The Carbohydrates - 1st Edition - ISBN: 9780123957092, 9780323142014

The Carbohydrates

1st Edition

Chemistry And Biochemistry Physiology

Editors: Ward Pigman
eBook ISBN: 9780323142014
Imprint: Academic Press
Published Date: 1st January 1957
Page Count: 920
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Description

The Carbohydrates: Chemistry, Biochemistry, Physiology is a 15-chapter text that covers the significant developments in the biochemical and physiological aspects of the carbohydrates. The first two chapters explore the structure, stereochemistry, occurrence, properties, and synthesis of monosaccharides. Considerable chapters are devoted to the chemical aspects of various classes of carbohydrates, including esters, glycosides, acetals, polyols, acidic carbohydrates, ethers, nitrogenous derivatives, oligosaccharides, polysaccharides, and glycosidases. The discussion then shifts to the qualitative and quantitative determination of carbohydrates, as well as their photosynthesis and metabolism. The final chapters focus on the important role of carbohydrates in nutrition and in dental aspects.
This work will be of value to chemists, biochemists, industrialists, biologists, histochemists, students, and medical and dental research workers.

Table of Contents


List of Contributors

Preface

I. Introduction: Structure and Stereochemistry of the Monosaccharides

1. General Relations

2. Some Definitions

3. Nomenclature

4. Development of Carbohydrate Chemistry

5. Structures of Glucose and Fructose

6. Stereochemistry

A. General Principles

B. Establishment of the Configuration of Glucose and Some Other Sugars

C. D- and L-Nomenclature

7. Ring Structures of the Sugars

A. Necessity for Ring Structures

B. Proof of Ring Structure

C. Configuration of the Anomeric Carbon Atom

D. The Representation of the Ring Structures of the Sugars

E. Nomenclature of Anomers (α-β Nomenclature)

8. Homomorphous Sugars

A. Homomorphology

B. Nomenclature for Higher Sugars and for Compounds with Numerous Asymmetric Atoms in a Carbon Chain

9. The Sugars in Solution

A. In the Absence of Strong Acids or Alkalies; Mutarotation

B. In the Presence of Acids

C. In the Presence of Alkalies

D. Behavior of the Sugars with Short Carbon Chains

10. Optical Superposition, the Isorotation Rules, and the Influence of Structure on Optical Rotation

II. Occurrence, Properties, and Synthesis of the Monosaccharides

1. Naturally Occurring Monosaccharides

A. Introduction

B. Origin and Preparation of Some Naturally Occurring Monosaccharides

2. Synthetic Sugars

A. Complete Synthesis of the Sugars

B. Methods for Lengthening the Carbon Chain of the Sugars

C. Methods for Shortening the Carbon Chain of Sugars

D. Methods Based on Changing the Configuration of Other Sugars

E. Methods for the Synthesis of Deoxysugars

F. Preparation of Ketoses by Biochemical Oxidation of Alcohols

G. Aldose to Ketose Conversion Utilizing the Osones

H. Methods for Isotope-Labeled Sugars

III. Esters

Part I. Acyl Derivatives

1. Acetate Esters

2. Benzoate Esters

3. O-Acylglycosyl Halides

4. Trihalogenoacetate Derivatives

5. Acyglycosyl Halides of Acyclic Structure

6. Partially Esterified Sugar Structures

7. Carbonates, Xanthates, Carbanilates

8. Galloyl Derivatives and Tannins

9. Aldonate Esters

10. Other Esters of Carboxylic Acids

11. Tosylates and Mesylates

Part II. Inorganic Esters

1. Nitrate Esters

2. Sulfate Esters

3. Boric Acid Esters

4. Halogeno Esters

5. Phosphate Esters

IV. Glycosides, Simple Acetals, and Thioacetals

1. Glycosides

A. Methods for Synthesis

B. Properties of Glycosides

C. Determination of Glycoside Structure

2. Glycosans

A. Preparation

B. Structures

C. Reactions

D. Diketohexose Dianhydrides

3. Acetal and Dithioacetal Derivatives of Acylic Sugars

A. Dithioacetals

B. Acetals

4. Reactions of Carbohydrates with Aldehydes and Ketones

A. Methylene (Formal) Derivatives

B. Benzylidene Derivatives

C. Condensation with Acetaldehyde and 2-Furaldehyde

D. Isopropylidene (Acetone) Derivatives

E. Acetoacetic Ester Derivatives

V. The Polyols

Part I. Acyclic Polyols (Alditols or Glycitols)

