The Art and Science of Digital Compositing

The Art and Science of Digital Compositing

1st Edition - June 2, 1999

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  • Author: Ron Brinkmann
  • eBook ISBN: 9780080499321

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Description

Computer-generated visual effects are now used extensively in feature films, commercials, music videos, and multimedia. The backbone of this process, the final and most important step, is known as digital compositing. The Art and Science of Digital Compositing is a comprehensive reference that provides a complete overview of the technical and the artistic nature of this process. This book covers a wide range of topics from basic image creation, representation, and manipulation, to a look at the visual cues that are necessary to create a believable composite. Designed as both an introduction to the field as well as a valuable technical reference, this book should be of interest to both novices and professionals alike. Written by a working professional in the visual effects industry, the book provides over 250 different images and illustrations (including a 40-page color insert) as well as a complete glossary of compositing and visual-effects terminology. Also included are in-depth case studies from well-known films such as Speed, Independence Day, and Titanic.

Key Features

Balances fundamental "hard science" topics with the more qualitative/artistic challenges which face anyone involved in a digital composition project
Provides examples and illustrations from motion picture work
CD-ROM contains additional composition examples, illustrations, and development software
Includes 32 pages of colour

Readership

Computer designers working in the film industry, primarily those who create the work but also those who supervise, produce, commission, design or direct

Table of Contents

  • Acknowledgments



    Preface



    Chapter 1 Introduction to Digital Compositing



    Definition

    Historical Perspective

    Terminology

    Organization of the Book



    Chapter 2 The Digital Representation of Visual Information



    Image Generation


    Pixels, Components, and Channels

    Spatial Resolution

    Bit Depth

    Normalized Values

    Additional Channels

    The HSV Color Representation

    Image Input Devices

    Digital Image File Formats


    File Format Features

    Vendor Implementations of File Formats

    Compression

    Choosing a File Format

    Nonlinear Color Spaces



    Chapter 3 Basic Image Manipulation



    Terminology

    Color Manipulations


    RGB Multiply

    Add

    Gamma Correction

    Invert

    Contrast

    Channel Swapping

    HSV Manipulations

    Look-up Table Manipulations

    Expression Language

    Spatial Filters


    Convolves

    Blurring

    Sharpen

    Median Filter

    Geometric Transformations


    Panning

    Rotation

    Scale

    3D Transforms

    Warping

    Expression Language

    Filtering Algorithms



    Chapter 4 Basic Image Compositing



    The Matte Image

    The Integrated Matte Channel

    Multisource Operators


    Over

    Mix

    Subtract

    In

    Out

    Atop

    Masks

    Compositing With Premultiplied Images


    Color-Correcting and Combining Premultiplied Images

    Luminosity



    Chapter 5 Matte Creation and Manipulation



    Procedural Matte Extraction


    Keying Based on Luminance

    Keying Based on Chrominance

    Difference Matting

    The Color Difference Method

    Specialized Keying Software

    Matting Techniques


    Garbage Mattes

    Edge Mattes

    Combining Mattes

    Manipulating Mattes



    Chapter 6 Time and Temporal Manipulations



    Apparent Motion

    Temporal Resolution

    Temporal Artifacts

    Changing the Length or Timing of a Sequence

    Keyframing



    Chapter 7 Image Tracking and Stabilization



    Tracking an Element Into a Plate


    Choosing the Feature to Track

    Limiting the Search Area

    Human Intervention


    Using Tracking Curves Manually

    Stabilizing a Plate

    Tracking Multiple Points



    Chapter 8 Interface Interactions



    Workflow

    Online Versus Batch

    Methods of Representing the Compositing Process


    Compressed Trees

    Timelines

    Curve Editors

    Working With Proxy Images



    Chapter 9 Image Viewing and Analysis Tools



    Image Viewers

    Flipbooks

    Image Statistics


    Pixel or Regional Information Tools

    Histograms



    Chapter 10 Formats: Media, Resolution, and Aspect Ratiosr>


    Aspect Ratio


    Nonsquare Pixels

    Deciding on a Resolution When You Have an Aspect Ratio

    Format Conversion Pipeline


    A Format Conversion Example

    Film Formats


    35mm Formats

    16mm Formats

    Specialized Film Formats

    Video Formats


    Lines of Resolution

    Fields

    Color Resolution

    Gamma

    NTSC

    PAL

    SECAM

    HDTV

    Other Formats

    Working With Nonsquare Pixels

    Combining Formats

    Converting Between Film and Video



    Chapter 11 Quality and Efficiency



    Quality

    Efficiency


    Methodology

    Minimizing Data Loss


    Internal Software Accuracy

    Consolidating Operations

    Region of Interest

    Working in a Networked Environment

    Disk Usage

    Precompositing



    Chapter 12 Learning to See



    Judging Color, Brightness, and Contrast

    The Camera

    Distance and Perspective


    Perspective and the Camera

    Depth Cues

    Combining Depth Cues

    Lens Flares

    Focus

    Motion Blur



    Chapter 13 Creating Elements



    Lighting


    Interactive Lighting

    Matched Cameras

    The Reference Stand-in

    Clean Plates

    Film Stock

    Filters

    Choosing a Format

    Lighting and Shooting with Bluescreens


    Bluescreen versus Greenscreen

    Shooting Order



    Chapter 14 Integration Techniques



    Scene Continuity

    Lighting

    Shadows

    Lens Flares

    Atmosphere

    Camera Mismatches

    Camera Movements

    Focus

    Motion Blur

    Film Grain

    Bluescreen Integration

    Digital Integration



    Chapter 15 Advanced Topics



    Beyond Black and White


    White Point and Black Point

    Nonlinear Color Spaces


    Working with Nonlinear Color Spaces

    Working with 3D Elements


    Z-Depth Compositing

    Related 2D Disciplines


    Morphing

    Digital Painting

    Editing



    Chapter 16 Case Studies



    James and the Giant Peach

    Speed

    Star Trek: Insurrection

    Con Air

    Budweiser Lizards Commercial

    Independence Day

    X-Files: Fight the Future

    T-Rex: Back to the Cretaceous

    The Prince of Egypt

    Titanic



    Appendix A Digital Compositing Software: Tools and Features



    Color Correction

    Spatial Filtering

    Geometric Transformation

    Miscellaneous

    Image Combination

    Control

    Field Controls

    Matte Generation

    Timing/Duration

    Image Generation

    Tracking

    Other



    Appendix B Digital Compositing Software: Manufacturers




    Appendix C Digital Image File Formats



    Common File Formats

    The Cineon File Format



    Appendix D Common Film and Video Formats



    Film


    Scanning Resolutions and File Sizes

    Video


    HDTV



    Bibliography




    Glossary




    Index

Product details

  • No. of pages: 364
  • Language: English
  • Copyright: © Morgan Kaufmann 1999
  • Published: June 2, 1999
  • Imprint: Morgan Kaufmann
  • eBook ISBN: 9780080499321

About the Author

Ron Brinkmann

Ron M. Brinkmann has been working in the field of Computer Graphics for over a decade, involved with both hardware and software design, development and use. His primary field of expertise is in visual effects for feature films, and his personal feature-film credits include: Contact, The Ghost and the Darkness, James and the Giant Peach, Die Hard with a Vengeance, Speed, Hideaway, Tall Tale, Last Action Hero, and In the Line of Fire. He has had articles published in a number of magazines, and has lectured on the topics of digital compositing and visual effects in the U.S., Europe, Australia and China.

Affiliations and Expertise

Hermosa Beach, CA, USA

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