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The Art of Linear Electronics - 1st Edition - ISBN: 9780750608688, 9781483105161

The Art of Linear Electronics

1st Edition

Author: John Linsley Hood
eBook ISBN: 9781483105161
Imprint: Butterworth-Heinemann
Published Date: 23rd June 1993
Page Count: 348
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The Art of Linear Electronics presents the principal aspects of linear electronics and techniques in linear electronic circuit design.

The book provides a wide range of information on the elucidation of the methods and techniques in the design of linear electronic circuits. The text discusses such topics as electronic component symbols and circuit drawing; passive and active semiconductor components; DC and low frequency amplifiers; and the basic effects of feedback. Subjects on frequency response modifying circuits and filters; audio amplifiers; low frequency oscillators and waveform generators; and power supply systems are covered as well.

Electronics engineers, and readers with an interest in linear electronics design but with minimal experience in the field will find the book very useful.

Table of Contents



1 Electronic Component Symbols and Circuit Drawing


Basic Design Philosophy

Avoidance of Ambiguities

Conventional Assumptions

Block Diagrams

The Theoretical Circuit

Technical Terms

Circuit Symbols and Useful Conventions


Resistors and Potentiometers

Coils and Transformers



Transistors and Diodes

Field Effect Devices

Thyristors and Triacs

Thermionic Valves and Other Vacuum Envelope Devices

Linear Integrated Circuits (ICs)

Logic ICs

Light Operated and Light Emitting Devices

Miscellaneous Symbols

2 Passive Components



Carbon composition

Carbon Film

Metal Oxide Film Resistors

Metal Film Resistors

Metal Glaze Resistors

Temperature Dependent Resistors

Variable Resistors and Potentiometers

Spurious Effects




Spurious Effects

Inductors and Transformers



Connectors and Switches

Contact Erosion and Contamination


3 Active Components Based on Thermionic Emission

Early Beginnings

The Modern Thermionic Valve

Thermionic Emission

Indirectly Heated Cathode Systems

Anode Structures

Valve Characteristics

Internal Grid Structures

Screened Grid, Pentode and Beam-Tetrode Valves

Secondary Emission

Variable Mu Pentodes and Tetrodes

Other Multiple Electrode Valve Types

Cathode Ray Tubes

Deterioration Procesess

4 Active Components Based on Semiconductors

Basic Theory

The Effect of Doping

The Semiconductor Junction and the Junction Diode

The Depletion Zone

Reverse Breakdown Effects

Junction Capacitance

Majority and Minority Carriers

Ohmic Contacts

Point Contact Devices

The Point Contact Transistor

The Bipolar Junction Transistor

5 Practical Semiconductor Components

Junction Transistor Manufacturing Techniques

Junction Transistor Characteristics

h Parameters

Thermal Effects

Junction Field Effect Transistors (FETs)

Insulated Gate Field Effect Transistors

Dual-Gate MOSFETs


T-MOS Devices

Thyristors and Triacs

Silicon Bilateral Trigger Diodes (diacs)

Linear Integrated Circuits

Operational Amplifiers

Voltage Regulator Units

Voltage Reference Devices

Transistor and Diode Arrays

Current Mirrors

Constant Current Sources

Instrumentation Amplifiers

Specialized Circuitry

Linear Uses of Digital ICs

6 DC and Low Frequency Amplifiers


Circuitry Based on Bipolar Junction Transistors

Small-Signal (Silicon Planar) Transistors

General Characteristics

Junction Transistor Voltage Amplifiers

Transistor Stage Gain and Distortion

DC Amplifier Layouts

Constant Current Sources and Current Mirrors

Impedance Conversion Stages

Cascode Connection

Phase-Splitter Systems

Other Small-Signal Junction Transistors

Bipolar Junction Power Transistors

Circuit Characteristics of Field Effect Devices

Junction Field Effect Transistors (FETs)