1. Configurations, Occurrence, and Preparation

2. Proofs of Structure and Configuration

3. Synthesis

4. Reactions

Part II. The Inositols and Related Compounds

1. Representation of Configuration and Nomenclature

2. Occurrence and Synthesis

3. Proofs of Structure and Configuration

4. Reactions

5. Biochemistry

VI. Acids and Oxidation Products

1. Preparation and Reactions

A. Aldonic Acids

B. Saccharic (or Aldaric) Acids

C. Uronic Acids

D. Keto Aldonic Acids

E. Ascorbic Acids

F. Osones

G. Dialdoses

2. Oxidative Agents

A. Halogen Oxidations

B. Reagents Cleaving Glycols

C. Nitric Acid and Nitrogen Oxides

D. Oxygen in Alkaline or Neutral Solution

E. Hydrogen Peroxide

F. Organic Per-Acids

G. Relatively Unspecific Oxidants

H. Microbial Oxidations

I. Enzymic Oxidations

VII. Ethers, Anhydro Sugars, and Unsaturated Derivatives

1. Ether Derivatives (External)

A. Alkylation Methods

B. Trityl Derivatives

2. Anhydro Derivatives

A. Methods of Preparation

B. Reactions of Anhydro Sugars

3. Unsaturated Derivatives

A. Glycals

B. Glycoseens and Alditoleens

VIII. Nitrogenous Derivatives

1. Glycosylamines

A. Unsubstituted Glycosylamines

B. N-Substituted Glycosylamines

2. Nucleotides

A. Preparation and Structures

B. Nucleoside Di- and Triphosphoric Acids

C. Biologically Important Substances Related to Nucleotides

3. Nucleic Acids

4. Combinations of Sugars with Amino Acids and Proteins

A. Preparation

B. Protein-Carbohydrate Compounds as Synthetic Antigens

5. Reactions of the Sugars With Substituted Hydrazines and Hydroxylamine

A. Hydrazones and Osazones

B. Oximes

6. Derivatives in Which an Amino Group Replaces a Primary or Secondary Hydroxyl Group

A. Amino Sugars (Glycosamines)

B. Glycamines and Aminodeoxyalditols

IX. Oligosaccharides

1. Synthesis of Oligosaccharides

A. Rearrangement and Degradation of Oligosaccharides

B. Condensation of Two Monosaccharide Units

2. Determination of Structure

3. Ease of Acid Hydrolysis

4. Preparation, Properties, and Structures of Some Oligosaccharides of Natural Origin

A. Disaccharides

B. Miscellaneous Disaccharides

C. Tri-, Tetra-, and Pentasaccharides

D. Miscellaneous Tri- and Tetrasaccharides

5. Enzymic Synthesis of Oligosaccharides

A. Synthesis of Sucrose by the Mechanism of Phosphorolysis

B. Synthesis of Analogs of Sucrose and Maltose by Sucrose and Maltose Phosphorylases

C. Synthesis of Disaccharides by Transglycosidation through the Action of Sucrose Phosphorylase

D. Synthesis of Oligosaccharides by Transglycosidation through the Action of Hydrolytic Enzymes

E. Miscellaneous Oligosaccharides

X. Naturally Occurring Glycosides and Glycosidases

Part I. Glycosides

1. Anthocyanidin, Flavanol, and Carotenoid Glycosides

2. Indican

3. Aglycons Related to Phenanthrene

4. Substituted-Phenyl Glycosides

5. Vanillin and Coumarin Glucosides

6. Cyanogenetic Glycosides

7. Hydroxyanthraquinone Glycosides

8. Sugar Components of Natural Plant Glycosides

9. Thioglycosides and Thiosugars

10. Streptomycin

11. Cerebrosides

Part II. Glycosidases

1. Introduction and Classification

2. Mechanism of Action

3. Chemical Composition of Glycosidases

4. Enzymes of Almond Emulsin

5. Occurrence and Specificity of Other β-Glucosidases

6. Alfalfa and Coffee Emulsins; β-Galactosidases

7. Yeast Glycosidases

8. β-Glucuronidases (β-D-Glucopyranosiduronases)

