The Art and Science of Digital Compositing - 1st Edition - ISBN: 9780080499321

The Art and Science of Digital Compositing

1st Edition

Authors: Ron Brinkmann
eBook ISBN: 9780080499321
Imprint: Morgan Kaufmann
Published Date: 7th June 1999
Page Count: 364
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Table of Contents

Acknowledgments

Preface

Chapter 1 Introduction to Digital Compositing

Definition

Historical Perspective

Terminology

Organization of the Book

Chapter 2 The Digital Representation of Visual Information

Image Generation

Pixels, Components, and Channels

Spatial Resolution

Bit Depth

Normalized Values

Additional Channels

The HSV Color Representation

Image Input Devices

Digital Image File Formats

File Format Features

Vendor Implementations of File Formats

Compression

Choosing a File Format

Nonlinear Color Spaces

Chapter 3 Basic Image Manipulation

Terminology

Color Manipulations

RGB Multiply

Add

Gamma Correction

Invert

Contrast

Channel Swapping

HSV Manipulations

Look-up Table Manipulations

Expression Language

Spatial Filters

Convolves

Blurring

Sharpen

Median Filter

Geometric Transformations

Panning

Rotation

Scale

3D Transforms

Warping

Expression Language

Filtering Algorithms

Chapter 4 Basic Image Compositing

The Matte Image

The Integrated Matte Channel

Multisource Operators

Over

Mix

Subtract

In

Out

Atop

Masks

Compositing With Premultiplied Images

Color-Correcting and Combining Premultiplied Images

Luminosity

Chapter 5 Matte Creation and Manipulation

Procedural Matte Extraction

Keying Based on Luminance

Keying Based on Chrominance

Difference Matting

The Color Difference Method

Specialized Keying Software

Matting Techniques

Garbage Mattes

Edge Mattes

Combining Mattes

Manipulating Mattes

Chapter 6 Time and Temporal Manipulations

Apparent Motion

Temporal Resolution

Temporal Artifacts

Changing the Length or Timing of a Sequence

Keyframing

Chapter 7 Image Tracking and Stabilization

Tracking an Element Into a Plate

Choosing the Feature to Track

Limiting the Search Area

Human Intervention

Using Tracking Curves Manually

Stabilizing a Plate

Tracking Multiple Points

Chapter 8 Interface Interactions

Workflow

Online Versus Batch

Methods of Representing the Compositing Process

Compressed Trees

Timelines

Curve Editors

Working With Proxy Images

Chapter 9 Image Viewing and Analysis Tools

Image Viewers

Flipbooks

Image Statistics

Pixel or Regional Information Tools

Histograms

Chapter 10 Formats: Media, Resolution, and Aspect Ratiosr>

Aspect Ratio

Nonsquare Pixels

Deciding on a Resolution When You Have an Aspect Ratio

Format Conversion Pipeline

A Format Conversion Example

Film Formats

35mm Formats

16mm Formats

Specialized Film Formats

Video Formats

Lines of Resolution

Fields

Color Resolution

Gamma

NTSC

PAL

SECAM

HDTV

Other Formats

Working With Nonsquare Pixels

Combining Formats

Converting Between Film and Video

Chapter 11 Quality and Efficiency

Quality

Efficiency

Methodology

Minimizing Data Loss

Internal Software Accuracy

Consolidating Operations

Region of Interest

Working in a Networked Environment

Disk Usage

Precompositing

Chapter 12 Learning to See

Judging Color, Brightness, and Contrast

The Camera

Distance and Perspective

Perspective and the Camera

Depth Cues

Combining Depth Cues

Lens Flares

Focus

Motion Blur

Chapter 13 Creating Elements

Lighting

Interactive Lighting

Matched Cameras

The Reference Stand-in

Clean Plates

Film Stock

Filters

Choosing a Format

Lighting and Shooting with Bluescreens

Bluescreen versus Greenscreen

Shooting Order

Chapter 14 Integration Techniques

Scene Continuity

Lighting

Shadows

Lens Flares

Atmosphere

Camera Mismatches

Camera Movements

Focus

Motion Blur

Film Grain

Bluescreen Integration

Digital Integration

Chapter 15 Advanced Topics

Beyond Black and White

White Point and Black Point

Nonlinear Color Spaces

Working with Nonlinear Color Spaces

Working with 3D Elements

Z-Depth Compositing

Related 2D Disciplines

Morphing

Digital Painting

Editing

Chapter 16 Case Studies

James and the Giant Peach

Speed

Star Trek: Insurrection

Con Air

Budweiser Lizards Commercial

Independence Day

X-Files: Fight the Future

T-Rex: Back to the Cretaceous

The Prince of Egypt

Titanic

Appendix A Digital Compositing Software: Tools and Features

Color Correction

Spatial Filtering

Geometric Transformation

Miscellaneous

Image Combination

Control

Field Controls

Matte Generation

Timing/Duration

Image Generation

Tracking

Other

Appendix B Digital Compositing Software: Manufacturers

Appendix C Digital Image File Formats

Common File Formats

The Cineon File Format

Appendix D Common Film and Video Formats

Film

Scanning Resolutions and File Sizes

Video

HDTV

Bibliography

Glossary

Index


Description

Computer-generated visual effects are now used extensively in feature films, commercials, music videos, and multimedia. The backbone of this process, the final and most important step, is known as digital compositing. The Art and Science of Digital Compositing is a comprehensive reference that provides a complete overview of the technical and the artistic nature of this process. This book covers a wide range of topics from basic image creation, representation, and manipulation, to a look at the visual cues that are necessary to create a believable composite. Designed as both an introduction to the field as well as a valuable technical reference, this book should be of interest to both novices and professionals alike.

Written by a working professional in the visual effects industry, the book provides over 250 different images and illustrations (including a 40-page color insert) as well as a complete glossary of compositing and visual-effects terminology. Also included are in-depth case studies from well-known films such as Speed, Independence Day, and Titanic.

Key Features

Balances fundamental "hard science" topics with the more qualitative/artistic challenges which face anyone involved in a digital composition project Provides examples and illustrations from motion picture work CD-ROM contains additional composition examples, illustrations, and development software Includes 32 pages of colour

Readership

Computer designers working in the film industry, primarily those who create the work but also those who supervise, produce, commission, design or direct


Details

No. of pages:
364
Language:
English
Copyright:
© Morgan Kaufmann 1999
Published:
Imprint:
Morgan Kaufmann
eBook ISBN:
9780080499321

About the Authors

Ron Brinkmann Author

Ron M. Brinkmann has been working in the field of Computer Graphics for over a decade, involved with both hardware and software design, development and use. His primary field of expertise is in visual effects for feature films, and his personal feature-film credits include: Contact, The Ghost and the Darkness, James and the Giant Peach, Die Hard with a Vengeance, Speed, Hideaway, Tall Tale, Last Action Hero, and In the Line of Fire. He has had articles published in a number of magazines, and has lectured on the topics of digital compositing and visual effects in the U.S., Europe, Australia and China.

Affiliations and Expertise

Hermosa Beach, CA, USA