The Carbohydrates - 2nd Edition - ISBN: 9780125563529, 9780323161725

The Carbohydrates

2nd Edition

Chemistry And Biochemistry

Editors: Ward Pigman
eBook ISBN: 9780323161725
Imprint: Academic Press
Published Date: 31st July 1970
Page Count: 452
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The Carbohydrates: Chemistry and Biochemistry, Second Edition, Volume IIB is a complete revision of a previous work that was based on “The Chemistry of the Carbohydrates”. This volume is composed of 10 chapters that cover the chemical and biochemical aspects of the main types of carbohydrates. This book begins with considerable chapters on the main types of carbohydrates, including starch, glycogen, pectins, plant gums, plant, algal, and microbial polysaccharides, as well as monosaccharides. These chapters specifically tackle the occurrence, isolation, production, properties, and reactions of these carbohydrates. This volume includes chapters on the fields of glycolipids and glycoproteins. The concluding chapters cover the official nomenclature rules for carbohydrates and for enzymes having carbohydrates as substrates. This volume is of great value to carbohydrates scientists and researchers.

Table of Contents

List of Contributors


38. Starch and Glycogen

I. Starch

A. Introduction

B. Occurrence and Isolation

C. The Starch Granule

D. Fractionation of Starch

E. Chemical Structure of Amylose and Amylopectin

F. Properties of Amylose

G. Properties of Amylopectin

H. Action of Amylolytic Enzymes

I. Other Starch-Degrading Enzymes

J. Industrial Starches, by Chester Szymanski

II. Glycogen

A. Introduction

B. Occurrence and Isolation

C. Chemical Structure of Glycogen

D. Properties of Glycogen

E. Action of Amylolytic Enzymes


39. Pectins, Plant Gums, and Other Plant Polysaccharides

I. Introduction

II. The Pectic Substances

A. Homopolysaccharides

B. Heteropolysaccharides

C. Enzymic Degradation of Pectins

III. Plant Gums

A. Controlled Degradations in the Determination of Structure

B. Gum Arabic and Other Polysaccharides Containing Interior D-Galactan Chains

C. Gum Ghatti and Other Polysaccharides Containing Interior D-Glucurono-D-mannan Chains

D. Gum Tragacanth and Sterculia and Khaya Gums Containing D-Galacturonan and D-Galacturono-L-rhamnan Chains

IV. Seed and Bark Mucilages

A. Neutral Polysaccharides

B. Acidic Polysaccharides

C. "Amyloids"


40. Algal Polysaccharides

I. Introduction

II. Food Reserve Polysaccharides

A. Polysaccharides of the Starch Type

B. Polysaccharides of the Laminaran Type

III. Structural Polysaccharides

A. Cellulose

B. Lichenan

C. D-Mannans

D. D-Xylans

E. Alginic Acid

F. Polysaccharides of the Pectin Type

IV. Sulfated Polysaccharides

A. Sulfated L-Fucan (Fucoidan)

B. Sulfated D-and L-Galactans

C. D-Glucurono-D-xylo-L-rhamnans

D. Sulfated L-Arabino-D-xylo-D-galactans

E. Sulfated D-Glucurono-D-mannan


41. Bacterial and Fungal Polysaccharides

I. Production and Isolation

II. Immunological Reactivity

III. Degradative Enzymes

IV. Composition of Cell Walls

V. Teichoic Acids

VI. Extracellular Polysaccharides

A. Gram-Negative Heteropolysaccharides

B. Gram-Negative Homopolysaccharides

C. Gram-Positive Heteropolysaccharides

D. Gram-Positive Homopolysaccharides

E. Fungal Homopolysaccharides

F. Fungal Glycopeptides


42. Mucopolysaccharides of Higher Animals

I. Introduction

II. General Aspects

III. Hyaluronic Acid

A. Introduction

B. Occurrence, Detection, Determination, Isolation, and Properties

C. Composition, Chemical Structure, and Chemical Properties

D. Enzymic Degradation

IV. Chondroitin and Chondroitin Sulfates

A. Chondroitin

