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The Catecholamines in Psychiatric and Neurologic Disorders - 1st Edition - ISBN: 9780409951844, 9781483163123

The Catecholamines in Psychiatric and Neurologic Disorders

1st Edition

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Editors: C. Raymond Lake Michael G. Ziegler
eBook ISBN: 9781483163123
Imprint: Butterworth-Heinemann
Published Date: 15th March 1985
Page Count: 366
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The Catecholamines in Psychiatric and Neurologic Disorders focuses on the contributions of catecholamines (CA) in the modulation of blood pressure, stress and exercise, body movements, memory, learning, emotions, thought processing, appetite, and mediation of psychotropic drug action.

The selection first elaborates on the techniques for the assessment and interpretation of catecholamine measurements in neuropsychiatric patients and catecholaminergic response to stress and exercise. Discussions focus on noradrenergic response to isometric exercise, isotonic exercise, effect of acceleration on sympathetic activity, techniques for sympathetic nervous system evaluation, and measurements of CA and their metabolites in cerebrospinal fluid.

The text then takes a look at urinary CA in behavioral research on stress; CA in anxiety disorders and mitral valve prolapse; and interaction with neurotransmitters in normal subjects and in patients with selected neurologic diseases. The selection examines noradrenergic responses in postural hypotension, norepinephrine, alcohol, and alcoholism, and catecholamine metabolism in anorexia nervosa. Topics include cerebral catecholamine metabolism in anorexia nervosa; central nervous system norepinephrine and voluntary alcohol drinking; and overview of norepinephrine in selected pediatric disorders.

The book is a dependable reference for neuropsychiatrists and readers interested in the contributions of catecholamines on psychiatric disorders.

Table of Contents

Contributing Authors



1. Techniques for the Assessment and Interpretation of Catecholamine Measurements in Neuropsychiatric Patients

Catecholamine Assay Techniques

Techniques for Sympathetic Nervous System Evaluation

Conjugated Catecholamines

The Neurologic Basis for Changes in Plasma Catecholamines

Measurements of Catecholamines and Their Metabolites in Cerebrospinal Fluid

Cerebrospinal Fluid Catecholamines in Some Neuropsychiatric Diseases

I. Stress

2. The Catecholaminergic Response to Stress and Exercise

Age and Sympathetic Activity

Blood Sampling

Effect of Acceleration on Sympathetic Activity

Sympathetic Response to Acceleration Greater than 1G

The Noradrenergic Response to Isometric Exercise

Isotonic Exercise


3. Urinary Catecholamines in Behavioral Research on Stress

Relationship Between Epinephrine and Norepinephrine

Methodologic Aspects of Catecholamine Assessment

Consistency in Catecholamine Excretion

Factors Affecting Catecholamine Excretion

Catecholamines and Health

Clinical Application


II. Neuropsychiatric Disorders

4. Catecholamines in Anxiety Disorders and Mitral Valve Prolapse

Catecholamines in Anxiety Disorders

Mitral Valve Prolapse


5. Central Catecholamine Systems: Interaction with Neurotransmitters in Normal Subjects and in Patients with Selected Neurologic Diseases

