Tendon Regeneration - 1st Edition - ISBN: 9780128015902, 9780128016008

Tendon Regeneration

1st Edition

Understanding Tissue Physiology and Development to Engineer Functional Substitutes

Editors: Manuela Gomes Rui Reis Márcia Rodrigues
eBook ISBN: 9780128016008
Paperback ISBN: 9780128015902
Imprint: Academic Press
Published Date: 1st September 2015
Page Count: 470
Tax/VAT will be calculated at check-out
File Compatibility per Device

PDF, EPUB, VSB (Vital Source):
PC, Apple Mac, iPhone, iPad, Android mobile devices.

Amazon Kindle eReader.

Institutional Access


Tendon Regeneration: Understanding Tissue Physiology and Development to Engineer Functional Substitutes is the first book to highlight the multi-disciplinary nature of this specialized field and the importance of collaboration between medical and engineering laboratories in the development of tissue-oriented products for tissue engineering and regenerative medicine (TERM) strategies.

Beginning with a foundation in developmental biology, the book explores physiology, pathology, and surgical reconstruction, providing guidance on biological approaches that enhances tendon regeneration practices.

Contributions from scientists, clinicians, and engineers who are the leading figures in their respective fields present recent findings in tendon stem cells, cell therapies, and scaffold treatments, as well as examples of pre-clinical models for translational therapies and a view of the future of the field.

Key Features

  • Provides an overview of tendon biology, disease, and tissue engineering approaches
  • Presents modern, alternative approaches to developing functional tissue solutions discussed
  • Includes valuable information for those interested in tissue engineering, tissue regeneration, tissue physiology, and regenerative medicine
  • Explores physiology, pathology, and surgical reconstruction, building a natural progression that enhances tendon regeneration practices
  • Covers recent findings in tendon stem cells, cell therapies, and scaffold treatments, as well as examples of pre-clinical models for translational therapies and a view of the future of the field



Scientists and Engineers working on tissue engineering and regeneration. Undergraduate and postgraduate students, professors, and scientists working in the biosciences, biomedicine, biotechnology, bioengineering, and materials sciences.

