The Action of Insulin on Cells - 1st Edition - ISBN: 9781483232850, 9781483267715

The Action of Insulin on Cells

1st Edition

Authors: M. E. Krahl
eBook ISBN: 9781483267715
Imprint: Academic Press
Published Date: 1st January 1961
Page Count: 212
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The Action of Insulin on Cells: A Speculation on Mechanism of Insulin Action on Muscle focuses on metabolic alterations induced in man or animals by insulin deficiency or excess, tissues responsive to insulin, effects of insulin on muscles, adipose tissues, and liver, and the chemical structure and properties of insulin.

The publication first offers information on tissues acted upon by insulin, insulin and muscle, and insulin and the liver. Discussions focus on amino acid incorporation into liver protein, liver enzymes and insulin, glucose output and uptake, insulin and incorporation of amino acids into peptides, and glucose uptake and glycogen synthesis. The text then examines the relationships of insulin and adipose tissues and insulin and cell permeability.

The book takes a look at the interactions of insulin, pituitary factors, and adrenal hormones in isolated tissues and insulin effects in cell-free systems. Topics include thiamine phosphorylation, oxygen consumption and oxidative phosphorylation, glycogen synthesis in diaphragm fragments, amino acid incorporation into proteins of isolated tissues, and utilization of carbohydrates by isolated tissues. The book also ponders on the structure and properties of insulin and speculations on insulin action.

The publication is a valuable source of information for researchers interested in the mechanism of insulin action on muscles.

Table of Contents


I. Introduction


II. Tissues Acted Upon by Insulin

A. Mammalian Tissues

B. Phylogenetic Aspects of Insulin Action

C. Summary


III. Insulin and Muscle

A. Glucose Uptake and Glycogen Synthesis

B. Oxygen Uptake and CO2 Production

C. Insulin and Incorporation of Amino Acids into Peptides

D. Summary of Experimental Findings


IV. Insulin and the Liver

A. Glucose Output and Uptake

B. Glycogen Formation

C. Fatty Acid Synthesis

D. Amino Acid Incorporation into Liver Protein

E. Liver Enzymes and Insulin

F. Summary of Experimental Findings on Relation of Insulin to Liver Activities

G. Summary of Speculative Suggestions Regarding Action of Insulin on Liver


V. Insulin and Adipose Tissue

A. Glucose Uptake of Various Types of Adipose Tissue

B. Insulin and Pathways of Glucose Metabolism

C. Insulin and Fatty Acid Incorporation or Release

D. Protein Synthesis in Adipose Tissue

E. Adipose Tissue and Insulin Assay

F. Morphological Changes Produced by Insulin

G. Summary of Experimental Findings

H. Summary of Speculations Regarding Action of Insulin on Adipose Tissue


VI. Insulin and Cell Permeability

A. Insulin and Permeability of Sugars

B. Permeability to Amino Acids

C. Permeability to Protein

D. Membrane Potential and Potassium Content of Muscle

E. Summary of Experimental Findings

F. Summary of Speculations Regarding Relation of Effects of Insulin on Transport and on Anabolic Events


VII. Interactions of Insulin, Pituitary Factors, and Adrenal Hormones in Isolated Tissues

A. Amino Acid Incorporation into Protein of Isolated Tissues

B. Utilization of Carbohydrates by Isolated Tissues

C. Summary of Experimental Findings

D. Summary of Speculations Regarding Interaction of Growth Hormone and Insulin


VIII. Insulin Effects in Cell-Free Systems

A. The Hexokinase System

B. Glycogen Synthesis in Diaphragm Fragments

C. Oxygen Consumption and Oxidative Phosphorylation

D. Thiamine Phosphorylation

E. Miscellaneous

F. Summary of Experimental Findings Regarding Effects of Insulin in Cell-Free Systems

G. Summary of Speculations Regarding Insulin in Cell-Free Systems


IX. Notes on the Structure and Properties of Insulin

A. The Amino Acid Sequence

B. The Three Dimensional Structure

C. Other Structural Modifications

D. Interactions of Insulin with Itself and Other Substances

E. Attachment of Insulin to Tissues

F. Summary of Experimental Findings


X. Speculations on Insulin Action

A. The Immediate Effect

B. The Delayed Effect

C. General Hypotheses

D. Interaction of Insulin with Cell Components

E. Summary


Author Index

Subject Index


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© Academic Press 1961
Academic Press
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About the Author

M. E. Krahl

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