The Acoustic Reflex

The Acoustic Reflex

Basic Principles and Clinical Applications

1st Edition - September 4, 1984

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  • Editor: Shlomo Silman
  • eBook ISBN: 9780323146395

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The Acoustic Reflex discusses the acoustic reflex - its magnitude in differential diagnosis, threshold, latency, and other related topics. The book covers different topics such as the neurophysiological basis of the acoustic middle-ear reflex and its characteristics; impedance concepts relating to it; and theories of middle-ear muscle function. The text also encompasses the evaluation of the response time of acoustic-immittance instruments; the contralateral acoustic-reflex threshold and its application for prediction of hearing loss; the magnitude and growth of the acoustic; the ipsilateral acoustic reflex; and the acoustic reflex latency. The monograph is recommended for clinicians and researchers in audiology, deaf education, hearing science, neurology, otolaryngology, physiology, and psychology. The book will also serve as a reference text in a course on impedance.

Table of Contents

  • Contributors



    1 Neurophysiological Basis of the Acoustic Middle-Ear Reflex

    Anatomy of the Stapedius-Reflex Arc

    Basic Characteristics of the Acoustic Middle-Ear Reflex

    Effects of Middle-Ear Muscle Contractions

    Concluding Remarks


    2 Impedance Concepts Relating to the Acoustic Reflex

    The Impedance at the Probe Tip

    The Concept of Impedance

    Impedance Changes during the Acoustic Reflex

    The Choice of Probe Tone

    Concluding Remarks

    Appendix: A Mathematical Treatment of the Relationship between Mechanical, Acoustic, and Electrical Impedance


    3 Theories of Middle-Ear Muscle Functions

    Theories of Function: General Historical Background

    Review of the Theories of Function

    Evolution of a Theory of Choice: Intensity Control-Protection Theory

    Comparative Analysis of Middle-Ear Muscle Structure and Function as a Basis for a Revised Theory

    Middle-Ear Muscle Function: Prevention of Desensitization, Interference, and Injury

    Concluding Remarks


    4 Evaluation of the Response Time of Acoustic- Immittance Instruments


    Measurement of the Dynamic Properties of Acoustic- Immittance Instruments

    Concluding Remarks


    5 The Contralateral Acoustic-Reflex Threshold

    Measurement Variables

    Normal Acoustic-Reflex Thresholds

    Low-Level Reflex Thresholds

    Temporal Integration of the Acoustic Reflex

    Reflex Thresholds for Speech Activators

    Infants and Young Children

    Effects of Aging

    Conductive Hearing Loss

    Sensorineural Hearing Loss

    Retrocochlear (Eighth-Nerve) Pathology

    Central Nervous System Disorders

    Concluding Remarks


    6 Prediction of Hearing Loss from the Acoustic-Reflex Threshold

    Methods Predicting the Magnitude of the Hearing Loss

    Methods of Identifying the Presence of Hearing Loss

    Concluding Remarks


    7 Magnitude and Growth of the Acoustic Reflex

    Intersubject Variability in Immittance Change during Acoustic-Reflex Contraction

    The Dynamic Range of the Acoustic-Reflex Growth Function

    The Effect of Age on the Acoustic-Reflex Growth Function

    The Effect of Activator Frequency on the Acoustic-Reflex Growth Function

    The Effect of Probe-Tone Frequency on the Acoustic-Reflex Growth Function

    The Acoustic-Reflex Growth Function for Ipsilateral, Contralateral, and Bilateral Stimulation

    The Effect of Sensorineural Hearing Loss on the Acoustic-Reflex Growth Function

    The Effect of Retrocochlear Pathology on the Acoustic-Reflex Growth Function

    The Effect of Conductive Pathology on the Acoustic-Reflex Growth Function

    Concluding Remarks

    Appendix: Quantification of Acoustic-Reflex Magnitude


    8 The Ipsilateral Acoustic Reflex

    Methods of Acoustic-Reflex Measurement

    Ipsilateral Acoustic-Reflex Measurement

    Characteristics of the Ipsilateral Acoustic Reflex

    Detection of Hearing Loss with Ipsilateral Acoustic-Reflex Thresholds

    Commercial Instrumentation

    Concluding Remarks


    9 Acoustic-Reflex Latency: State of the Art

    Recording Methods

    Stimulus Parameters Affecting Acoustic- Reflex Latency

    The Concept of Acoustic- Reflex Latency

    The Method of Investigation in Our Laboratory

    The Results of Our Investigation

    Concluding Remarks


    10 Acoustic-Reflex Adaptation


    Measurement Problems Encountered with Acoustic- Reflex Adaptation

    Historical Antecedents

    Normal Acoustic- Reflex Adaptation Data

    Abnormal Acoustic- Reflex Adaptation Data

    Recommended Procedures for Obtaining Clinical Measures of Acoustic-Reflex Adaptation

    Concluding Remarks


    11 Acoustic and Nonacoustic Reflex Patterns in Audiologic Diagnosis

    Acoustic- Reflex Pathways

    Non Acoustic- Reflex Pathways

    Diagnostic Applications

    Diagnostic Profiles

    Concluding Remarks


    12 Acoustic Reflex in Industrial Noise

    General Background

    Aims of This Study

    General Methods



    Concluding Remarks


    13 The Effect of Drugs and Systemic Disease on the Acoustic Reflex

    Neuromuscular Junction


    Systemic Disease

    Concluding Remarks

    Appendix: Abbreviations and Definitions of Medical Terms


    14 Acoustic Reflex and Loudness


    Normal Ears

    Conductive Pathology

    Cochlear Pathology

    Retrocochlear Pathology

    Concluding Remarks



Product details

  • No. of pages: 548
  • Language: English
  • Copyright: © Academic Press 1984
  • Published: September 4, 1984
  • Imprint: Academic Press
  • eBook ISBN: 9780323146395

About the Editor

Shlomo Silman

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