Table of Contents

  • Preface
  • Section 1. Biology and Physiology of Tendons
    • Chapter 1. Tendon Physiology and Mechanical Behavior: Structure–Function Relationships
      • 1. Tendon Structure and Composition
      • 2. Tendon Mechanics
      • 3. Multiscale Mechanics and Structure–Function Characterization
      • 4. Mechanical and Compositional Variations in Tendons with Different Functions
      • List of Abbreviations
      • Glossary
    • Chapter 2. Tendon Resident Cells—Functions and Features in Section I—Developmental Biology and Physiology of Tendons
      • 1. Introduction
      • 2. Tendon Cells—Origin and Specification
      • 3. Tendon Cells—ECM Synthesis, Assembly, and Tissue Maturation
      • 4. Cell–ECM Interactions
      • 5. Mechanoregulation of Tendon Cells
      • 6. Conclusion
      • List of Abbreviations
      • Glossary
    • Chapter 3. Mechanobiology of Embryonic and Adult Tendons
      • 1. Introduction
      • 2. Embryonic Tendon
      • 3. Postnatal Tendon
      • 4. Mechanical Cues Experienced by Embryonic, Postnatal, and Adult Tendons
      • 5. Studies in the Embryo Suggest Mechanical Factors Influence Embryonic Tendon Development
      • 6. In Vitro Studies Suggest Mechanical Factors Influence Embryonic Tendon Development
      • 7. Exercise Studies Examine the Influence of Mechanics in Adult Tendon
      • 8. In Vitro Studies Suggest Mechanical Factors Influence Adult Tendon Homeostasis
      • 9. Potential Mechanisms of Tendon Cell Mechanotransduction
      • 10. Conclusions
      • List of Abbreviations
  • Section 2. Pathologies and Repair of Tendons
    • Chapter 4. Tendinopathy I: Understanding Epidemiology, Pathology, Healing, and Treatment
      • 1. Introduction
      • 2. Anatomical Diagnosis
      • 3. Pathology
      • 4. Epidemiology
      • 5. Pathophysiology
      • 6. Healing and Repair
      • 7. Nonsurgical Treatment
      • 8. Surgical Treatment
      • 9. Conclusion
      • List of Abbreviations
      • Glossary
    • Chapter 5. Tendinopathy II: Etiology, Pathology, and Healing of Tendon Injury and Disease
      • 1. Epidemiology
      • 2. Definitions
      • 3. Tendinopathy Etiology
      • 4. Pathology
      • 5. Summary and Conclusions
      • List of Abbreviations
      • Glossary
  • Section 3. Tendon Regenerative Medicine Approaches
    • Chapter 6. Cell-Based Approaches for Tendon Regeneration
      • 1. Introduction
      • 2. Tendon Endogenous Regeneration
      • 3. Isolation Procedures of Tendon Resident Cells
      • 4. Alternative Stem Cells Sources for Cell-Based Tendon Tissue Engineering
      • 5. Moving Cell Therapies into the Clinics
      • 6. Conclusion
      • List of Abbreviations
      • Glossary
    • Chapter 7. The Role of Growth Factors in Tendon Stimulation
      • 1. Introduction
      • 2. Growth Factors
      • 3. Platelet-Rich Plasma
      • 4. Conclusions
      • List of Abbreviations
  • Section 4. Scaffolds-Based Approaches
    • Chapter 8. Engineering Anisotropic 2D and 3D Structures for Tendon Repair and Regeneration
      • 1. Introduction
      • 2. Anisotropic Sponges
      • 3. Anisotropic Self-Assembled Fibers
      • 4. Anisotropic Electrospun Fibers
      • 5. Anisotropic Imprinted Substrates
      • 6. Conclusive Remarks
      • List of Abbreviations
      • Glossary
    • Chapter 9. Biologic- and Synthetic-Based Scaffolds for Tendon Regeneration
      • 1. Tendon Injuries
      • 2. Tendon Repair and Tissue Engineering Strategies
      • 3. Criteria and Requirements for Tendon Tissue Engineering Scaffolds
      • 4. Types for Tendon Tissue Engineering Scaffolds
      • 5. Scaffold Architecture and Design
      • 6. Functional and Bioactive Scaffolds
      • 7. Conclusions
      • List of Abbreviations
  • Section 5. Tendon Tissue Engineering
    • Chapter 10. Fabrication of Hierarchical and Biomimetic Fibrous Structures to Support the Regeneration of Tendon Tissues
      • 1. Introduction
      • 2. Spinning Techniques for Tendon TE Scaffolding
      • 3. Rapid Prototyping Technique
      • 4. Electrochemically Aligned Collagen
      • 5. Microengineered Hydrogels
      • 6. Assembly of Fibrous Biomaterials into Higher Hierarchical Structures
      • 7. Concluding Remarks and Future Perspectives
      • List of Abbreviations
      • Glossary
    • Chapter 11. Multifactorial Tendon Tissue Engineering Strategies
      • 1. Introduction
      • 2. Cells, Scaffolds, and Mechanical Stimulation
      • 3. Approaches for Different Anatomical Regions
      • 4. Design of Custom Bioreactors
      • 5. Concluding Remarks
      • List of Abbreviations
      • Glossary
    • Chapter 12. Tendon Tissue Engineering: Combined Tissue Engineering Approach for the Regeneration of Tendons
      • 1. Introduction
      • 2. Functional Tendon Tissue Engineering
      • 3. Tendon Tissue Engineering Bioreactors and Construct Stimulation
      • 4. Conclusions
      • List of Abbreviations
      • Glossary
    • Chapter 13. Biomaterial Scaffolds for Tendon Tissue Engineering
      • 1. Motivation: Tendon Injury and Repair Mechanism
      • 2. Introduction to Tissue Engineering
      • 3. Cell–Biomaterial Interactions
      • 4. Clinical Translation and Adaptation to Complex Musculoskeletal Injury Models
      • 5. Conclusions
      • List of Abbreviations
      • Glossary
    • Chapter 14. Engineered Tendon Repair and Regeneration
      • 1. Introduction
      • 2. Cell Sources in Tendon Engineering and Regeneration
      • 3. Scaffold Materials for Tendon Engineering
      • 4. In Vivo, In Vitro, and Ex Vivo Tendon Engineering
      • 5. Conclusion
      • List of Abbreviations
      • Glossary
    • Chapter 15. Scaffold Design for Integrative Tendon–Bone Repair
      • 1. Introduction
      • 2. Rotator Cuff Tendon Augmentation Grafts
      • 3. Integrative Rotator Cuff Tendon–Bone Repair
      • 4. Summary and Future Directions
      • List of Abbreviations
  • Index