B. Chondroitin 4-Sulfate

C. Chondroitin 6-Sulfate

V. Dermatan Sulfate

A. Introduction

B. Occurrence, Detection, Determination, Isolation, and Properties

C. Composition and Chemical Structure

D. Enzymic Degradation

VI. Heparin

A. Introduction

B. Occurrence, Detection, Determination, Isolation, and Properties

C. Components and Chemical Structure

D. The Heparin-Protein Linkage

E. Enzymic Degradation

VII. N-Acetylheparan Sulfate

A. Introduction

B. Distribution, Properties, and Isolation

C. Components and Chemical Structure

VIII. Keratan Sulfate

A. Introduction

B. Isolation, Properties, and Chemical Structure


43. Glycoproteins

I. Definition and Classification

II. Occurrence

III. Isolation, Fractionation, and Purity

A. Isolation

B. Fractionation

C. Tests of Purity

IV. Composition of Glycoproteins

V. Structural Methods

A. Types of Protein-Carbohydrate Covalent Linkages

B. Structural Studies of the Carbohydrate Groups

VI. Glycoproteins Having One Carbohydrate Group in Each Protein Unit

A. Ovalbumin

B. Ribonuclease B

C. Soybean Hemagglutinin

D. Ceruloplasmin

E. Transferrin

VII. Glycoproteins Having a Few Carbohydrate Groups in Each Protein Unit

A. Ovomucoid

B. Fibrinogen

C. Haptoglobin

D. α1-Acid Glycoprotein

E. Fetuin

F. Milk Glycoproteins

G. Plant Glycoproteins

H. Other Enzyme Glycoproteins

I. Immunoglobulins

J. Thyroglobulin

VIII. Glycoproteins Having Many Carbohydrate Groups in Each Protein Unit

A. Epithelial Mucins, by M. Bertolini and F. Bettelheim

B. Immunochemistry of Blood-Group Substances and Glycoproteins, by Martin I. Horowitz

IX. Biosynthesis


44. Glycolipids

I. Introduction

II. Nomenclature of Glycolipids

III. Animal Glycolipids

A. The 1-O-Glycosylceramides ("Cerebrosides")

B. The 1-0-Glycosylceramide Sulfate Esters ("Sulfatides")

C. The 1-O-Glycosylceramide Fatty Acid Esters

D. The 1-O-Diglycosylceramides ("Cytosides")

E. The 1-O-Oligoglycosylceramides

F. Gangliosides

IV. Glycolipids of Plants and Microorganisms

A. Fatty Acid Esters of the Sugars

B. Glycosides of Hydroxy Fatty Acids

C. Glycosyl Diacylglycerols

D. Glycosides of myo-Inositol Phospholipid (Phosphoinositides)

E. Glycosides of Phosphatidyl-D-glycerol

F. Glycosides of 4D-Hydroxysphinganine Phospholipid


45. Analytical Methods for Carbohydrates

I. Analysis of Sugars, by David Aminoff

A. Colorimetric Methods

B. Analysis of Functional Groups

II. Reducing Sugar Methods, by Wendell W. Binkley

A. Oxidation by Metallic Salts in Alkaline Solution

B. Oxidation with Potassium Ferricyanide

C. Special Methods

III. Isotopic Methods, by Robert Schaffer

A. Introduction

B. Isotope-Dilution Analysis

C. Kinetic Isotope Effects

D. Determination of Isotopic Distribution

IV. Histochemical Methods, by Robert W. Mowry

A. Goals, Advantages, Limitations, and Present Status of Carbohydrate Histochemistry

B. General Description of the Methods of Carbohydrate Histochemistry

C. Demonstration of Hydroxyl Groups

D. The Use of Basophilia to Detect Carbohydrate Polyanions

E. Combination Procedures that Detect Two or More Kinds of Reactive Groups: The AB-PAS and Related Procedures

F. Immunofluorescent Identification of Complex Carbohydrates

G. Auxiliary Histochemical Tests

H. Problems of Nomenclature and Classification


46. Rules of Carbohydrate Nomenclature



47. Nomenclature and List of Enzymes Acting on Carbohydrates

I. Oxidoreductases

II. Transferases

III. Hydrolases

IV. Lyases

V. Isomerases

Author Index (Volume IIB)

Subject Index (Volumes IIA and IIB)


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© Academic Press 1970
Academic Press
eBook ISBN:

About the Editor

Ward Pigman