The Beginnings of Electron Microscopy - Part 2

The Beginnings of Electron Microscopy - Part 2

1st Edition - April 26, 2022

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  • Editors: Peter Hawkes, Martin Hytch
  • Hardcover ISBN: 9780323989190
  • eBook ISBN: 9780323989206

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Description

The Beginnings of Electron Microscopy - Part 2, Volume 221 in the Advances in Imaging and Electron Physics series, highlights new advances in the field, with this new volume presenting interesting chapters on Recollections from the Early Years: Canada-USA, My Recollection of the Early History of Our Work on Electron Optics and the Electron Microscope, Walter Hoppe (1917–1986), Reminiscences of the Development of Electron Optics and Electron Microscope Instrumentation in Japan, Early Electron Microscopy in The Netherlands, L. L. Marton, 1901-1979, The Invention of the Electron Fresnel Interference Biprism, The Development of the Scanning Electron Microscope, and much more.

Key Features

  • Provides the authority and expertise of leading contributors from an international board of authors
  • Presents the latest release in Advances in Imaging and Electron Physics series

Readership

Academic, government and industrial sectors

Table of Contents

  • Cover image
  • Title page
  • Table of Contents
  • Copyright
  • Contributors
  • Foreword
  • Foreword to first edition
  • Preface by Ernst Ruska
  • Chapter One: Recollections from the early years: Canada–USA
  • Abstract
  • 1. Introduction
  • 2. Initial work: University of Toronto (1935–1936)
  • 3. Kodak Research Laboratories, Rochester, New York (1937–1941)
  • 4. Massachusetts Institute of Technology
  • 5. Transition from the early years
  • 6. Afterword by Peter Hawkes
  • References
  • Chapter Two: My recollection of the early history of our work on electron optics and the electron microscope
  • Abstract
  • 1. Emission microscope
  • 2. Studies of specimen techniques for electron microscopy
  • 3. Electron-microscopic observations of ionic crystals
  • 4. The pointed filament and its application
  • 5. Interference and coherence
  • 6. Afterword by Peter Hawkes
  • References
  • Chapter Three: Walter Hoppe — X-ray crystallographer and visionary pioneer in electron microscopy
  • Abstract
  • 1. Introduction
  • 2. Life
  • 3. Work in X-ray crystallography
  • 4. Structure research using electron microscopy
  • 5. Electron tomography
  • 6. Walter Hoppe remembered
  • Appendix to “Walter Hoppe — X-ray crystallographer and visionary pioneer in electron microscopy” by Joachim Frank
  • Acknowledgements
  • References
  • Chapter Four: Reminiscences of the development of electron optics and electron microscope instrumentation in Japan
  • Abstract
  • 1. Historical survey of the early stages of electron microscopy in Japan
  • 2. Lens aberrations
  • 3. Practical magnetic lens design
  • 4. Formation of caustic and shadow images
  • 5. Stigmators
  • 6. Electron phase microscope
  • 7. High-voltage electron microscopes
  • 8. Afterword by Peter Hawkes
  • References
  • Chapter Five: Early electron microscopy in the Netherlands
  • Abstract
  • 1. Afterword by Pieter Kruit: about Jan Bart Le Poole (1917–1993)
  • References
  • Chapter Six: L. L. Marton, 1901–1979
  • Abstract
  • 1. Bibliographical appendix: publications of L. L. Marton
  • 2. Afterword by Peter Hawkes
  • References
  • Chapter Seven: The invention of the electron Fresnel interference biprism,
  • Abstract
  • 1. Childhood years in Bielefeld
  • 2. Gaining technical know-how as a student apprentice
  • 3. A broad education in physics with Professor Walter Kossel
  • 4. Influence of the work of Kikuchi and convergent beam diffraction
  • 5. Electron-optical experiments with Brüche, Scherzer, and Mahl
  • 6. Quantitative testing of the operation of the biprism
  • 7. Measurement of the inner potential of solids
  • 8. Electron interference microscope in the transmission mode
  • 9. The intensity problem in electron interferometers
  • 10. Atomic resolution electron holography
  • 11. Editorial note
  • 12. Afterword by Peter Hawkes
  • References
  • Chapter Eight: The industrial development of the electron microscope by the Metropolitan Vickers Electrical Company and AEI Limited
  • Abstract
  • 1. Introduction
  • 2. Cathode rays and electron images—Gabor and the ironclad concentration coil
  • 3. The first commercial electron microscope—EM1
  • 4. Wartime developments
  • 5. The EM2 electron microscope
  • 6. A three-stage electron microscope—EM3
  • 7. A simple electron microscope—EM4
  • 8. High-voltage electron microscopy—the EM5
  • 9. Improving the resolving power—EM3A and the emergence of electron holography
  • 10. High-resolution microscopes—EM6
  • 11. The image intensifier
  • 12. The electron microscope in biology
  • 13. Very high-resolution microscopy
  • 14. Afterword by Peter Hawkes
  • References
  • Chapter Nine: The development of the scanning electron microscope
  • Abstract
  • 1. Introduction
  • 2. The initial aims of the three groups
  • 3. The Cambridge microscope
  • 4. Uses of the microscope
  • 5. Afterword by Peter Hawkes
  • Bibliography including cited references
  • Chapter Ten: Some recollections of electron microscopy in Britain from 1943 to 1948
  • Abstract
  • 1. Afterword by Peter Hawkes
  • References
  • Chapter Eleven: Rudolf Rühle and the BOSCH electron microscope: another early commercial instrument
  • Abstract
  • 1. Origins of electron microscopy in Berlin
  • 2. First steps for the S&H instrument
  • 3. The commercial Siemens & Halske magnetic electron microscope
  • 4. The electrostatic electron microscope of the AEG
  • 5. Competition between concepts, characters, and companies
  • 6. The gifted entrepreneur: Baron Manfred von Ardenne
  • 7. Development of electron microscopy inside the Bosch company
  • 8. Rudolf Rühle (1907-2003): personal background and development
  • 9. Rudolf Rühle: the technical engineer at Bosch
  • 10. Walter Rentschler and the Bosch electron microscope
  • 11. Rudolf Rühle's groundwork for the Bosch electron microscope
  • 12. Rudolf Rühle's thesis: on the future Bosch electron microscope
  • 13. Rebuilding of Germany after WWII
  • 14. Foundation of the German society for electron microscopy
  • 15. The commercial Bosch electron microscope
  • 16. Promotion for the Bosch electron microscope
  • 17. The Bosch electron microscope in Hohenheim
  • 18. The Bosch-EM in Tübingen
  • 19. Giving up the commercial electron microscope
  • 20. A list of Rudolf Rühle's patents
  • Acknowledgements
  • References
  • Chapter Twelve: Otto Scherzer and his contributions to electron microscopy
  • Abstract
  • 1. Introduction
  • 2. Hans Busch, “the father of electron optics”
  • 3. Otto Scherzer
  • Acknowledgements
  • References
  • Chapter Thirteen: 1950-1960: a decade from the viewpoint of an applications laboratory
  • Abstract
  • 1. Introduction
  • 2. Experience with testing a new microscope
  • 3. A microscope with higher resolving power
  • 4. Development and improvement of preparation methods
  • 5. Teaching duties in an applications laboratory for electron microscopy
  • 6. Final remarks
  • 7. Afterword by the late Dipl.-Ing. Maren Heinzerling (Deutscher Akademikerinnenbund e.V.)
  • References
  • Chapter Fourteen: From the cathode-ray oscillograph to the high-resolution electron microscope
  • Abstract
  • 1. Introduction
  • 2. Developments up to the end of World War II
  • 3. Period of transition
  • 4. Improvements in the electron microscope after 1945
  • 5. Concluding remarks
  • 6. Afterword by Peter Hawkes
  • References
  • Chapter Fifteen: Reminiscences
  • Abstract
  • 1. Afterword by Peter Hawkes
  • References
  • Chapter Sixteen: Complementary accounts of the history of electron microscopy
  • Abstract
  • 1. Appendix
  • 2. Afterword
  • Acknowledgements
  • Acknowledgements
  • References
  • Index

