The Acoustic Reflex - 1st Edition - ISBN: 9780126434507, 9780323146395

The Acoustic Reflex

1st Edition

Basic Principles and Clinical Applications

Editors: Shlomo Silman
eBook ISBN: 9780323146395
Imprint: Academic Press
Published Date: 4th September 1984
Page Count: 548
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The Acoustic Reflex discusses the acoustic reflex - its magnitude in differential diagnosis, threshold, latency, and other related topics. The book covers different topics such as the neurophysiological basis of the acoustic middle-ear reflex and its characteristics; impedance concepts relating to it; and theories of middle-ear muscle function. The text also encompasses the evaluation of the response time of acoustic-immittance instruments; the contralateral acoustic-reflex threshold and its application for prediction of hearing loss; the magnitude and growth of the acoustic; the ipsilateral acoustic reflex; and the acoustic reflex latency. The monograph is recommended for clinicians and researchers in audiology, deaf education, hearing science, neurology, otolaryngology, physiology, and psychology. The book will also serve as a reference text in a course on impedance.

Table of Contents




1 Neurophysiological Basis of the Acoustic Middle-Ear Reflex

Anatomy of the Stapedius-Reflex Arc

Basic Characteristics of the Acoustic Middle-Ear Reflex

Effects of Middle-Ear Muscle Contractions

Concluding Remarks


2 Impedance Concepts Relating to the Acoustic Reflex

The Impedance at the Probe Tip

The Concept of Impedance

Impedance Changes during the Acoustic Reflex

The Choice of Probe Tone

Concluding Remarks

Appendix: A Mathematical Treatment of the Relationship between Mechanical, Acoustic, and Electrical Impedance


3 Theories of Middle-Ear Muscle Functions

Theories of Function: General Historical Background

Review of the Theories of Function

Evolution of a Theory of Choice: Intensity Control-Protection Theory

Comparative Analysis of Middle-Ear Muscle Structure and Function as a Basis for a Revised Theory

Middle-Ear Muscle Function: Prevention of Desensitization, Interference, and Injury

Concluding Remarks


4 Evaluation of the Response Time of Acoustic- Immittance Instruments


Measurement of the Dynamic Properties of Acoustic- Immittance Instruments

Concluding Remarks


5 The Contralateral Acoustic-Reflex Threshold

Measurement Variables

Normal Acoustic-Reflex Thresholds

Low-Level Reflex Thresholds

Temporal Integration of the Acoustic Reflex

Reflex Thresholds for Speech Activators

Infants and Young Children

Effects of Aging

Conductive Hearing Loss

Sensorineural Hearing Loss

Retrocochlear (Eighth-Nerve) Pathology

Central Nervous System Disorders

Concluding Remarks


6 Prediction of Hearing Loss from the Acoustic-Reflex Threshold

Methods Predicting the Magnitude of the Hearing Loss

Methods of Identifying the Presence of Hearing Loss

Concluding Remarks


7 Magnitude and Growth of the Acoustic Reflex

Intersubject Variability in Immittance Change during Acoustic-Reflex Contraction

The Dynamic Range of the Acoustic-Reflex Growth Function

The Effect of Age on the Acoustic-Reflex Growth Function

The Effect of Activator Frequency on the Acoustic-Reflex Growth Function

The Effect of Probe-Tone Frequency on the Acoustic-Reflex Growth Function

The Acoustic-Reflex Growth Function for Ipsilateral, Contralateral, and Bilateral Stimulation

The Effect of Sensorineural Hearing Loss on the Acoustic-Reflex Growth Function

The Effect of Retrocochlear Pathology on the Acoustic-Reflex Growth Function

The Effect of Conductive Pathology on the Acoustic-Reflex Growth Function

Concluding Remarks

Appendix: Quantification of Acoustic-Reflex Magnitude


8 The Ipsilateral Acoustic Reflex

Methods of Acoustic-Reflex Measurement

Ipsilateral Acoustic-Reflex Measurement

Characteristics of the Ipsilateral Acoustic Reflex

Detection of Hearing Loss with Ipsilateral Acoustic-Reflex Thresholds

Commercial Instrumentation

Concluding Remarks


9 Acoustic-Reflex Latency: State of the Art

Recording Methods

Stimulus Parameters Affecting Acoustic- Reflex Latency

The Concept of Acoustic- Reflex Latency

The Method of Investigation in Our Laboratory

The Results of Our Investigation

Concluding Remarks


10 Acoustic-Reflex Adaptation


Measurement Problems Encountered with Acoustic- Reflex Adaptation

Historical Antecedents

Normal Acoustic- Reflex Adaptation Data

Abnormal Acoustic- Reflex Adaptation Data

Recommended Procedures for Obtaining Clinical Measures of Acoustic-Reflex Adaptation

Concluding Remarks


11 Acoustic and Nonacoustic Reflex Patterns in Audiologic Diagnosis

Acoustic- Reflex Pathways

Non Acoustic- Reflex Pathways

Diagnostic Applications

Diagnostic Profiles

Concluding Remarks


12 Acoustic Reflex in Industrial Noise

General Background

Aims of This Study

General Methods



Concluding Remarks


13 The Effect of Drugs and Systemic Disease on the Acoustic Reflex

Neuromuscular Junction


Systemic Disease

Concluding Remarks

Appendix: Abbreviations and Definitions of Medical Terms


14 Acoustic Reflex and Loudness


Normal Ears

Conductive Pathology

Cochlear Pathology

Retrocochlear Pathology

Concluding Remarks




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© Academic Press 1984
Academic Press
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About the Editor

Shlomo Silman

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