral valve prolapse; and interaction with neurotransmitters in normal subjects and in patients with selected neurologic diseases. The selection examines noradrenergic responses in postural hypotension, norepinephrine, alcohol, and alcoholism, and catecholamine metabolism in anorexia nervosa. Topics include cerebral catecholamine metabolism in anorexia nervosa; central nervous system norepinephrine and voluntary alcohol drinking; and overview of norepinephrine in selected pediatric disorders. The book is a dependable reference for neuropsychiatrists and readers interested in the contributions of catecholamines on psychiatric disorders.

Table of Contents

  • Contributing Authors



    1. Techniques for the Assessment and Interpretation of Catecholamine Measurements in Neuropsychiatric Patients

    Catecholamine Assay Techniques

    Techniques for Sympathetic Nervous System Evaluation

    Conjugated Catecholamines

    The Neurologic Basis for Changes in Plasma Catecholamines

    Measurements of Catecholamines and Their Metabolites in Cerebrospinal Fluid

    Cerebrospinal Fluid Catecholamines in Some Neuropsychiatric Diseases

    I. Stress

    2. The Catecholaminergic Response to Stress and Exercise

    Age and Sympathetic Activity

    Blood Sampling

    Effect of Acceleration on Sympathetic Activity

    Sympathetic Response to Acceleration Greater than 1G

    The Noradrenergic Response to Isometric Exercise

    Isotonic Exercise


    3. Urinary Catecholamines in Behavioral Research on Stress

    Relationship Between Epinephrine and Norepinephrine

    Methodologic Aspects of Catecholamine Assessment

    Consistency in Catecholamine Excretion

    Factors Affecting Catecholamine Excretion

    Catecholamines and Health

    Clinical Application


    II. Neuropsychiatric Disorders

    4. Catecholamines in Anxiety Disorders and Mitral Valve Prolapse

    Catecholamines in Anxiety Disorders

    Mitral Valve Prolapse


    5. Central Catecholamine Systems: Interaction with Neurotransmitters in Normal Subjects and in Patients with Selected Neurologic Diseases

    Neurotransmitters Related to Norepinephrine in the Basal Ganglia

    Epinephrine Systems

    Dopamine Systems

    Interaction of Dopamine and Norepinephrine

    Striatonigral Pathways

    Serotonin Cells

    Peptide Neurons

    Neurochemical Changes in Clinical Conditions


    6. Noradrenergic Responses in Postural Hypotension: Implications for Therapy

    Mechanisms of Postural Blood Pressure Maintenance

    Diagnosis of the Systemic Defect Causing Postural Hypotension

    Postural Hypotension in Diabetics

    Therapy of Postural Hypotension

    Approach to the Patient with Postural Hypotension

    7. Norepinephrine, Alcohol, and Alcoholism

    Effects of Alcohol on Brain Norepinephrine

    Human Studies

    Central Nervous System Norepinephrine and Voluntary Alcohol Drinking


    8. Catecholamine Metabolism in Anorexia Nervosa

    Peripheral Catecholamine Metabolism in Anorexia Nervosa

    Cerebral Catecholamine Metabolism in Anorexia Nervosa


    III. Pediatric Disorders and the Catecholamines

    9. Overview of Norepinephrine in Selected Pediatric Disorders

    Childhood Schizophrenia and Infantile Autism

    Childhood Enuresis

    Gilles de la Tourette's Syndrome

    Lesch-Nyhan Syndrome

    Juvenile Diabetes

    Dystonia Musculorum Deformans

    Familial Dysautonomia

    Duchenne Type Muscular Dystrophy

    Cystic Fibrosis

    Reye's Syndrome

    Down's Syndrome


    10. Catecholamine Metabolism in Hyperactive Children

    Direct Biochemical Studies

    Pharmacokinetic-Behavioral Studies

    Pharmacologie, Clinical, and Biochemical Responses

    Future Directions

    IV. Affective Disorders and the Catecholamines

    11. Norepinephrine in the Affective Disorders: Classic Biochemical Approaches

    Methodologic Issues

    Clinical Studies Antedating Measures of Norepinephrine

    Clinical Studies of Norepinephrine


    12. Norepinephrine in the Affective Disorders: Receptor Assessment Strategies


    Tissue Receptor Studies

    Challenge Strategies

    Implications of Receptor Studies for Models of Noradrenergic Regulation in the Affective Disorders

    Noradrenergic Receptor Changes Accompanying Antidepressant Treatment


    13. Parkinsonism and Depression: Dopaminergic Mediation of Neuropathologic Processes in Human Beings

    Mood Modulation by Drugs That Alter Central Dopamine Activity

    Parkinson's Disease: Biochemistry and Treatment

    Cognitive Function Modified by Depression, Parkinsonism, and Dopamine Agonists


    V. Schizophrenia and the Catecholamines

    14. Studies of Norepinephrine in Schizophrenia




    15. Studies of the Dopamine Hypothesis of Schizophrenia

    Presynaptic Dopaminergic Mechanisms

    Postsynaptic Dopaminergic Mechanisms




Product details

  • No. of pages: 366
  • Language: English
  • Copyright: © Butterworth-Heinemann 1985
  • Published: March 15, 1985
  • Imprint: Butterworth-Heinemann
  • eBook ISBN: 9781483163123

About the Editors

C. Raymond Lake

C. Raymond Lake
Dr. Lake graduated with BS and MS degrees in Zoology from Tulane University, New Orleans, LA, in 1965 and 1966. He graduated from Duke University in Durham, NC, School of Medicine with an MD and from the Duke Graduate School (Department of Physiology and Pharmacology) with a Ph.D., in 1971 and 1972. He studied at Oxford University and at St. Bartholomew’s Hospital, London. His residency in Psychiatry was completed at Duke and at the National Institute of Mental Health (NIMH), Bethesda, MD. At Duke he was taught and continues to practice individual, couples and group psychotherapy. At the NIMH, he was privileged to collaborate with and learn about bipolar from Drs. Fred Goodwin, Bob Post, Dennis Murphy, Julie Axelrod and Irv Kopin. He remained in the Laboratory of Clinical Sciences as a research associate, then staff psychiatrist until 1980 when he moved “across the Pike” to take a professorship of Psychiatry and Pharmacology at the then new Uniformed Services University of the Health Sciences (USUHS), School of Medicine, Bethesda, MD. He secured two NIH RO1’s, continuing his research on the regulation of the sympathetic nervous system in health and in patients with neuropsychiatric and cardiovascular disorders. He taught medical students and residents in Psychiatry while following patients in his office and clinics. In 1993 he accepted the Chairmanship of Psychiatry at the University of Kansas, School of Medicine, Kansas City, Kansas, and remained Chair for three years after which he continued as Professor on the full-time faculty until his recent partial retirement. As Professor Emeritus he continues to publish about Mood Disorders and to follow his long-term Bipolar patients. Dr. Lake has over 250 journal publications including in Science, Nature, NEJM, AJP and AGP. His book titled Schizophrenia is a Misdiagnosis was published by Springer in 2012. He has achieved distinguished life-fellowship status in the American Psychiatric Association and the American College of Neuropsychopharmacology.

Affiliations and Expertise

Professor Emeritus, Department of Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences, University of Kansas Health Systems, Kansas City, KS, USA

Michael G. Ziegler

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