The Biosynthesis of Mycotoxins

The Biosynthesis of Mycotoxins

A study in secondary Metabolism

1st Edition - January 28, 1980

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  • Editor: Pieter Steyn
  • eBook ISBN: 9780323149938

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Description

The Biosynthesis of Mycotoxins: A Study in Secondary Metabolism focuses on the biosynthetic analysis of mycotoxins, which are inherently a heterogeneous group of metabolites that are formed along the terpene route and the route polyketide, as well as from amino acids. This book discusses the unique biological properties and structural complexity of the highly specialized secondary microbial metabolites. Organized into 12 chapters, this book starts with an overview of the characteristics of secondary metabolites, including their problematic function and the combination of their structural diversity with their restricted biological occurrence. This text then explains the sporadic occurrence of the mycotoxins as fungal metabolites. Other chapters explore ergochromes, which are a group of light yellow mycotoxins that are isolated from ergot, mold fungi, and lichens. The final chapter discusses the biosynthesis of several unrelated fungal metabolites for which toxicological data are reported. Biochemists, organic chemists, mycologists, enzymologists, plant pathologists, toxicologists, and graduate students will find this book useful.

Table of Contents


  • List of Contributors

    Foreword

    Preface

    1 Mycotoxins as Secondary Metabolites

    I. Introduction

    II. Diversity

    III. Occurrence

    IV. Regulation

    V. Function

    References

    2 Biosynthesis of Ergot Toxins

    I. Introduction

    II. The Alkaloids of Ergot

    III. Biosynthesis of the Ergoline System

    IV. Biosynthesis of Lysergic Acid Derivatives

    V. Enzymology and Physiology of Ergot Alkaloid Biosynthesis

    VI. Conclusion

    References

    3 The Biosynthesis of Trichothecene Mycotoxins

    I. Introduction

    II. Biosynthesis of Trichothecenes

    III. Biosynthesis of the Roridins and Verrucarins

    References

    4 The Biosynthesis of Aflatoxin and Its Congeners

    I. Introduction

    II. Structural Types Biogenetically Related to the Anatoxins

    III. The Biosynthetic Study of Aflatoxin and Its Congeners

    IV. The Sequence of the Aflatoxin Biosynthetic Pathway: Elucidation by Using Blocked Mutants, Enzyme Inhibitors, and Conversion of Potential Precursors

    V. Biosynthetic Scheme

    References

    5 The Biosynthesis of the Ergochromes

    I. Introduction

    II. Hypotheses on Ergochrome Biosynthesis

    III. Methodology

    IV. Investigation of Ergochrome Biosynthesis with Labeled Precursors

    V. Biosynthesis of Related Secoanthraquinones

    VI. Biomimetic Reactions

    References

    6 The Biosynthesis of Neurotropic Mycotoxins

    I. Introduction

    II. Citreoviridin

    III. Maltoryzine

    IV. Aspergillic Acid and Related Pyrazine Oxides

    V. Fumitremorgin, Verruculogen, and Roquefortine

    VI. Paxilline, Paspaline, and Related Metabolites

    VII. Tryptoquivalines

    VIII. Slaframine

    References

    7 The Biosynthesis of Patulin and Penicillic Acid

    I. Introduction

    II. Biogenetic Theories

    III. Methodology Followed during the Study

    IV. Origin of the Aromatic Precursors

    V. Secondary Transformations of the Aromatic Precursors

    VI. Cleavage of the Aromatic Precursors

    VII. Derailment Metabolites

    VIII. Metabolic Grids and Concluding Remarks

    References

    8 The Biosynthesis of the Cytochalasans

    I. Introduction

    II. Structure

    III. Biosynthesis

    IV. Biosynthetic Scheme

    Addendum

    References

    9 The Biosynthesis of Gliotoxin and Related Epipolythiodioxopiperazines

    I. Introduction

    II. Survey of Structural Types

    III. The Biosynthesis of Gliotoxin

    IV. The Biosynthesis of the Aranotins

    V. The Biosynthesis of Sporidesmin

    VI. Conclusions

    Addendum

    References

    10 The Biosynthesis of Cyclopiazonic Acid and Related Tetramic Acids

    I. Introduction

    II. The Structures of Naturally Occurring Tetramic Acids

    III. The Biosynthesis of Tetramic Acids

    IV. Enzymes in the Biosynthesis of α-Cyclopiazonic Acid

    V. The Mechanism of the Oxidative Cyclization of β-Cyclopiazonic Acid

    VI. Metabolic Development of Penicillium cyclopium during α-Cyclopiazonic Acid Production

    VII. Links between Primary Metabolism and the Synthesis of α-Cyclopiazonic Acid

    VIII. Summary

    References

    11 The Biosynthesis of Anthraquinonoid Mycotoxins from Penicillium islandicum Sopp and Related Fungi

    I. Introduction

    II. Chemical Studies of the Anthraquinonoid Mycotoxins

    III. Biosynthetic Origin of Anthraquinonoid Mycotoxins

    IV. Metabolic Relationship of the Anthraquinonoids Produced by Penicillium islandicum and Related Fungi

    V. Biomimetic Synthesis of Anthraquinonoids

    References

    12 The Biosynthesis of Some Miscellaneous Mycotoxins

    I. Introduction

    II. Ochratoxin and Related Dihydroisocoumarins

    III. Citrinin

    IV. Citromycetin

    V. Zearalenone and Related Metabolites

    VI. Rubratoxins and Related Metabolites

    VII. Xanthocillins

    VIII. Toxic Furanosesquiterpenoids

    IX. Diplosporin

    X. Griseofulvin

    References

    Index

Product details

  • No. of pages: 448
  • Language: English
  • Copyright: © Academic Press 1980
  • Published: January 28, 1980
  • Imprint: Academic Press
  • eBook ISBN: 9780323149938

About the Editor

Pieter Steyn

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