The Art of Linear Electronics

The Art of Linear Electronics

1st Edition - June 23, 1993

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  • Author: John Linsley Hood
  • eBook ISBN: 9781483105161

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The Art of Linear Electronics presents the principal aspects of linear electronics and techniques in linear electronic circuit design. The book provides a wide range of information on the elucidation of the methods and techniques in the design of linear electronic circuits. The text discusses such topics as electronic component symbols and circuit drawing; passive and active semiconductor components; DC and low frequency amplifiers; and the basic effects of feedback. Subjects on frequency response modifying circuits and filters; audio amplifiers; low frequency oscillators and waveform generators; and power supply systems are covered as well. Electronics engineers, and readers with an interest in linear electronics design but with minimal experience in the field will find the book very useful.

Table of Contents

  • Preface


    1 Electronic Component Symbols and Circuit Drawing


    Basic Design Philosophy

    Avoidance of Ambiguities

    Conventional Assumptions

    Block Diagrams

    The Theoretical Circuit

    Technical Terms

    Circuit Symbols and Useful Conventions


    Resistors and Potentiometers

    Coils and Transformers



    Transistors and Diodes

    Field Effect Devices

    Thyristors and Triacs

    Thermionic Valves and Other Vacuum Envelope Devices

    Linear Integrated Circuits (ICs)

    Logic ICs

    Light Operated and Light Emitting Devices

    Miscellaneous Symbols

    2 Passive Components



    Carbon composition

    Carbon Film

    Metal Oxide Film Resistors

    Metal Film Resistors

    Metal Glaze Resistors

    Temperature Dependent Resistors

    Variable Resistors and Potentiometers

    Spurious Effects




    Spurious Effects

    Inductors and Transformers



    Connectors and Switches

    Contact Erosion and Contamination


    3 Active Components Based on Thermionic Emission

    Early Beginnings

    The Modern Thermionic Valve

    Thermionic Emission

    Indirectly Heated Cathode Systems

    Anode Structures

    Valve Characteristics

    Internal Grid Structures

    Screened Grid, Pentode and Beam-Tetrode Valves

    Secondary Emission

    Variable Mu Pentodes and Tetrodes

    Other Multiple Electrode Valve Types

    Cathode Ray Tubes

    Deterioration Procesess

    4 Active Components Based on Semiconductors

    Basic Theory

    The Effect of Doping

    The Semiconductor Junction and the Junction Diode

    The Depletion Zone

    Reverse Breakdown Effects

    Junction Capacitance

    Majority and Minority Carriers

    Ohmic Contacts

    Point Contact Devices

    The Point Contact Transistor

    The Bipolar Junction Transistor

    5 Practical Semiconductor Components

    Junction Transistor Manufacturing Techniques

    Junction Transistor Characteristics

    h Parameters

    Thermal Effects

    Junction Field Effect Transistors (FETs)

    Insulated Gate Field Effect Transistors

    Dual-Gate MOSFETs

    Power MOSFETs

    T-MOS Devices

    Thyristors and Triacs

    Silicon Bilateral Trigger Diodes (diacs)

    Linear Integrated Circuits

    Operational Amplifiers

    Voltage Regulator Units

    Voltage Reference Devices

    Transistor and Diode Arrays

    Current Mirrors

    Constant Current Sources

    Instrumentation Amplifiers

    Specialized Circuitry

    Linear Uses of Digital ICs

    6 DC and Low Frequency Amplifiers


    Circuitry Based on Bipolar Junction Transistors

    Small-Signal (Silicon Planar) Transistors

    General Characteristics

    Junction Transistor Voltage Amplifiers

    Transistor Stage Gain and Distortion

    DC Amplifier Layouts

    Constant Current Sources and Current Mirrors

    Impedance Conversion Stages

    Cascode Connection

    Phase-Splitter Systems

    Other Small-Signal Junction Transistors

    Bipolar Junction Power Transistors

    Circuit Characteristics of Field Effect Devices

    Junction Field Effect Transistors (FETs)

