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Taxaceae and Cephalotaxaceae - 1st Edition - ISBN: 9780128239759

Taxaceae and Cephalotaxaceae

1st Edition

Biodiversity, Chemodiversity and Pharmacotherapy

Author: Da-Cheng Hao
Paperback ISBN: 9780128239759
Imprint: Academic Press
Published Date: 18th January 2021
Page Count: 376
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Taxus - a genus of coniferous trees or shrubs known as yews, in the family Taxaceae - is the source plant of anti-cancer drug Paclitaxel and its biosynthetic precursors, analogs and derivatives, and has been studied for decadesfor its pharmacological potential. There are many endemic Taxus species in China and internationally. Gaps are still present, however, in knowledge about the genomics, epigenomics, transcriptomics, proteomics, metabolomics and bioinformatics/cheminformatics of Taxaceae/Cephalotaxus and their associated microbes. In turn, systems biology and various omics technologies will take on a growing scientific role in the coming decades.

Taxaceae and Cephalotaxaceae accounts for the biodiversity and chemodiversity of these medicinal plants, examining and synthesising existing research into their biology, chemistry and pharmacotherapy. The title examines how pharmacophylogeny allows sustainable conservation and exploitation, presents how these plants work from the chemical level upward, and examines associated microbe compounds, towards new chemical entity design and development for improved treatments. Six chapters present a summary of biological and biochemical research of Taxaceae plants; progress in mining their chemodiversity; mining pharmacotherapy utility from their chemodiversity and biodiversity; drug metabolism and pharmacokinetic diversity of their medicinal compounds; mining pharmacotherapy utility from associated microbes; the biodiversity, chemodiversity and pharmacotherapy of Cephalotaxus medicinal plants; and of Amentotaxus, Pseudotaxus and Torreya medicinal plants. The book envisages that multiple omics platforms and advanced systems biology will allow further exploration of Taxaceae and Cephalotaxaceae, streamlining the future drug supply chain.

Key Features

    • Pictures the biodiversity and chemodiversity of Taxaceae/Cephalotaxus medicinal plants
    • Considers how a pharmacophylogeny framework can benefit conservation and sustainable exploitation of these plants
    • Presents how Taxaceae/Cephalotaxus work from the chemical level upward
    • Details the polypharmacology of these plants and associated microbe compounds in relation to pharmaceutical design and development
    • Brings the reader up to date on the biology, chemistry and pharmacotherapy of Taxaceae/Cephalotaxus medicinal plants


    Researchers, policy-makers and students in medicinal plant, phytochemistry, pharmacognosy, pharmaceutical biology, phytomedicine, ethnopharmacology, traditional and complementary medicine, medicinal chemistry and plant systematics. Researchers, policy-makers and students in biotechnology, agriculture, forestry, food and nutrition, clinical medicine, botany, plant science, health policy, evolution and ecology

    Table of Contents

    Chapter 1 Biological and Biochemical Research of Taxaceae Medicinal Plants: Road to a Healthier Life

    1.1 Introduction and Background

    1.2 Molecular phylogeny, taxonomy, and evolution

    1.2.1 Molecular phylogeny

    1.2.2 Evolution of chloroplast (cp) genome

    1.3 Molecular evolution

    1.3.1 Cp genes

    1.3.2 Nuclear genes TS and DBAT Other paclitaxel (PTX) biosynthetic genes Regulatory gene Other genes and sequences

    1.4 Morphological evolution (see Chapter 6 for more details)

    1.5 DNA barcoding

    1.5.1 Barcoding markers

    1.5.2 Super-barcodes

    1.6 Genomics

    1.6.1 Nuclear genome

    1.6.2 Chloroplast genome

    1.7 Transcriptomics

    1.7.1 Technology development

    1.7.2 T. cuspidata

    1.7.3 T. mairei

    1.7.4 T. chinensis

    1.7.5 T. × media

    1.7.6 T. yunnanensis

    1.7.7 T. baccata

    1.7.8 Other species

    1.8 Proteomics

    1.8.1 T. media

    1.8.2 T. mairei

    1.9 Metabolism, physiology and metabolomics (see Chapter 2 for more details)

    1.9.1 T. mairei

    1.9.2 T. × media Elicitors Transgenic lines TFs

    1.9.3 T. globosa

    1.9.4 T. baccata Elicitors Environmental factors Biosynthetic gene


    Chapter 2 Mining Chemodiversity from Biodiversity of Taxus Plants: Chemistry and Chemical Biology

    2.1 Introduction and background

    2.2 Taxane diterpenoids

    2.2.1 T. canadensis

    2.2.2 T. baccata

    2.2.3 T. mairei

    2.2.4 T. wallichiana

    2.3 Alkaloids and intermediates

    2.3.1 Taxaceae

    2.3.2 Non-Taxaceae plants

    2.4 Polysaccharide

    2.4.1 T. cuspidata

    2.4.2 T. yunnanensis

    2.4.3 T. mairei

    2.5 Flavonoid


    Chapter 3 Mining Pharmacotherapy Utility from Chemodiversity/Biodiversity of Taxus Plants