No. of pages:
© Academic Press 2016
Academic Press
eBook ISBN:
Paperback ISBN:

About the Editor

Manuela Gomes

Affiliations and Expertise

3B's Research Group, University of Minho, Headquarters of the European Institute of Excellence on Tissue Engineering and Regenerative Medicine

Rui Reis

Rui L. Reis is 48 years old and was born in Porto, Portugal (PT), where he still lives. Rui L. Reis PhD, DSc, Hon. Causa MD. is a Full Professor of Tissue Engineering, Regenerative Medicine and Stem Cells at the Department of Polymer Engineering, School of Engineering of University of Minho (UM). He is the Vice-Rector for Research of the University of Minho, Braga & Guimarães, Portugal. He is also the Director of the 3B’s Research Group – Biomaterials, Biodegradables and Biomimetics at the U. Minho in Portugal (www.3bs.uminho.pt), and the Director of the PT Government Associate Laboratory ICVS/3B´s. Both 3B´s and ICVS (Institute of Health and Life Sciences) are research units of Excellence, as evaluated by international panels of the Portuguese Foundation for Science and Technology (FCT). He is also, since 2000, the main responsible for LABMAT, the general materials characterization Lab. of U. Minho. Furthermore he is the President/Chairman and Chief Scientific Officer (CSO) of the company Stemmatters that he has founded as a spin-off of the 3B´s Research Group. As a result of that, he was awarded the 2007 START award (created by the bank BPI and Microsoft), one of the major innovation awards in PT.

Rui L. Reis is the CEO of the European Institute of Excellence on Tissue Engineering and Regenerative Medicine (TERM) that has 22 partners from 13 different countries. He directs the correspondent European Economic Interest Group (EEIG), being the main office registered in Portugal. The headquarters of this Institute are located in AvePark, Taipas - Guimarães, Minho, Portugal, in a 3600 m2 state of the art unique facility fully designed for research in the TERM field. This building is also the home of the 3B´s Research Group since July 2008. The installation of the 3B´s and the headquarters of the Institute at AvePark were awarded the main innovation award for Northern Portugal (Prémio Novo Norte – Norte Inovador 2009) by the Northern Portugal regional coordination committee (CCDR-N) in May 2010. The same project was awarded the Grand Prize New North (Grande Prémio Novo Norte 2009) for best good practice in Northern Portugal for 2009 in all areas of activities. Rui Reis was also, from 2003-2009, Head of R&D for the Holding Corticeira Amorim SGPS, the world leading cork industrial company that is part of one of the major Portuguese controlled business groups with operations in around 100 countries world-wide.

Rui L. Reis education background includes: (i) a graduation in Metallurgical Engineering, U. Porto, Portugal, 1990, (ii) a Master degree by research on Materials Science and Engineering – Biomaterials – obtained in a joint program of the six major technical Universities in Portugal, awarded by U. Porto, Portugal, 1994 (iii) a PhD on Polymer Engineering – Biomaterials & Tissue Engineering, U. Minho, Portugal, degree that was prepared in co-operation with Brunel University, London, UK, 1999, (iv) a Doctor of Science (D.Sc.) degree on Biomedical Engineering - Biomaterials & Tissue Engineering, by U. Minho, Portugal, 2007.

Rui L. Reis has been involved in biomaterials research since 1990. He has worked several periods abroad, in different Universities and companies and has been responsible for several co-operation programs with Universities in UK, The Netherlands, Spain, France, Finland, Germany, Italy, Turkey, Ireland, Singapore, USA, Canada, South Korea, Japan, China, Australia, New Zealand.