    General Characteristics

    Circuit Applications

    'Cascode' Operation

    MOSFET Devices

    General Characteristics of Low Power Types

    Circuit Applications

    Power MOSFETs

    Protection From Gate Breakdown

    Voltage Reference Sources

    DC Amplifiers

    Requirements for Stability of Output Voltage Level

    7 Feedback, Negative and Positive


    The Basic Effects of Feedback

    The Effect of Feedback on Gain

    The Use of NFB to Reduce Distortion

    Problems with Negative Feedback

    The Relationship Between Frequency Response and Phase Shift

    Operational Amplifier Systems

    Effects of Negative Feedback on Distortion

    Appendix Operational Amplifier Parameters

    8 Frequency Response Modifying Circuits and Filters


    Passive Circuit Layouts

    Low-Pass Circuitry

    High Pass Circuitry

    Notch Filters

    Tuned Response

    Bandpass Circuitry

    Active Filter Circuitry


    High-Pass (HP) and Low-Pass (LP) Filters

    Variable Slope Filters

    Notch Filters

    Tuned Response Filters

    Bandpass Circuitry

    Effect of Filter Slope on Waveform Shape

    9 Audio Amplifiers

    The Evolution of Power Amplifier Design

    Basic Problems

    Performance Specifications

    Output Power and Bandwidth

    Waveform Distortion

    Transient Distortions

    Load Tolerance

    Early Amplifier Designs

    Simple Valve Designs

    A Typical Battery Operated Audio Amplifier

    Mains Operated Circuitry

    High Quality Valve Operated Amplifiers

    The Williamson Amplifier

    Alternative Output Stage Connections

    Output Stage Biasing

    Modem Audio Amplifier Circuit Design

    Early Transistor Operated Audio Power Amplifiers

    The Lin Quasi-Complementary Circuit Layout

    Crossover Distortion

    Amplifier Sound and Listener Fatigue

    Improved Transistor Amplifier Designs

    Output Circuit Alternatives

    Contemporary High Quality Audio Amplifier Designs

    Improved Lin Type

    Negative Feedback and HF Compensation

    The Quad Current Dumping Amplifier

    Sandman's Class S Design

    The future


    Basic Requirements


    Tone Controls


    Magnetic Tape and Gramophone Record Replay Equalization

    Low noise Circuitry

    Integrated Circuit Systems

    10 Low frequency Oscillators and Waveform Generators


    Sinewave Oscillators

    Phase-Shift Oscillators

    Relaxation, or Capacitor Charge/Discharge Oscillators

    The Multivibrator

    The Source-Coupled Oscillator

    The 555 Circuit

    The 'Bowes' Multivibrator

    The 'Spany' Pulse Generator

    The Blocking Oscillator

    Logic Element Based Square-Wave Generators

    Sawtooth, Triangular and Staircase Waveform Generators

    Mark-to-Space Ratio Adjustment

    Negative Impedance Oscillators

    Noise Sources

    White and Pink Noise

    Noise Source Systems and Bandwidths

    11 Tuned Circuits


    Calculation of Resonant Frequency, Dynamic Impedance and Q

    Circuit Magnification Factor Q

    Bandpass-Coupled Tuned Circuits

    Quartz Crystals and Other Mechanical Resonators

    Quartz Crystal Resonators

    Ladder and Surface Acoustic Wave Filters

    Surface Acoustic Wave (SAW) Type Filters

    12 High Frequency Amplifiers


    Practical Circuitry

    Bandwidth, Noise and Cross-Modulation

    Wide Bandwidth Amplifier Design

    Effects of Junction Capacitances

    Input Bandwidth Limitation

    13 High Frequency Oscillators


    Basic Circuit Designs

    LC Oscillators

    Quartz Crystal Oscillators

    RC Oscillators

    Voltage Controlled Oscillators (VCOs)