9. Enzymic Synthesis of Glycosides

10. In Vivo Synthesis of Glycosides

11. Bourquelot Biochemical Determination of Glycosides and Oligosaccharides in Plant Materials

XI. The Identification and the Quantitative Determination of Carbohydrates

1. Qualitative Identification

A. Separation of Sugar Mixtures

B. Color Reactions

C. Derivatives

2. Quantitative Determination

A. Optical Rotation

B. Reducing Sugar Methods

C. Colorimetric Procedures

D. Special Methods

3. Isotope Procedures

A. Synthesis of Labeled Sugars

B. Degradation of Labeled Sugars

4. Histochemistry of Carbohydrates

A. Purposes and Principles

B. Fixation and Preparation of Sections

C. Methods for the Histochemical Demonstration of Carbohydrates

D. The Use of Enzymes in the Identification of Carbohydrates in Tissues

XII. Polysaccharides

Part I. General Aspects and Phyto and Microbial Polysaccharides

1. Nomenclature and Classification

2. The Structures of Polysaccharides

3. Phytopolysaccharides (Phytoglycans)

4. Fungal and Bacterial Polysaccharides

5. General Reactions

6. Synthesis

Part II. Animal Polysaccharides (Zoopolysaccharides or Zooglycans) and Glycoproteins

1. Distribution and Classification

2. Reasonably Well-Defined Zoopolysaccharides

3. Glycoproteins, Mucoproteins, and Interactions of Zoöpolysaccharides

4. Glycolipides and Glycolipoproteins

5. The Problem of Sialic Acid

XIII. Photosynthesis and Metabolism of Carbohydrates

1. Photosynthesis

A. Introduction

B. Structural Aspects of the Photosynthetic Apparatus

C. Kinetic Studies on Photosynthesis

D. Bacterial Photosynthesis

E. The Hill Reaction

F. The Path of Carbon in Photosynthesis

2. The Biosynthesis of Carbohydrates by Plants

A. Monosaccharides

B. Oligosaccharides

C. Starch

D. Sugar Alcohols

E. Sugar Acids

3. Carbohydrate Biochemistry

A. Pathways for the Metabolism of Carbohydrates

B. Interconversion of the Sugars

C. Pathways of Pyruvate Metabolism

XIV. Carbohydrates in Nutrition

Part I. General Aspects

1. Caloric Value

2. Digestion and Absorption

3. Starches

4. Dextrins

5. Maltose

6. Sucrose

7. D-Glucose (Dextrose)

8. D-Fructose (Levulose)

9. D-Mannose

10. D-Galactose and Lactose

11. Cellobiose

12. Rare Sugars

13. Xylose Toxicity

14. Sugar Alcohols (Alditols)

15. Hexosamines

16. Cellulose and Related Substances

17. Sweetness and Flavoring Characteristics of Sugars

18. Appetite for Carbohydrate

19. Blood Glucose and the Urge to Eat

20. Synthesis of Vitamins by the Intestinal Microflora

21. Protein Sparing Action

22. Sugar in Candy and Carbonated Beverages

23. Carbohydrates and Weight Control

24. Carbohydrates in Parenteral Nutrition

Part II. Dental Aspects of Carbohydrates

1. Pre-eruptive Effects

2. Post-eruptive Effects

3. The Oral Clearance Factor

4. Saliva

XV. Some General References to Carbohydrate Compilations

Author Index

Subject Index


Details

No. of pages:
920
Language:
English
Copyright:
© Academic Press 1957
Published:
Imprint:
Academic Press
eBook ISBN:
9780323142014

About the Editor

Ward Pigman