Neurotransmitters Related to Norepinephrine in the Basal Ganglia

Epinephrine Systems

Dopamine Systems

Interaction of Dopamine and Norepinephrine

Striatonigral Pathways

Serotonin Cells

Peptide Neurons

Neurochemical Changes in Clinical Conditions


6. Noradrenergic Responses in Postural Hypotension: Implications for Therapy

Mechanisms of Postural Blood Pressure Maintenance

Diagnosis of the Systemic Defect Causing Postural Hypotension

Postural Hypotension in Diabetics

Therapy of Postural Hypotension

Approach to the Patient with Postural Hypotension

7. Norepinephrine, Alcohol, and Alcoholism

Effects of Alcohol on Brain Norepinephrine

Human Studies

Central Nervous System Norepinephrine and Voluntary Alcohol Drinking


8. Catecholamine Metabolism in Anorexia Nervosa

Peripheral Catecholamine Metabolism in Anorexia Nervosa

Cerebral Catecholamine Metabolism in Anorexia Nervosa


III. Pediatric Disorders and the Catecholamines

9. Overview of Norepinephrine in Selected Pediatric Disorders

Childhood Schizophrenia and Infantile Autism

Childhood Enuresis

Gilles de la Tourette's Syndrome

Lesch-Nyhan Syndrome

Juvenile Diabetes

Dystonia Musculorum Deformans

Familial Dysautonomia

Duchenne Type Muscular Dystrophy

Cystic Fibrosis

Reye's Syndrome

Down's Syndrome


10. Catecholamine Metabolism in Hyperactive Children

Direct Biochemical Studies

Pharmacokinetic-Behavioral Studies

Pharmacologie, Clinical, and Biochemical Responses

Future Directions

IV. Affective Disorders and the Catecholamines

11. Norepinephrine in the Affective Disorders: Classic Biochemical Approaches

Methodologic Issues

Clinical Studies Antedating Measures of Norepinephrine

Clinical Studies of Norepinephrine


12. Norepinephrine in the Affective Disorders: Receptor Assessment Strategies


Tissue Receptor Studies

Challenge Strategies

Implications of Receptor Studies for Models of Noradrenergic Regulation in the Affective Disorders

Noradrenergic Receptor Changes Accompanying Antidepressant Treatment


13. Parkinsonism and Depression: Dopaminergic Mediation of Neuropathologic Processes in Human Beings

Mood Modulation by Drugs That Alter Central Dopamine Activity

Parkinson's Disease: Biochemistry and Treatment

Cognitive Function Modified by Depression, Parkinsonism, and Dopamine Agonists


V. Schizophrenia and the Catecholamines

14. Studies of Norepinephrine in Schizophrenia




15. Studies of the Dopamine Hypothesis of Schizophrenia

Presynaptic Dopaminergic Mechanisms

Postsynaptic Dopaminergic Mechanisms





No. of pages:
© Butterworth-Heinemann 1985
15th March 1985
eBook ISBN:

About the Editors

C. Raymond Lake

Dr. Lake graduated with BS and MS degrees in Zoology from Tulane University, New Orleans, LA, in 1965 and 1966. He graduated from Duke University in Durham, NC, School of Medicine with an MD and from the Duke Graduate School (Department of Physiology and Pharmacology) with a Ph.D., in 1971 and 1972. He studied at Oxford University and at St. Bartholomew’s Hospital, London. His residency in Psychiatry was completed at Duke and at the National Institute of Mental Health (NIMH), Bethesda, MD. At Duke he was taught and continues to practice individual, couples and group psychotherapy. At the NIMH, he was privileged to collaborate with and learn about bipolar from Drs. Fred Goodwin, Bob Post, Dennis Murphy, Julie Axelrod and Irv Kopin. He remained in the Laboratory of Clinical Sciences as a research associate, then staff psychiatrist until 1980 when he moved “across the Pike” to take a professorship of Psychiatry and Pharmacology at the then new Uniformed Services University of the Health Sciences (USUHS), School of Medicine, Bethesda, MD. He secured two NIH RO1’s, continuing his research on the regulation of the sympathetic nervous system in health and in patients with neuropsychiatric and cardiovascular disorders. He taught medical students and residents in Psychiatry while following patients in his office and clinics. In 1993 he accepted the Chairmanship of Psychiatry at the University of Kansas, School of Medicine, Kansas City, Kansas, and remained Chair for three years after which he continued as Professor on the full-time faculty until his recent partial retirement. As Professor Emeritus he continues to publish about Mood Disorders and to follow his long-term Bipolar patients. Dr. Lake has over 250 journal publications including in Science, Nature, NEJM, AJP and AGP. His book titled Schizophrenia is a Misdiagnosis was published by Springer in 2012. He has achieved distinguished life-fellowship status in the American Psychiatric Association and the American College of Neuropsychopharmacology.

Affiliations and Expertise

Professor Emeritus, Department of Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences, University of Kansas School of Medicine, Kansas City, KS, USA

Michael G. Ziegler

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