General Characteristics

Circuit Applications

'Cascode' Operation

MOSFET Devices

General Characteristics of Low Power Types

Circuit Applications


Protection From Gate Breakdown

Voltage Reference Sources

DC Amplifiers

Requirements for Stability of Output Voltage Level

7 Feedback, Negative and Positive


The Basic Effects of Feedback

The Effect of Feedback on Gain

The Use of NFB to Reduce Distortion

Problems with Negative Feedback

The Relationship Between Frequency Response and Phase Shift

Operational Amplifier Systems

Effects of Negative Feedback on Distortion

Appendix Operational Amplifier Parameters

8 Frequency Response Modifying Circuits and Filters


Passive Circuit Layouts

Low-Pass Circuitry

High Pass Circuitry

Notch Filters

Tuned Response

Bandpass Circuitry

Active Filter Circuitry


High-Pass (HP) and Low-Pass (LP) Filters

Variable Slope Filters

Notch Filters

Tuned Response Filters

Bandpass Circuitry

Effect of Filter Slope on Waveform Shape

9 Audio Amplifiers

The Evolution of Power Amplifier Design

Basic Problems

Performance Specifications

Output Power and Bandwidth

Waveform Distortion

Transient Distortions

Load Tolerance

Early Amplifier Designs

Simple Valve Designs

A Typical Battery Operated Audio Amplifier

Mains Operated Circuitry

High Quality Valve Operated Amplifiers

The Williamson Amplifier

Alternative Output Stage Connections

Output Stage Biasing

Modem Audio Amplifier Circuit Design

Early Transistor Operated Audio Power Amplifiers

The Lin Quasi-Complementary Circuit Layout

Crossover Distortion

Amplifier Sound and Listener Fatigue

Improved Transistor Amplifier Designs

Output Circuit Alternatives

Contemporary High Quality Audio Amplifier Designs

Improved Lin Type

Negative Feedback and HF Compensation

The Quad Current Dumping Amplifier

Sandman's Class S Design

The future


Basic Requirements


Tone Controls


Magnetic Tape and Gramophone Record Replay Equalization

Low noise Circuitry

Integrated Circuit Systems

10 Low frequency Oscillators and Waveform Generators


Sinewave Oscillators

Phase-Shift Oscillators

Relaxation, or Capacitor Charge/Discharge Oscillators

The Multivibrator

The Source-Coupled Oscillator

The 555 Circuit

The 'Bowes' Multivibrator

The 'Spany' Pulse Generator

The Blocking Oscillator

Logic Element Based Square-Wave Generators

Sawtooth, Triangular and Staircase Waveform Generators

Mark-to-Space Ratio Adjustment

Negative Impedance Oscillators

Noise Sources

White and Pink Noise

Noise Source Systems and Bandwidths

11 Tuned Circuits


Calculation of Resonant Frequency, Dynamic Impedance and Q

Circuit Magnification Factor Q

Bandpass-Coupled Tuned Circuits

Quartz Crystals and Other Mechanical Resonators

Quartz Crystal Resonators

Ladder and Surface Acoustic Wave Filters

Surface Acoustic Wave (SAW) Type Filters

12 High Frequency Amplifiers


Practical Circuitry

Bandwidth, Noise and Cross-Modulation

Wide Bandwidth Amplifier Design

Effects of Junction Capacitances

Input Bandwidth Limitation

13 High Frequency Oscillators


Basic Circuit Designs

LC Oscillators

Quartz Crystal Oscillators

RC Oscillators

Voltage Controlled Oscillators (VCOs)

14 Radio Receiver Circuitry


Radio Receiver Circuitry

Tuned Radio Frequency (TRF) Systems

Super-Regenerative Receiver Systems

Effect of Selectivity on the Received Signal

The Supersonic Heterodyne, or Superhet System

IF Amplifier Stages

Automatic Gain Control (AGC)

Stable Frequency Oscillator Systems

Synchrodyne and Homodyne Receiver Systems

Frequency Modulation (FM), Systems

Appendix. Transmission and Reception Data

15 Power Supply Systems


Battery Power Supplies

Primary Cells

Secondary Cells

Mains Operated Power Supplies

Simple Transformer-Rectifier Systems

Voltage Regulator Systems

Switching and Switch-Mode Voltage Regulators

16 Noise and Hum


The Physical Basis of Electrical Noise

Thermal or Johnson Noise (Resistor Noise)

Shot Noise (Current Flow Noise)

Flicker, Excess or 1/f Noise (Defect Noise)

Noise Figure or Noise Factor

Low Noise Circuit Design

Noise Models for Junction Transistors and J-FETs

The Operational Amplifier Model


Amplifiers for Very Low Impedance Systems

Bipolar Transistor Systems

Junction FET Designs

The Effect of the Distribution of Stage Gains


Noise from External Sources

Radio Pick-Up

Mains Hum


Balanced Cables


17 Test and Measurement Equipment

The Importance of Measurements, and the Need for Testing

Static Testing (voltage, Current and Resistance Measurement)


Current Meters

Resistance Meters

Meter Sensitivity

Moving Iron Meters

Electrostatic Movements

Electronic Analogue Meters

Digital Meters

Inductance and Capacitance Measurement

Measurement of Q

Chopper Type DC Amplifier Systems

Dynamic Testing

AC Voltage and Current Meters

Waveform Distortion Measurement


Multiple Trace Displays

Storage Oscilloscopes

Frequency Measurement

Signal Generators

Beat-Frequency Oscillators

Frequency Modulated Oscillators (Wobbulators)

Appendix A Component Manufacturing Conventions

Resistor Colour Codes

Preferred Value Systems

Capacitor Coding Systems

Semiconductor Labelling

Manufacturers' Prefixes

Discrete Semiconductor Type Numbering

The Japanese Electronic Industry Association (JEIA) Classification

Base Connections

Diode/Rectifier Polarity Marking

Appendix B Circuit Impedance and Phase Angle Calculations

Practical Network Impedance Calculations

Resistor-Capacitor Networks

Resistor-Inductor Networks

Practical Examples of Unusual Circuit Effects

The LC Series Circuit

The LC Parallel Resonant Circuit

The Wien Network

The Sallen and Key Filter Circuit




No. of pages:
© Butterworth-Heinemann 1993
23rd June 1993
eBook ISBN:

About the Author

John Linsley Hood

John Linsley Hood (1925-2004) was head of the electronics research laboratories at British cellophane, for nearly 25 years. He worked on many instrumentation projects including width gauges and moisture meters, and made several inventions which were patented under the Cellophane name. Prior to his work at British Cellophane he worked in the electronics laboratory of the Department of Atomic Energy at Sellafield, Cumbria. He studied at Reading University after serving in the military as a radar mechanic. Linsley Hood published more than 30 technical feature articles in Wireless World magazine and its later incarnation Electronics World. He also contributed to numerous magazines including Electronics Today.

Affiliations and Expertise

(1925-2004) Independent Technical Author

Ratings and Reviews