The Biology And Control of Weeds in Sugarcane - 1st Edition - ISBN: 9780444416179, 9780444601605

The Biology And Control of Weeds in Sugarcane

1st Edition

Authors: S Peng
eBook ISBN: 9780444601605
Imprint: Elsevier
Published Date: 1st January 1984
Page Count: 346
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Description

The Biology and Control of Weeds in Sugarcane provides a comprehensive discussion of the problems of weed control in sugarcane against the background of world-wide cultivation, with emphasis on Taiwan's intensive pattern of crop farming.

The book is divided into 12 chapters which present the following concepts of weed control in sugarcane: botanical description of sugarcane; the cultivation of sugarcane in relation to weed control; weeds associated with sugarcane and their biological characteristics; losses in crop production caused by weeds; chemical control of weeds; crop tolerance and weed responses to chemicals; evaluation of new herbicides; research and practices of chemical weed control; and application techniques and equipment utilized in weed control.

The book is an authoritative reference for agriculture students, lecturers, and scientists. The advances presented in the book are also an invaluable contribution to the expanding ""Weed Science"" and will serve as an excellent background and perspective for further weed studies.

Table of Contents


Introduction

Chapter 1. The growing of sugarcane

1. The sugarcane plant

(1) The stem

(2) The leaf

(3) The root

(4) The inflorescence

2. The germination, tillering, and growth of sugarcane

(1) Germination

(2) Tillering

(3) Growth

3. The cultivation of sugarcane

(1) Planting materials

(2) Pretreatment of seedpieces

(3) Planting seedpieces

(4) Planting time

(5) Intercropping and rotational cropping

(6) Tillage, irrigation and fertilization

(7) Planting in saline soils

(8) Use of plant growth regulators for the improvement of sprouting, tillering and yield of sugarcane

Chapter 2. Weeds in cane fields and biology

1. The general biology of annual weed species

(1) Germination of weed seeds

(2) Factors in seedling establishment

(3) Competition at the seedling stages

(4) Juvenile phases of weed plant

(5) Growth and development of weeds

(6) Some notes on the germination and growth of common weeds in cane fields

2. Economically important botanical and biological characteristics of perennial weed species

(1) Panicum repens

(2) Cyperus rotundus

(3) Cynodon dactylon

(4) Sorghum halepense

(5) Other species

3. The regenerative capacity of rhizomatous perennials

(1) Extra absorption of nutrients and water by the rhizomes of torpedo grass as a response to environmental stress

(2) Enhancement in the growth of clonal grass as affected by environmental stress on the parent grass

(3) Tests of regenerative capacity of other perennial species

Chapter 3. Losses caused by weeds to sugarcane

1. Reduction in growth of sugarcane caused by competition from individual weed species

2. Reductions in cane and sugar yield caused by weeds under field conditions

3. Reduction in plant weight and stalk yield of sugarcane caused by torpedo grass

4. Damages to sugarcane caused by localized infestation of twining weeds, parasitic weeds, weed harbored disease, and toxic residues of weeds in soil

5. Weeds thwart transportation for sugar factories, mar environments of farmsteads and clog irrigation waterways

Chapter 4. Classification and mode of action of herbicides used in sugarcane agriculture

1. Herbicides in use for sugarcane cultivation

(1) Foliage application contact herbicides

(2) Foliage application translocated herbicides

(3) Soil application residual and translocated herbicides

2. The entry, movement, and fate of foliar-applied herbicides within plants

(1) Interception, coverage and retention

(2) Penetration

(3) Translocation

(4) Fate of the herbicides within a plant

3. Fate of herbicides in the soil

4. Selectivity of herbicides

(1) Through directed post-emergence application of herbicides

(2) Through morphological differences between weeds and cane

(3) Through differences between crop and weeds in physiological and biochemical responses to herbicides

Selectivity in soil-applied herbicides

5. The nature of surfactants

6. Synergistic activity and use of a mixture of herbicides

Chapter 5. The tolerance of sugarcane plants to herbicides

1. Differential tolerance to herbicides in sugarcane varieties

2. Varietal tolerance of sugarcane to pre-emergence diuron and atrazine

(1) Effect of pre-emergence diuron and atrazine on growth of sugarcane varieties

(2) Assessment of the magnitudes of tolerance to pre-emergence diuron and atrazine for sugarcane varieties

(3) Persistence of residual activity of diuron and atrazine, causing significant growth changes in sugarcane varieties

(4) Effect of pre-emergence diuron and atrazine on yields of sugarcane varieties

(5) Determination of varietal tolerance of sugarcane to herbicides by means of sugar yields

3. Rooting characteristics and varietal tolerance of sugarcane to diuron

(1) Repeat of the original experiment to confirm the relative susceptibility of the sugarcane varieties

(2) Uptake of diuron by terminal set-roots, as compared with basal shoot roots, of the two-bud cane cutting

(3) Uptake of diuron through bud, foliage and roots of sugarcane

4. Tolerance to herbicides of sugarcane from different types of propagation

(1) Tolerance to herbicides in transplant crop of sugarcane

(2) Comparison between plant and ratoon cane's crop tolerance to herbicides

5. The effects of diuron on growth and transpiration of cane varieties

(1) Methods used in experiment

(2) The trend of treatment effects on seasonal growth and transpiration rates of cane varieties