He has been the co-coordinator of four major EU research project, funded under FP6 of the European Commission. One of the main projects was the STREP “HIPPOCRATES” that had a 3 MEuros budget. He also coordinated the only European Network of Excellence (NoE) on Tissue Engineering, “EXPERTISSUES”. This highly funded NoE (budget of around 7.3 MEuros) was composed by 22 partners, several being industrial, from 13 countries, and is continuing to lead the way in all Tissue Engineering research in Europe. He has also coordinated the Marie Curie Early Stage Training Multi-site project “ALEA JACT EST” (total budget of 2.6 MEuros), as well as the 2 Marie Curie Series of Conferences “InVENTS ”, that had a budget of around 0.5 MEuros to prepare 6 cutting-edge research conferences (all in Portugal) and 3 practical training courses at the highest level on the respective research fields. He has also coordinated the large INTERREG Project PROTEUS, with a budget of 1.4 MEuros aimed to develop new materials for different applications based on marine resources from Northern Portugal and Galicia. He was also involved in the large scale FP7 project DISCREGENERATION, and on the FP7 projects BioHybrid and MultiScaleHuman (ITN). He coordinated five new strategic international, including 3 FP7, funded projects. Those were: the project FIND & BIND and the project SPECIAL, each one with a budget of around 3.6 MEuros, the project POLARIS (an FP7 REGPOT with 3.1 MEuros of budget for U. Minho), as well as a 2 cross-broader large projects, IBEROMARE with a budget of around 2 MEuros and NOVOMAR with a budget of 0.9 MEuros, and an Euro-Atlantic project called MARMED, also with a budget of around 2 MEuros. He is also the main responsible for several other projects funded by Portuguese, European and American biomaterials and polymeric industries and for a range of bi-lateral concerted actions. At only 46 years, he has been awarded and ERC AdG (European Research Council Advanced Grant), the most prestigious grant available for European Researchers in all Europe (only around 1400 ERC AdG grantees in all fields of research so far), of 2.35 MEuros for his project ComplexiTE. Under HORIZON 2020 he is already the coordinator of the RISE Marie Sklodowska-Curie UNICAT project, the scientific coordinator of a TEAMING proposal on Regenerative and Precision Medicine (with UCL-London, FCT and the 6 major Portuguese Universities) and of the ERA Chairs FoReCast grant (2.5 MEuros for 3B´s-UMinho), as well as the TWINNING project Gene2Skin (1 MEuros of budget).

As a result of his academic activities Rui L. Reis has been awarded several prizes. Some of the most relevant ones were: (i) the ESAFORM 2001 Scientific Prize for his work on processing of starch-based biomaterials, (ii) the Jean LeRay Award 2002 by the European Society for Biomaterials for its outstanding contributions to the biomaterials field as a young scientist and (iii) the Stimulus to Excellence Award 2004 by the Portuguese Minister for Science and Technology for being one of the scientists with higher number of publications and citations in the Portuguese scientific arena (around 70 awardees - only 2 below 40 years old), (iv) the Pfizer Award for Clinical Research in 2007, (v) the already referred to START Innovation award in 2007, (vi) the yearly award of scientific merit of the University of Minho (awarded only for the second time this year) in 2010, (vii) an Honoris Causa degree in Medicine (making him an h.c MD) awarded in 2010 by the historical and highly respected University of Granada in Spain for his world-leading activities in the field of regenerative medicine, (viii) the George Winter Award by the European Society for Biomaterials (the main career and senior award in Biomaterials research in all Europe) that was presented in Dublin in September 2011, (ix) The Gold Medal of Scientific Merit from the City of Guimarães, in June 2011, (x) International Fellow of Biomaterials Science and Engineering (FBSE), Chengdu, China, June 2012, (xi) the Medal of Merit of the Portuguese Health Minister, April, 2014; (xii) the Clemson Award for Contributions to the Literature by the Society for Biomaterials (SFB, USA), Denver, Apr., 2014; (xiii) the nomination as a Commander (Comendador, a kind of knighthood) of the Military Order of Santiago de Espada by the Portuguese President of the Republic, Guarda, Portugal, June, 2014; (xiv) the Gold Medal of the City of Guimarães (birth place of Portugal), being nominated as one of the first two honorary citizens of the city, Guimarães, Portugal, June, 2014; (xv) International Fellow of Tissue Engineering of Regenerative Medicine (FTERMIS), Boston, September, 2015.