    3.1 Introduction and background

    3.2 Ethnopharmacological uses

    3.2.1 T. wallichiana

    3.2.2 T. baccata, T. mairei

    3.3 Anti-cancer/sarcoma activity

    3.3.1 T. chinensis

    3.3.2 T. mairei

    3.3.3 T. cuspidata

    3.3.4 T. baccata

    3.3.5 T. wallichiana

    3.3.6 Paclitaxel (PTX, taxol) Prostate cancer Breast cancer Colorectal cancer and other types of cancer Sarcoma

    3.3.7 Docetaxel and other taxanes

    3.3.8 Flavonoids and related compounds

    3.3.9 Polysaccharide

    3.3.10 Endophyte (See Chapter 5 for details)


    Chapter 4 Drug Metabolism and Pharmacokinetic Diversity of Taxus Medicinal Compounds

    4.1 Introduction and background

    4.2 Absorption

    4.2.1 Natural taxane: Oral absorption

    4.2.2 Semi-synthetic taxane

    4.2.3 Other absorption routes Intraperitoneal and implantable drug delivery Vaginal administration Transdermal drug delivery


    Chapter 5 Mining Pharmacotherapy Utility from Chemodiversity/Biodiversity of Taxaceae and Cephalotaxaceae Associated Microbes: Molecular Mechanisms and Functions

    5.1 Introduction

    5.2 Biodiversity of Taxus associated microbes

    5.2.1 Endophytic fungi T. media T. mairei T. baccata T. wallichiana T. cuspidata

    5.2.2 Endophytic bacteria

    5.2.3 Rhizosphere microbes

    5.2.4 Phyllosphere microorganisms and fungal pathogen

    5.3 Biodiversity of Cephalotaxus, Torreya and Pseudotaxus associated microbes

    5.3.1 Endophytes of Cephalotaxus hainanensis

    5.3.2 Cephalotaxus harringtonia

    5.3.3 Pseudotaxus 

    5.3.4 Rhizosphere microbes

    5.3.5 Pathogen

    5.4 Taxane producing microbe from non-Taxus plant: Not a digression

    5.4.1 Angiosperm Ascomycota Basidiomycota

    5.4.2 Gymnosperm

    5.5 Chemodiversity

    5.5.1 Alkaloid

    5.5.2 Furan derivatives

    5.5.3 Terpenoids

    5.5.4 Aromatic compounds

    5.5.5 Acetogenins

    5.5.6 Coumarin and flavonoid

    5.5.7 Anthraquinone

    5.5.8 Soil chemical properties and enzymes

    5.5.9 Other compounds

    5.6 Bioactivity

    5.6.1 Anticancer and cytotoxic activity Cephalotaxus Paclitaxel Other compounds Fungi extract

    5.6.2 Antifungal activity Cephalotaxus associated microbe Taxus associated microbe

    5.6.3 Antibacterial activity From Cephalotaxus From Taxus

    5.6.4 Antioxidant activity


    Chapter 6 Biodiversity, Chemodiversity and Pharmacotherapy of Cephalotaxus Medicinal Plants

    6.1 Introduction and background

    6.2 Alkaloids

    6.2.1 C. lanceolata and C. fortunei var. alpina

    6.2.2 C. griffithii

    6.2.3 C. hainanensis

    6.2.4 Analysis and purification of alkaloids

    6.2.5 Chemical synthesis

    6.3 Diterpenoids, sesquiterpenoids

    6.3.1 Diterpenoids

    6.3.2 Sesquiterpenoids

    6.4 Flavonoids, lignans and phenolics

    6.5 Other components and compounds

    6.6 Anticancer activity and cytotoxicity of alkaloids

    6.6.1 HT against leukemia

    6.6.2 HHT against leukemia

    6.6.3 HHT against myeloma


    Chapter 7 Biodiversity, Chemodiversity and Pharmacotherapy of Amentotaxus, Pseudotaxus and Torreya Medicinal Plants

    7.1 Introduction and background

    7.2 Genomics

    7.2.1 Amentotaxus

    7.2.2 Torreya

    7.2.3 Pseudotaxus

    7.3 Chemical components

    7.3.1 Diterpenoid and triterpenoid

    7.3.2 Flavonoid


    No. of pages:
    © Academic Press 2021
    18th January 2021
    Academic Press
    Paperback ISBN:

    About the Author

    Da-Cheng Hao

    Da-Cheng Hao is Professor and Primary Investigator at the School of Environment and Chemical Engineering and the Biotechnology Institute, at Dalian Jiaotong University, in Dalian, China. He has published widely in the fields of medicinal plant and phytomedicine, and is the author of Medicinal Plants: Chemistry, Biology and Omics and Medicinal Plants: Biodiversity, Chemodiversity and Pharmacotherapy (Academic Press, 2018).

    Affiliations and Expertise

    Professor and Primary Investigator, School of Environment and Chemical Engineering and the Biotechnology Institute, Dalian Jiaotong University, Dalian, China

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