(3) The treatment effects on final growth and plant weight of cane varieties

(4) The treatment effects on total transpiration of cane varieties at harvest

6. Summary of sugarcane tolerance to herbicides

Chapter 6. The field evaluation of soil-applied herbicides

1. The control of annual seed-germinated weeds with soil-applied herbicides

2. Alternation of herbicides for maintaining balanced weed populations in cane fields

3. Screening herbicides for alternation in annual field evaluations

4. Regional tests of new products in mixture with sodium salt of 2,4-D

5. Comparison between the sodium and dimethyl amine salts of 2,4-D

6. Succession of gramineous weeds and screening new products for effective control

(1) Procedures for screening asulam

(2) Asulam and metribuzin in regional evaluation tests for general grass control

(3) Procedures of screening tebuthiuron

7. Demonstration and registration of new products for commercial usage

8. Statistical determination of tolerance to herbicides for a large number of cane varieties

(1) Use of the F values for numerical grading

(2) Statistical determination of tolerance to herbicides for a large number of varieties

Chapter 7. The control of established weeds with foliage-applied herbicides

1. Control of emerged broadleaf weeds and cyperus species with 2,4-D

2. Danger of indiscriminate use of 2,4-D

3. Reinforced paraquat for control of established weeds

(1) Herbicidal properties of paraquat

(2) The use of paraquat for weed control in sugarcane

(3) Use of paraquat reinforced by residual compounds for directed post-emergence applications

(4) Tests of the synergistic activity of herbicides in combinations

(5) Early weed competition before DPA treatment on young cane

4. Post-emergence and pre-planting treatments with foliage-applied herbicides for control of weeds on saline soils

(1) Field trials for practical methods of control

(2) Responses of sugarcane and weeds to herbicides in salinity regime

5. Total control of weeds with herbicides in non-cropped areas

(1) Total control of weeds on railways and industrial sites

(2) Total control of weeds on farm-roads, farmsteads, ditchbanks and other non-cropped fringe land

Chapter 8. Chemical weed control for intercropping and rotational cropping of sugarcane

1. Tests for techniques of applying herbicides and examination of inter-relations in intercropping

(1) Methods used for testing different approaches

(2) The effects of competition and weed control treatments of tillering of cane in intercropping

(3) The treatment effects on plant heights of cane in intercropping

(4) The results of weed control

(5) The yields of cane and sugar

(6) The yields of intercrops

(7) The relationships of tillering to yield of cane

2. Weed control in intercropping through selective dosages of a common herbicide for sugarcane

3. Addition of soil conservation agent to herbicide sprays for improving intercrop susceptibility

4. Use of common herbicides in one blanket pre-emergence application for intercropping

5. Test of selectivity of herbicides to major intercrops

6. Residual effects of herbicides applied for sugarcane on annual crops in rotation

Chapter 9. The chemical control of monopolizing single species of perennial weeds

1. Chemical eradication of torpedo grass in cane fields

(1) Ecological study of Panicum repens

(2) Chemical eradication of grass by herbicides in a non-cropped field

(3) Field test of herbicide combinations for total control of torpedo grass in sugarcane

(4) Synergistic activity of herbicides against torpedo grass

(5) Eradication of grass rhizomes by dalapon combinations in repeated applications during the fallow period, and effect on subsequent cane yield

(6) Regrowths of torpedo grass in ratoon crops to be eliminated with dalapon

2. Chemical control of Bermuda grass

3. Chemical control of the yellow and purple nutsedges

4. Chemical control of cogongrass

5. Chemical control of Johnson grass

6. Use of surfactants to enhance herbicidal activity of dalapon

Chapter 10. Physical methods of controlling weeds in sugarcane

1. Cultivation

(1) Cultivation for control of annual weeds

(2) Cultivation for controlling the rhizomatous perennials

2. Flooding

3. Mulching

4. Competition

5. Biological control

6. Ecological control

Chapter 11. Weed control research and practices in other cane-producing countries

1. Hawaii

2. Puerto Rico

3. Louisiana

4. Mexico

5. Mauritius

6. Florida

7. British Guiana

8. Australia and South Africa

9. India, Java and The Philippines

10. Trinidad

Chapter 12. Application techniques and equipment

1. Preparation for dosage of herbicides in application

(1) Formulation

(2) Calculations

(3) Volume rates

2. Precautions and safety in and after application

(1) Observance for suitable spraying conditions

(2) Spray drift

(3) Volatility

(4) Safety in handling herbicides

3. Spraying equipment

(1) Manually pumped sprayer

(2) Compressed air sprayer

(3) Compressed gas sprayer

(4) Engine driven tractor-mounted sprayer

(5) Logarithmic sprayer

(6) Aircraft sprayer

(7) Calibration for field sprayers

Appendix I

Appendix II

References

Author index

Subject index




Details

No. of pages:
346
Language:
English
Copyright:
© Elsevier 1984
Published:
Imprint:
Elsevier
eBook ISBN:
9780444601605

About the Author

S Peng