Product details

  • No. of pages: 544
  • Language: English
  • Copyright: © Academic Press 2022
  • Published: April 26, 2022
  • Imprint: Academic Press
  • Hardcover ISBN: 9780323989190
  • eBook ISBN: 9780323989206

About the Editors

Peter Hawkes

Peter Hawkes
Peter Hawkes obtained his M.A. and Ph.D (and later, Sc.D.) from the University of Cambridge, where he subsequently held Fellowships of Peterhouse and of Churchill College. From 1959 – 1975, he worked in the electron microscope section of the Cavendish Laboratory in Cambridge, after which he joined the CNRS Laboratory of Electron Optics in Toulouse, of which he was Director in 1987. He was Founder-President of the European Microscopy Society and is a Fellow of the Microscopy and Optical Societies of America. He is a member of the editorial boards of several microscopy journals and serial editor of Advances in Electron Optics.

Affiliations and Expertise

Laboratoire d'Optique Electronique du Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique (CEMES), France

Martin Hytch

Dr Martin Hÿtch, serial editor for the book series “Advances in Imaging and Electron Physics (AIEP)”, is a senior scientist at the French National Centre for Research (CNRS) in Toulouse. He moved to France after receiving his PhD from the University of Cambridge in 1991 on “Quantitative high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM)”, joining the CNRS in Paris as permanent staff member in 1995. His research focuses on the development of quantitative electron microscopy techniques for materials science applications. He is notably the inventor of Geometric Phase Analysis (GPA) and Dark-Field Electron Holography (DFEH), two techniques for the measurement of strain at the nanoscale. Since moving to the CEMES-CNRS in Toulouse in 2004, he has been working on aberration-corrected HRTEM and electron holography for the study of electronic devices, nanocrystals and ferroelectrics. He was laureate of the prestigious European Microscopy Award for Physical Sciences of the European Microscopy Society in 2008. To date he has published 130 papers in international journals, filed 6 patents and has given over 70 invited talks at international conferences and workshops.

Affiliations and Expertise

Laboratoire d'Optique Electronique du Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique (CEMES), Toulouse, France

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