    14 Radio Receiver Circuitry


    Radio Receiver Circuitry

    Tuned Radio Frequency (TRF) Systems

    Super-Regenerative Receiver Systems

    Effect of Selectivity on the Received Signal

    The Supersonic Heterodyne, or Superhet System

    IF Amplifier Stages

    Automatic Gain Control (AGC)

    Stable Frequency Oscillator Systems

    Synchrodyne and Homodyne Receiver Systems

    Frequency Modulation (FM), Systems

    Appendix. Transmission and Reception Data

    15 Power Supply Systems


    Battery Power Supplies

    Primary Cells

    Secondary Cells

    Mains Operated Power Supplies

    Simple Transformer-Rectifier Systems

    Voltage Regulator Systems

    Switching and Switch-Mode Voltage Regulators

    16 Noise and Hum


    The Physical Basis of Electrical Noise

    Thermal or Johnson Noise (Resistor Noise)

    Shot Noise (Current Flow Noise)

    Flicker, Excess or 1/f Noise (Defect Noise)

    Noise Figure or Noise Factor

    Low Noise Circuit Design

    Noise Models for Junction Transistors and J-FETs

    The Operational Amplifier Model


    Amplifiers for Very Low Impedance Systems

    Bipolar Transistor Systems

    Junction FET Designs

    The Effect of the Distribution of Stage Gains


    Noise from External Sources

    Radio Pick-Up

    Mains Hum


    Balanced Cables


    17 Test and Measurement Equipment

    The Importance of Measurements, and the Need for Testing

    Static Testing (voltage, Current and Resistance Measurement)


    Current Meters

    Resistance Meters

    Meter Sensitivity

    Moving Iron Meters

    Electrostatic Movements

    Electronic Analogue Meters

    Digital Meters

    Inductance and Capacitance Measurement

    Measurement of Q

    Chopper Type DC Amplifier Systems

    Dynamic Testing

    AC Voltage and Current Meters

    Waveform Distortion Measurement


    Multiple Trace Displays

    Storage Oscilloscopes

    Frequency Measurement

    Signal Generators

    Beat-Frequency Oscillators

    Frequency Modulated Oscillators (Wobbulators)

    Appendix A Component Manufacturing Conventions

    Resistor Colour Codes

    Preferred Value Systems

    Capacitor Coding Systems

    Semiconductor Labelling

    Manufacturers' Prefixes

    Discrete Semiconductor Type Numbering

    The Japanese Electronic Industry Association (JEIA) Classification

    Base Connections

    Diode/Rectifier Polarity Marking

    Appendix B Circuit Impedance and Phase Angle Calculations

    Practical Network Impedance Calculations

    Resistor-Capacitor Networks

    Resistor-Inductor Networks

    Practical Examples of Unusual Circuit Effects

    The LC Series Circuit

    The LC Parallel Resonant Circuit

    The Wien Network

    The Sallen and Key Filter Circuit



Product details

  • No. of pages: 348
  • Language: English
  • Copyright: © Butterworth-Heinemann 1993
  • Published: June 23, 1993
  • Imprint: Butterworth-Heinemann
  • eBook ISBN: 9781483105161

About the Author

John Linsley Hood

John Linsley Hood (1925-2004) was head of the electronics research laboratories at British cellophane, for nearly 25 years. He worked on many instrumentation projects including width gauges and moisture meters, and made several inventions which were patented under the Cellophane name. Prior to his work at British Cellophane he worked in the electronics laboratory of the Department of Atomic Energy at Sellafield, Cumbria. He studied at Reading University after serving in the military as a radar mechanic. Linsley Hood published more than 30 technical feature articles in Wireless World magazine and its later incarnation Electronics World. He also contributed to numerous magazines including Electronics Today.

Affiliations and Expertise

(1925-2004) Independent Technical Author; Formerly at Department of Atomic Energy at Sellafield, Cumbria

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