In addition, he was or is a member of several editorial boards of journals (some examples are Tissue Engineering: A, Tissue Engineering: B, Tissue Engineering: C, Journal of Biomedical Materials Research Part B – Applied Biomaterials, Current Opinion on Solid State and Materials 3 Science, International Materials Reviews, Acta Biomaterialia, Nanomedicine), acts as referee of numerous (more than 95) scientific journals and has been presenting author, member of the scientific committees, organizing committees, referee, chairman, discussion leader in Gordon Research Conferences, and invited lecturer in many conferences world-wide (Japan, USA, Canada, Australia, South Korea, Israel, Turkey, Cuba, Colombia, Iran, Thailand, Indonesia, Singapore, New Zealand, and a large number of European Countries).

He was the founder and for 4 years (2006-2009) the President of the Portuguese Society for Stem Cells and Cellular Therapies (SPCE-TC). He was elected again as President of SPCE-TC for 2011-2012. Rui L. Reis was in the Board of Directors of the European Tissue Engineering Society (ETES) and is presently on the governing board of the Global (world) TERMIS – Tissue Engineering and Regenerative Medicine International Society (the main International Society in his field of Research with members from 90 different countries). He was, in early 2010, elected the TERMIS-EU chapter chair (for a 3 years term). Since 2013 he is the World President-Elect of TERMIS. From January 2016 he will be, for 3 years, the World President of TERMIS. He was also on the board of governors of the European Society for Artificial Organs (ESAO) and of the International Federation for Artificial Organs (IFAO) of which he organized the world meeting (IFAO-ESAO join meeting, October 2011, Porto, PortugalI. He was Chair of Tissue Engineering Special Interest Group (SIG), Chair of the SIG on Orthopaedic Biomaterials, as well as a member of Membership Committee, of the Society for Biomaterials (SFB, USA). He is the Editor-in-Chief of “Journal of Tissue Engineering and Regenerative Medicine” (IF = 5.2), John Wiley & Sons- Blackwell.

He was the Director and main responsible for organizing several main meetings and workshops. He has for instances organized, just with his team and no help from any professional organization, the large (730 people from 43 countries) TERMIS-EU 2008 meeting, in Porto. He is Editor of several international books and Guest Editor of several special issues of journals (J. Mater. Sci.: Mater in Medicine, Macromolecular Bioscience, Current Opinion on Solid State & Materials Science, Mater. Sci. & Eng.: Part C: Biomimetic and Supramolecular Systems, Journal of Supercritical Fluids). Presently, Rui L. Reis is the most productive (higher number of ISI Web of Knowledge listed publications) Portuguese scientist ever in all fields of research. He has produced so far 923 publications listed in ISI Web of Knowledge, including around 705 articles published in scientific journals with referee (the other are mainly abstract published in international journals or ISI listed proceedings) – being around 70 of those review papers or editorials, 30 national and international awarded patents (several other applications ongoing – one of the awarded patents was selected as one of 15 finalists for the European Inventor Award of 2013), 6 books, 6 special issues in scientific journals, around 206 book chapters in books with international circulation and on international encyclopedias, and more than 1650 communications in conferences, almost all of them in international meetings (in Portugal, several other countries in Europe, USA, Canada, Australia, New Zealand, Japan, South Korea, Singapore, Taiwan, China, Israel, Chile, Colombia, Cuba, Iran, Indonesia, Thailand, etc.), including around 200 plenary or invited talks. He presented around 150 invited lectures in other Universities or Research Institutes. His work has been cited around 17025 times (around 19.57 citations per article, 25280 citations in Google Scholar).

Affiliations and Expertise

3B's Research Group, University of Minho, Headquarters of the European Institute of Excellence on Tissue Engineering and Regenerative Medicine

Márcia Rodrigues

Affiliations and Expertise

3B's Research Group, University of Minho, Headquarters of the European Institute of Excellence on Tissue Engineering and Regenerative Medicine